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000 a year.
of approved candidates and £200 per workmen. The duty of the State to proannum towards maintenance of such can- vide work for those who are willing to didates who are elected to Parliament. work and cannot find it was boldly inAt present a levy of one penny per annum sisted on, this new conception of the meanis paid by all the affiliated trades unions, ing of citizenship being strenuously adbut even this trifling sum represents an vocated even by those of the old school annual income of considerably over £4,- of trades-unionists who repudiated all
sympathy with the Socialism of Mr. Keir The Labor Representation Committee Hardie and the Independent Labor Party. was originally a sort of offshoot from the Farm colonies, afforestation, reclamation Trades Congress, and was founded in of foreshores and waste-lands, a reduc1899. Its present chairman is Mr. Ar- tion of the hours of labor (in most of the thur Henderson, who has been returned addresses an eight-hour day was proas Labor M. P. for one of the divisions posed), reform of the land laws and the of Durham. Mr. J. R. Macdonald was granting of wider powers to municipaliappointed its first secretary, and he has ties were among the numerous solutions been at the helm of affairs ever since. It put forward for the great problem of nonis to Mr. Macdonald more than to any employment. other single individual that the new party The working-class candidates whethowes so much of its success at the elections. er Labor or Liberal Labor—were Free This Scharnhorst of the Labor party, as
Traders to a man.
“ Thou shalt not tax he has been called, is a native of Lossie- the people's food” has been the verdict mouth, a little fishing village on the coast of the working-classes on Mr. Chamberof Morayshire, and is sprung from the lain's Protectionist nostrums. With resturdy race of peasants who have done gard to Chinese labor in South Africa, so much to make Scotland great at home too, they spoke with undivided voice. and revered abroad—to alter slightly the “Remove the stain”—Mr. J. R. Macwell-known words of Burns.
donald's expressive phrase---sums up the The political programme of the new attitude, not of the Labor members only, party is in many respects frankly social- but of the whole British democracy on istic. Of the 29 L. R. C. members, 21 this important question. are Socialists, 7 of these being active But the first place in the Labor proworkers in the Independent Labor Party. gramme is naturally occupied by the So also is one of the best known of the Amendment of the Workmen's Compennew Miners' members of Parliament, sation Act and the law relating to trades while-apart from Mr. John Burns-at unions. By the Taff-Vale and other least half a dozen well-known Socialist well-known judicial decisions the accuworkers are included in the Liberal Labor mulated funds of the British trades unions group. In most of the election addresses have been practically placed at the mercy of the Labor members the nationalization of unscrupulous organizations of employof the land, railways, canals and mines és, and tens of thousands of pounds have figured prominently; while several were already been swallowed up in fruitless bold enough to add the whole "means of litigation. A bill to amend this state of production, distribution and exchange.” matters—the Trades Disputes Bill-passThe gravity of the unemployed problem ed its second reading by a large majority was fully recognized. The "right to last session of Parliament, but was killed work”—although the phrase and the in Committee by an organized capitalist principle which it embodied were jeered opposition. To the passing of this bill at by official Liberalism—was a battle- the new Labor party will first devote its cry which found a responsive echo in the energies in the new Parliament, and the hearts of hundreds of thousands of British Liberal Government has pledged itself to make at least considerable concessions or a zollverein, or retaliation, or any of in this direction.
the many aliases under which it is proMr. J. Keir Hardie, although perhaps posed to foist Protection upon the nation. more advanced than some of his col- I would abolish the Customs House alleagues, is still perhaps entitled to speak together, and do away with all forms of with more authority on the objects of the indirect Taxation, save the excise duties Labor party than any other single member upon spirits; repeal the coal tax, dewho could be selected. He has had con- nounce the Sugar Convention, and make siderable Parliamentary experience. His good the loss to the Revenue by a special zeal, energy and ability are undoubted. graduated tax on unearned incomes. Even his political opponents cordially recognize his manly and upright character * It is as a Socialist, a Trades-Unionist, and his sincerity of purpose. The worst and a social reformer that I base
chief they have to say of him is that he is some- claim to your support. The workingthing of a visionary and an idealist. But class, professional men, and shopkeepers even in politics that is a failing which are all struggling—some few to make a leans to virtue's side. It is an evil omen competence, but the great majority to for a nation when its young men dream earn a livelihood.
