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CENTURY AMERICAN WOMANHOOD.

AN EDITORIAL SKETCH.

I.

come.

II.

THE CIVILIZATION of the nine- Among these apostles of emancipated

teenth century in the New World womanhood Frances E. Willard and was enriched by the influence of the most Helen M. Gougar stand preëminent. illustrious group of public-spirited women Miss Willard has passed from view, but that up to that time had appeared in the her great work for temperance, for social life of any nation. Indeed, they may be purity and for juster social conditions said to have been the advance guard that has left its imprint on the nation and will ushered in the larger and freer day for be felt for good for generations yet to woman. The voices of most of this chosen band are silent now, but their splendid work and influence live and blossom in all that is best in our civic, Mrs. Gougar alone of all this chosen social and domestic life, and their names band remains strong with the vitality of a will be reverenced more and more as the fine intellect in its rich maturity. She years vanish and the greatness of their alone of the group we have mentioned is work and the heroism of the stand they carrying forward the battle for progress so courageously took in the face of a and freedom-the warfare of true civilfrowning conservatism is more and more ization, with all the power and energy of appreciated.

youth. She is a woman of splendid abilDorothy Dix is only to-day beginning ity, of superb moral courage, and richly to be valued at anything like her worth. endowed with that passionate love for She wrought far more than any score of humanity, for justice and the higher demen in the nineteenth century to improve velopment of the people that more than the condition of the insane in America and aught else is demanded by civilization in Europe. Lucretia Mott, Lydia Maria from her leaders to-day. Child, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Julia Ward She was born in Litchfield, Michigan, Howe and Mary A. Livermore are only and was educated at Hillsdale College. particularly brilliant lights among the After graduating she taught school in historic coterie of American women who Lafayette, Indiana, where she became dealt Herculean blows for the eman- the principal of one of the public-schools cipation of the black man while ever -the first woman to hold that position in working for the elevation of the moral the city. ideals of the people. Lucy Stone Black- One day Mrs. Gougar was summoned well, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan to the home of a neighbor where she beB. Anthony were noble representatives held one of those frightful tragedies that of the woman's suffrage movement in its are frequently witnessed in all Christian earlier days, as they were also effective lands. A woman had been murdered defenders of democratic ideals and the by her husband while he was insane vital demands of an expanding civilization. through strong drink. The horrible picLater came

a noteworthy group of ture presented by the dead wife, the blearyounger workers who fought none the eyed husband and the crushed and terrorless ably or valiantly for humanity's weal stricken children, roused the young and the moral progress of the people. woman as a trumpet-call from heaven.

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By temperament she belonged to that of the supreme court in the ‘Leach case,' class, all too rare in our age, who when which admits women to practice law in they hear the voice of duty unhesitatingly Indiana. Many able jurists claim that obey. No thought of ease or popularity, she sustained her contention; at least no consideration or self-interest or the she made the two decisions look exceedpleasant applause of the world will deter ingly inconsistent on the part of the court. these royal natures to whom duty is divine In the Leach case the chief justice writing and her call the command of the Infinite. the opinion declared: “That which is ex

Hence we find Mrs. Gougar soon pressed [in state constitution] does not among the most eloquent, logical and make that which is silent cease.' In convincing temperance advocates of the the test-vote case the same chief justice land. For many years she was in the writing the opinion declared: That very front of the fight, nowhere being which is expressed does make that which more effective than when appearing be- is silent cease.'” fore legislative committees, for she was, we think, the only prominent temperance Mrs. Gougar more than anyone else worker who possessed a thorough legal was responsible for securing municipal education. This she had acquired after suffrage for women in Kansas. She has coming to Indiana. Possessed of a natu- also waged a winning warfare in many ral aptitude for study and not content states to secure school suffrage for women, with her achievements as a teacher, she her knowledge of constitutional law being determined to master the law. After of great aid in these battles for a wider careful preparation she passed the requi- recognition of the inherent rights of womsite examination and was admitted to en in a free state. practice in all the courts of the state. Unlike many temperance and women's She enjoys the distinction of being the suffrage reformers, Mrs. Gougar is not first woman lawyer to argue a case before narrow-visioned. She recognizes that the supreme court of Indiana. The cir- these great issues are but two of the many cumstances attending this famous ap- grave problems that the moral obligations pearance are interesting.

