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supremacy and between individuals con

was aristocratically used by the erection tending for economic power. This re- of a royal palace by Solomon. Although sulted both from the great productive- the figures are not given, it is fair to asness of the country, and from the eco- sume, both from its dimensions and the nomic system in vogue, together produc- time required to build it—thirteen years ing wealth in such abundance as to stim- as compared to seven, for the templeulate the avarice of the greedy, and to that it approached in cost that of the produce general indifference to the public temple itself. This palace was imitated welfare.

by many palaces built by the rich nobility. This is pointed out by Josephus in This congestion at Jerusalem of wealth Book V., Chapter II., in which he says: produced for the most part under the

“They applied themselves to the cul- Democracy and appropriated by the tivation of the land, which producing aristocracy under the first three kings, them great plenty and riches, they neg- of the ten tribes who revolted under

was the ground of complaint on the part lected the regular disposition of their Rehoboam, the fourth king, and set up settlement, and indulged themselves in luxury and pleasures, nor were they be considered as one of the chief disasters

a government of their own, which will belonged to their political government.” following the violation of the Mosaic

code of Economics, to be treated in the This marks the beginning of the vio- next article of this series. lation of the principles of the economic During the period of the Kings the democracy of Moses, as indicated by political principles of the Mosaic law the statement, “They neglected the reg- having been abandoned, there was but ular disposition of their settlement," small chance for the economic law to which will be treated at length in a sub- assert itself. Nothing but pathologic sequent article, the quotation being made data, therefore, is furnished by this pehere to show that economic inequality riod. is not essential to the production of wealth. After the return of portions of the two

Enough, we trust, has been said upon tribes from the Babylonish captivity, this period of Jewish history to make it however, observance of the economic clear that those who regard Hebrew law was renewed, and notwithstanding nationality as dating from the reign of the payment of heavy tribute to their Saul are almost as far from the truth as Eastern conquerors, after the reëstablishwould be the historian who should date ment of the Mosaic system under NeheGrecian nationality as beginning with miah, by the abolition of rents and interAlexander, or Roman nationality with est, and the cancellation of all debts and Augustus Cæsar.

mortgages, not only was a large degree It was the wealth that was produced of material prosperity enjoyed by all largely under the economic democracy classes, as shown by the liberal contriwhich an ecclesiastic aristocracy under butions toward rebuilding of the temple, David and Solomon concentrated into but a great religious revival followed, a temple costing nearly five billion dollars, Sabbath observance was reëstablished, and took an army of 183,600 men, work- and the standard of social morality was ing under military compulsion, seven elevated to a higher level than it had years to build, the money having been held since the days of Joshua. collected during the reign of David.

GEORGE McA. MILLER. Still more of this democratic wealth Glen Ellyn, Chicago, Ill.

THE SOIL.

By FRANK VROOMAN.

Part II. The Stream.

of what the service will do for other arid

areas, but that the United States is now HE FIRST Presidential Message more than ever definitely launched upon

to Congress recommending Na- a policy of scientific and intelligent tional Encouragement of Agriculture was “State Interference,” not this time at that of George Washington, 1796, him- the bidding of any industrial interest self a member of the first society for the the Steel-Trust, for example—but the promotion of agriculture ever organized United States is more definitely committed in the United States. He recommended to the welfare of the whole people for all a National Board "to encourage and time, in this wedding of science to the soil. assist a spirit of improvement, ... by Already, within four years from the stimulating enterprise and experiment. Presidential Message referred to, con

The first Presidential Message recom- struction work has been finished, or mending national aid to irrigation and started, or planned and approved for the national control of the water-supply was absolute creation out of those dreary and the first message to Congress of Theodore infinite wastes of western sands, of nearly Roosevelt, December 3, 1901.

2,000,000 acres of fecund soil, every foot Legislation waited on Washington's of which will be transformed by the magic recommendation forty-five years and of science into a blooming fertility; a came in a $1,000 appropriation which resurrected area that will add an additook the government three years to spend. tional income of from $30,000,000 to

Within seven months after the recom- $100,000,000 to the American farmers' mendation of President Roosevelt, Con- wealth with a large work already under gress enacted the most beneficent piece contemplation Ten years more will of public land legislation since Abraham see this work done. Twenty years more Lincoln signed the Homestead Act in will see the work paid for from the soil 1862.

created with the money in the United Eleven days after the measure became States treasury, and with fifty thousand a law recommendations were made for happy homes where the lizard and rattlethe withdrawal from entry of areas in snake find precarious livelihood to-day. six localities to prevent speculative filings Our public-land question is already a on them pending their examination. serious one. There is little chance for