Millions are steeped no dreams and its old men cease to see in poverty, whilst millions more are but visions. Mr. Hardie's address to the one degree removed from it. While the electors of Merthyr Tydvil (from which useful classes toil and suffer, the owners constituency he has been elected in spite land and capital, and the schemers and of much strenuous opposition, by a mag- gamblers of the Stock Exchange, are nificent vote of over 10,000) may there- heaping up untold wealth. Whilst the fore be taken as fairly representative of poor die for lack of the barest necessaries the aims and aspirations of the Labor of life, the rich revel in a riot of excess. party as a whole, and on that account we Great accumulations of wealth menace quote from it some characteristic para- our liberties, control the great London graphs:
lead us into wars
abroad, and poison the wells of public life “As a democrat, I am opposed to every at home. Landlordism and capitalism form of hereditary rule, and in favor of are the upper and nether millstones beconferring full and unfettered powers
tween which the life of the common peoupon the common people. In this con- ple is being ground to dust. nection I include women as well as men.
“It was a contemplation of these things “As religious belief is a personal con- which led me to become a Socialist, and cern, I am opposed to its enforcement or to take an active part in building up a endowment by the State-either in church Labor party separate and distinct from or school. Every school which is being all other parties; and it is for the electors supported by public money should be of Merthyr to say by their votes how far under public control, and the teachers, they are in agreement with me. My one as civil servants, should be freed from the object in politics is to aid in creating the responsibility of giving religious instruc- public opinion which will sweep away the tion. Education being a national con- causes which produce poverty, vice, crime, cern, the cost should be borne by the drunkenness and immorality, and introNational Exchequer.
duce an era of freedom, fraternity and
equality. This ideal state cannot be “As a convinced Free-Trader, I am reached at one step, but much can be done opposed to any flirting with Protection, to mitigate some of the graver evils arising whether disguised as Preferential tariffs out of our present system of wealth pro
organs of the
duction. The immediate object of the principles of the new party which has Labor Party is to create a driving force come into prominence at the general in politics which will overcome the inertia election in Britain. Carpenters, masons, of politicians in regard to social reforms, compositors, shipwrights, farm-laborers, and give the nation a strong, true lead miners, engineers, gasworkers, railwayalong the paths which make for national servants, ex-civil-servants, shoemakers, righteousness. To see that children are navvies and weavers,—these are the men properly fed and cared for, that the able whom the Labor party has chosen to are given an opportunity to work, and testify in Parliament to the principles of that comfort is brought into the life of the the new Democracy. The working-class aged, are objects worth striving for. electors have approved of this choice, and These things lie outside the domain of the future of the Labor party in Britain ordinary party politics, but they must be depends very largely now on the record attended to if the nation is to be saved and achievements of its members in Parfrom decay; and should I again be re- liament during the next five years. “The turned as your representative, it will be young fellows must prepare to do my main concern to see that they are at- credit to this destiny, for the stuff is tended to."
WILLLAM DIACK. Such, then, are the men and such the Aberdeen, Scotland.
CHARLES H. GRANT: MARINE PAINTER.
By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES, Author of In and Around the Grand Canyon, Indian Basketry: and How to Make Indian and Other Basketa,
Indians of the Painted Desert Region, etc.
T SEEMS almost trite to
there is a but when one is studying a vessel, the great difference between a marine vessel itself is in motion with everything painter and a landscape painter. Yet below, around and above it in different there is a far greater difference than even motion. The sea has its own motion in many so-called skilled artists suppose. relation to the vessel, the clouds and sky It is an undisputed fact, however, that have theirs, and the hull, masts and sails where there is one good marine painter change their position against the changthere are a score or a half-hundred good ing background of sky, clouds, and, if landscape painters. In painting a land- near a shore, shore-line, land and horizon scape, while the artist sees a vast amount every moment, thus affording a complex of changing quality in the clouds, shad- problem of movement that only a most ows cast, sunlight, waving of the trees, careful observer and student, a rapid movement of water, the effects of the wind “transfixer” of the scene and a man gifted on the grasses, fields of grain, etc., there with an extraordinary memory can posis equally a vast amount of stable quality sibly reproduce. But, even this is not in the immovableness of the trees, the all the difficulty. Many sea scenes canrocks, the hills, the course of the streams, not be gained from the stable shore. etc. But in a seascape, the artist finds The painter must go on a boat and be nothing stable, nothing at rest. From tossed to and fro on the unstable sea himzenith to nadir, and at every point on the self, thus complicating the problem of horizon, everything is in motion. Nor is movements, and rendering more difficult this all; not only is everything in motion, the observation and carrying away of
the impressions that it
“HOMEWARD BOUND." the hungry rocks beyond. The fact is, a marine painter cannot paint on the spot. and the disappointments that come from He must study and know, until every- failure. thing he would present is a part of his Hence, when one discerns on the horivery self, has become so completely his zon the dawn of a new and true marine own, that with paints and brush in hand, painter, he feels that he is doing his readand canvas before him, he can create his ers a service in calling their attention to picture from his own inner consciousness. the fact, with the reason for the faith This it is to be a creative artist, as dis- that is within him,” and in the hope also tinguished from a mere reproducer of that such notice will encourage the worknature, a copyist or a technician.
