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This mill makes 350 barrels of cement a day at a cost of $2.20 per barrel, operation and materials and first cost of mill

being charged against the first 220,000 barrels. The cost by shipping would have been $9.00 per barrel.

picture. We have seen the fruits of pa- lucrative industry in the world, the ortriotic nationality. Let us see the logical ange-groves and prune-orchards of the and legitimate fruits of laissez-faire. most fertile valleys of California are some

If President Roosevelt's stand is well of them already irremediably ruined, or taken, that in river-control the govern- doomed to the destruction which has no ment is justifiable in legislating in river resurrection. For the sake of a quick and harbor bills at one end of the river, and brilliant profit, extracting once for it is also justifiable in legislating for all from a soil twice blessed, the yellow water-storage reservoirs at the other. fruit below the ground, these gold-ships So should the contention receive support have destroyed and are destroying once that if the national Reclamation Acts for all that wealth of fertility which has are justified in creating new farms, fields, yielded such wealth of yellow fruit above. homes and gardens from the arid and It has been sad enough to watch the desolate plain; that the government denudation of our American forests, but should also legislate against the con- the tree will grow again if the soil is left. spiracy of gold-dredging land-destroyers But to destroy an orange-orchard as a in California and elsewhere which is mere preliminary to the making of the turning some of the garden-spots of the soil beneath it an everlasting desolation, world into desolate and irredeemable to wipe a fertile valley off the face of the wilderness.

world forever, this is a double crime, a On account of the fabulous profits crime against the nation and against the yielded by gold-dredging, now the most future. In all the wide world there is


hardly a duplication of the beauty and "barons,” that a man's business is his fertility of some of the tributaries of the own business, and that a man can do Great Sacramento Valley. From $25,- what he likes with his property, without 000,000 to $40,000,000, I am credibly reference to the society of which he is a informed, have been invested within part, has been forever annihilated in a twelve or fifteen months in California's free country; so must the claim be valid, fertilest

which have been con- once denied by those who once owned demned to what the valley of the Feather irresponsibly their wives, their children river is to-day at Ovoville, where I have and their slaves, that there are properties seen square miles behind forty gold-ships, which the muniments of title do not give of piles and stretches of washed and them power ruthlessly and everlastingly whitened boulders looking for all the to destroy—they escaping punishment, world like heaps of whitened skulls. leaving for posterity the “weeping and

And if the contention of the contempo- gnashing of teeth.” raries of those who believe in the divine

FRANK VROOMAN right of kings or the divine right of Berkeley, California.

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President of the National Direct-Legislation League,

N THE May issue of The American of that section of the professional class

that holds seats in highly-endowed uniattack on the popular initiative by W. H. versities. Brown, secretary of the Civic Federation Usually the members of the anæmic, of Chicago. The discussion though long, bookish class in any community know occupying more than one-fourth of the the authorities on any subject, are accuentire magazine, is singularly lacking in rate in their citations from these authoriwisdom and real grasp of the facts of life, ties, and though often biased and usually and shows scant sympathy with the com- weak in their judgments, show that they mon people or true democracy. It is intend to be fair. Mr. Brown has the purely critical and destructive in char- faults of his class but not its virtues. He acter and attempts to tear down while is not familiar with his authorities, is not proposing nothing constructive. It would accurate in his statements of fact, and he stop advance or experiments in advance, is not fair. . He quotes Deploige, who is but proposes no remedies for the known not an advocate but a critic of Directevils, which, indeed, it glosses over. In Legislation, and the Webbs and Lilian fact, the whole article bears the ear-marks Tomm, who are English Fabian oppo

* This magazine is edited by Albion W. Small, efeller," wrote:“I have read a great deal that you and published by the University of Chicago. The bave written and would be much pleased to have author of this paper, on reading Mr. Brown's con- the article from you, but we are suffering from such tribution, wrote the editor of The American Jour- a congestion of material," etc., etc. He could give nal of Sociology requesting permission to briefly an- thirty-seven pages to an attack, but not five, or even swer the errors of fact and of argument. Professor one page, to an answer. The real reason is probSmall, replying on a letter-head bearing the legend, ably found in the heading, where it says, “Found“ University of Chicago, Founded by John D. Rock- ed by John D. Rockefeller."

nents of Direct-Legislation, as if they popular initiative is founded upon the were advocates making damaging ad- general theory that representative govmissions.

ernment is a failure. It implies also that He shows his ignorance of the whole constitutional government is a failure.” movement on the first page, where he I do not know of a single advocate of says:

the initiative who says that constitutional “The scheme of the initiative includes government is a failure. I know very

few advocates who would say that repre(1) direct-legislation (the proposal of

sentative government is a failure comlaws by petition and the adoption of them by majority vote); (2) the 'veto of the all of us would admit that it is a failure

pared with past governments; though people' (the submission by petition of laws passed by legislative bodies to the compared with the hopes entertained for voters for sanction or rejection); (3) the it a century ago or with its actual crude

workings at that time, before privileged recall or imperative mandate."