On the third anniversary of the pass- further preëmption outside of the newly age of the Reclamation Act, June 17, made and to be made irrigated lands 1905, and within three years and seven which will be taken up before ready for months of the first presentation to Con- the plow. There is no chance of the gress by Presidential Message of the plan public lands supplying this generation of the Executive, water was turned onto of the farmer's children; even those who 50,000 of the thirsty acres of Nevada, do not go to town, to say nothing of the the first section of this national project solving of any problems of our present to be completed. It is an event of un- immigration or future growth. usual significance, not only in that it When the Homestead Act was passed marks the beginning of the creation of a in 1862, the great West was a vast and great State; not only that it is an example empty domain of nearly two billions of

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requires under the Geological Survey, of which this service is a part, that no official shall have any personal or private rights in the lands or mineral wealth under survey

The foundations of the work of the reclamation of our arid lands were laid by a man of as rare insight as heroic spirit, Major J. W. Powell. The story of his thrilling descent and exploration of the Colorado river, is one of the most daring chapters of the pioneer history of the North American continent. One etching will hang high on the walls of fame. At the bottom of that strange cleft in the earth, called the Grand Cañon of the Colorado, stands Major Powell wishing to advance, and his little-party who fear further to tempt the turbulent and unknown rapid below. This devoted scientist was determined to draw straws with death. “I will go down in

one boat," he said, "and if at the head INSIDE VIEW OF WEST PORTAL OF GUNNISON of the rapid I see I can get through alive, TUNNEL,

I will lift my arm”—the only one he had. Through which will flow Gunnison river to "If I do not lift it, you may return.' Uncompahgre Valley.

And he shot down into the boiling curunoccupied acres, thought forty years rent. The last they saw of him was his ago to be inexhaustible, but already uplifted hand. The man was spared crowded. Already there is almost no who was yet to serve his country in peace public land left cultivable without irri- with as patient and able service as he had gation. The unprecedented rapidity served it in war; the man who was to be with which these acres have been over- the genius of the future exploration of run and settled with the multiplication the Great American Desert and solve the of transportation facilities, the rapid riddles propounded by the sphinxes denudation of forests revolutionizing cli- buried in its sands. His report to Conmatic conditions, have led the Federal gress, Lands of the Arid Regions, the government to consider the situation as classic on the subject, caused Congress a national problem.

in 1888 to authorize him as Director of the The problems of the reclamation ser- United States Geological Survey, to invice are not merely those of engineering, vestigate the extent to which the arid but include many complications of politi- lands could be reclaimed by irrigation. cal and social conditions, and involve The work was carried on for twenty years, many phases of science, practical more by a corps of engineers known as the than theoretical, worked out day by day Division of Hydrography of the Geologby the highest grades of men the govern- ical Survey, of late years under Mr. F. . ment can secure, intellectually and sci- Newell, now Chief Engineer of the Reclaentifically, and as to personal character. mation Service, of which he, perhaps, The personnel of this service, especially, more than any other man living, is creamust be above matters of selfish consid- tor, and whose affairs he has ably and eration. The United States government economically administered. One finds

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in Mr. Newell's instructions and addresses not adapted to economical irrigation,
to the two hundred and fifty engineers with a certainty of sufficient water to
under him, constant appeal to the highest warrant the project; and Mr. Newell
motives and insistence on the strictest stepped into his place at the head of the
economy and effectiveness, laying these service familiar with every detail of a
down as the fundamental measures of work in which for years he had been the
promotion in the service. “The Ameri- leading spirit.
can engineer,” he says, “is a man who Following is a table of the work now
can do for one dollar what another man under construction, by the Reclamation
can do for two dollars.”

Service, every project including within
When the law was enacted setting its further plans, the great enlargement
aside the sale of public lands in thirteen of the areas to be reclaimed. That which
states and three territories to be used in is now under way and which will be fin-
the construction of irrigation projects, ished ere long is tabulated on page 40.
the newly-organized service fell heir to The Minidoka project in Southern
a large body of data regarding the flow Idaho will eventually reclaim 130,000
of, streams in arid regions, their fluctua- acres on both sides of Snake river, and
tions, opportunities for storage and di- water will be raised by developed water-
version, and other geologic facts; and power to the bench-land above the line
these extended through a sufficient num- of the gravity ditches.
ber of years to determine at once that In the Hondo project in New Mexico,
certain localities were and others were near Roswell, the capacity of a large

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