er to continue until all readily acknowlWith such problems as these to con- edge his high rank. tend with, in addition to the difficulties Such a painter we believe Charles of learning his art, it is not to be wondered Henry Grant, born in 1866, at Oswego, at that few men care to serve the long and N. Y., to be. Spending the first years of tedious apprenticeship that is absolutely his life alongside a lake it was natural essential ere any man can be classed as a that he should early develop a passion true painter of the sea. Here is a case
for the water. Indeed, from before he where love, delight, pleasure, must be- could remember it was his joy and decome the soul of art. Without such love, light. As a swimmer he loved the water, no man, or few, would ever undergo the and when he grew older and could not long training and disciplining necessary have a boat he went out upon it on a raft.
Whether in calm or storm, it was all the ston, president of one of the great transsame to him. He loved it, and he soon continental express companies, who was knew its every mood and expression. At interested in long-horned cattle, some the same time the lad had a natural love pictures of which he wished Mr. Grant to for drawing and the use of colors, and As the artist entered the drawingmade many little pictures that pleased room, imagine his wonder, surprise and his playmates and friends.
delight to see on the walls this picture But one day, when still a schoolboy in that had been his youthful inspiration. knickerbockers, he learned that a lady It transpired that the lady who owned it had just received a large painting of a was Mr. Eggleston's sister, and, upon shipwreck off Oswego harbor, in Lake making a European trip, she had left it Ontario, painted by the Boston artist, in her brother's care. When Mr. Grant Elwell. With desire in his heart and was asked what effect it had upon him, trembling in his knees he went to the now that he himself was a trained and home of this lady, determined to ask for skilled artist, he said “that while of course permission to look at it. That picture it was not the wonderful picture that it was Fate, leading him on. When he had appeared to him to be when a boy, reached the door and knocked, his agita- he still felt its strength and power.” This tion was so great as almost to suffocate clearly shows two things, namely, that, him, and had he had the strength he would even in his raw days he had the artistic certainly have run away. With stam- perception, and that the picture was great mering tongue he told the lady of his de- enough to have given him a true artistic sire, and of course, in a moment his plead- impulse. ing eyes had gained the request his lips After a season at the National Acadcould scarce request and he stood before emy of Design, New York, he became one the picture. It was six or seven feet long, of the five American pupils the great and, to the untutored eyes of the lad, a marine painter, M. F. H. DeHaas, almasterpiece. His interest so awakened lowed himself to have. This masterthe interest of the owner that she drew artist had been honored as the court painthim out in conversation and bye and bye, er to the Queen of Holland, had been when he shyly said he would give a great given the decoration of the Legion of deal to be able to copy it, her condescen- Honor, was a Chevalier of the Order of sion in telling him to come and do so, al- Leopold of Belgium, and was a a man most took away his breath. But there capable of inspiring his pupils with his was enough young America in him to own high ideals. Young Grant was filled hold him to his desire, and purchasing with the desire to accomplish. The canvas, brushes and paint, he set to work, water of the lake had appealed to him, , and on a reduced scale, painted the pic- and now he learned the greater power of ture. The writer would give much to the vast ocean. The waves became to see that boyish attempt, but Mr. Grant him the symbols of eternal unrest: be refuses to say what disposal has been saw in their wild and rough tossing, made of it.
whether dashing upon a rocky shore. There, however, was his inspiration, over a pier, submerging a struggling vesand though but fourteen or fifteen years sel, or in a storm in mid-ocean, the acme of age at the time, he has been painting of beauty and grace. Here were united marine pictures, and scarcely anything hundreds, nay thousands, of curves of all else, ever since.
sizes and shapes, moving, scintillating in Before leaving the subject of this pic- the sunlight; giving forth the iridescence ture of Elwell's, it may be interesting to of a thousand rainbows; imprisoning in relate that two years ago Mr. Grant was their moving forms, moment after moinvited to the home of Mr. James Eggle- ment, the fire and sparkle of the diamond,