impose upon free governments-obligaMrs. Gougar was for twenty-three years tions that should be bravely met and President of the Woman's Suffrage Asso- settled in alignment with the fundamental ciation of Indiana. The courts had ad- demands of democracy. She has fought mitted women to practice law, making a a splendid battle for a wider meed of ruling that logically would sustain them justice for all the people. She has eloin the exercise of the right of franchise. quently opposed the despotism of priviA “test vote" case was therefore pushed lege and the anarchy of corporate wealth. forward and Mrs. Gougar appeared as She is the only woman on the National advocate for the woman voters. When Executive Committee of the Anti-Trust the case reached the supreme court she League of the United States. made a legal argument which called forth Perhaps her greatest influence has been the highest encomiums from the bench, exerted on the platform, but she has also bar and press for its strength, clarity of wrought effectively and with great ability reasoning, consistency and logic. A through her pen. She is a strong, inwriter thoroughly conversant with the cisive and logical writer, possessing the facts of this well-known trial makes the power of presenting her subject in an enfollowing observations in regard to it: gaging manner not unfrequently enhanced

with wit, humor and satire, while sin“Her contention was and is that the cerity, earnestness and clarity of thought law of Indiana is sufficient to allow women are marked characteristics of all her work. to vote, basing her claim on the decision Those who read her writings feel instinctively that they are following the thoughts of our book studies, but in passing we of one who would not prostitute her God- can truthfully say that it is the most satgiven powers for gold or for policy or ex- isfactory and informing work of travel we pediency. She has contributed to many have read in a decade. of our leading magazines and daily papers We trust the years may deal kindly and has recently published a monumental with this strong, fine representative of work of travel presenting a vivid pen- twentieth-century womanhood, this champicture of the races, nations and peoples pion of a higher standard of manhood with whom she and her husband came and womanhood and of a nobler ideal of in contact during their extended travels nationhood. around the globe. We thus briefly refer

B. 0. FLOWER. to this work as it forms the subject of one Boston, Ma88.

AMERICA IN THE PHILIPPINES.

A CONVERSATION WITH HELEN M. GOUGAR.

Author of Forty Thousand Miles of World Wandering.

"M

are

RS. GOUGAR, as a prominentment in a very short time. If we are un

representative American citizen just, if we care more for the dollar than who has personally visited the Philippines, for the man while administering affairs I should be very glad to have you give in the transition state through which me some facts touching the condition of these people are passing, then they will the Filipinos under the imperialistic rule fall before the march of the white man of America in Manila. In the first place, as the Indian has fallen, and the white what is your impression of the Filipinos man, true to every experiment he has of Manila ?”

tried in the tropics, will become degraded "The Filipinos are by far the superior and fall from his temperate zone estate.” race of the Malays. Many Filipinos are “Often one can, I think, gain a better finely educated, have handsome, well- idea of a strange people by seeing them furnished homes, are patrons of art, together in public gatherings, especially music and literature. The women when the intellectual and moral sensibilagreeable, cultured and well-treated by ities are being stimulated. Did you have their husbands. Many of these homes any opportunity for such observation have suffered loss of works of art and while in the Philippines ?" furnishings from looting by American “Yes, on two very different occasions; soldiers. Many able men are holding once at a theater and once in a church. positions of honor and trust in the civil Through the courtesy of the author of a government which they are serving with comedy and its translator into English, credit and ability. All of these things I was privileged to witness a play by a indicate the worthiness of these people Filipino and presented by Filipinos. to be given self-government under Ameri- The large auditorium of the National can protection from outside interference, Theater, which is much like the great and this at no distant day. Give the rink buildings at home, was packed on Filipinos a chance and they will make a Sunday night, fully one thousand being fine race in education, art and industry present. The women were in evening and will become capable of self-govern- dress. Men came with their wives and

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