and class interests became preponderaIt would be difficult to imagine a more ting influences in government, or cominaccurate summary. The recall is not pared with the ideal of what a representa part of the initiative or of the referen- ative system might be if buttressed and dum, or of Direct-Legislation. The re- improved by Direct-Legislation. call is a democratic method kindred to Later he makes the astounding stateDirect-Legislation in its underlying prin- ment that “in every city in the country ciple, and most of the advocates of Di- it has either been abandoned or has berect-Legislation believe in it, but it is not come the source or cause of the


worst a part of Direct-Legislation. The Na- features of political corruption.” No tional Direct-Legislation Convention, held examples does he give in proof of this, at St. Louis in 1896, by resolution per- while I can cite Brookline, Massachumitted Direct-Legislation and Referen- setts, with over twenty thousand populadum Leagues to attach the recall and tion, which spends more money yearly proportional representation to their ob- than the State of New Hampshire and jects, but expressly stated that neither of has to-day its town-meeting as it had these was a part of Direct-Legislation. nearly three centuries ago. I could cite

Direct-Legislation consists of the direct many another New England town, as well proposal and vote on laws in small com- as the fact that the towns of Massachumunities, as for example, in the New setts are many of them larger than cities England town-meetings and the Swiss in other states, because they are loath to Landsgemeinde. In larger communities give up the acknowledged benefits of the Direct-Legislation is attained through town-meeting. Further than this, I could (1) the initiative or proposal by petition cite a number of Swiss cities. of a law by a reasonable minority, which If Mr. Brown refers to Direct-Legislalaw, if not passed by the legislature, must tion, by the initiative and referendum, I go to a vote of the people; and (2) the can cite Los Angeles, Portland, Oregon, referendum, which is the vote by the peo- and other American cities, and Zürich, ple on a law after either an initiative pe- Geneva, Berne and other Swiss cities. tition or a reference by the legislature or a If he means to oppose the initiative and petition from the people. There are one referendum by saying that the town-meetor two other forms of the referendum, ing is not suited to large communities, he but it usually means the vote on a law is using a disgraceful quibble. On this passed by the legislature after a petition I at once agree with him and say that the from the people.

town-meeting is not suited to large cities, Mr. Brown's first criticism is that “the but that the initiative and referendum are the improved machinery for applying to correlative of that, that the legislature larger communities the principles under- may not prevent the enactment of needed lying the town-meeting.

legislation by refusing to initiate them, I After quoting from Captain Cadman's believe in the initiative. The two go admirable tract, he says that “an abiding together. These will not supersede legfaith in the honesty and intelligence of a islatures but purify and ennoble them, majority of the voters, which includes raising their members to the old and noble ability not only to comprehend the most title still retained in some of our cities, of complicated questions, but also to draft Councillors to the People. In this sense laws concerning them, is the foundation I, and I believe all other advocates of stone of the whole scheme"; and he then Direct-Legislation, have an abiding faith goes on to oppose it.

in the intelligence and honesty of the peoI could continue to cite errors of judg- ple and in their ability to know their own ment and misstatements of fact extend- business and to pass on the laws and rules ing through many pages, but these, being for that business. typical, are sufficient. The man is anti- Mr. Brown believes in government; democratic in sentiment-a thorough- we believe in self-government. He degoing reactionary with face set toward sires either a king or an hereditary or

elective aristocracy; we desire, as the Few if any of the advocates of Direct- Swiss constitution puts it, “a republic Legislation wish to dispense with legis- either representative or democratic,' islatures. I sincerely hope and expect though I would prefer to say a republic that our people will always choose wise both representative and democratic.

He men to act as expert advisers in all mat- is of the past and of the Old World; we ters of government; but I do hold that are heralds of the future and of the New the final decision, either tacitly when no World. He is anti-American; we referendum is called for, or actually when American. there is a vote on the law, should always

ELTWEED POMEROY. rest in the hands of the people; and, as a East Orange, N.J.

the past.






EXT to our magnificent system of decipher the reading matter. First the

public-schools the press is the large print lures them on and stimulates greatest popular educator in the land. interest, until they spend all the noonIndeed, the daily paper educates vast hour not devoted to their meal in bemultitudes from foreign shores who have coming acquainted with the news of the never had the splendid opportunities day and the large-typed editorials. But given by our free-school system. In it is the pictures which almost invariably confirmation of this fact one has only to first challenge their interested scrutiny,– note the numbers of foreign workmen the pictures illustrating news items, the in our great cities during the noon-hour cartoons and the funny drawings. Chilor after work hours. Wherever con- dren and the frivolous and superficial gregated it will be noticed that a number will frequently turn first to the humorous of these are found perusing the papers, drawings, but we have frequently noted turning from the pictures to laboriously that the earnest workmen from foreign

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