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the footprints of the past.* It is expressly ishness, to save our culture as a whole said that the young Hindu, learning from present decay. English literature, does not catch this, And what does culture become when its subtlest essence, its “precious life- . it begins to decay :—when the dry-rot giving spirit.” And what has Confu- strikes in? It gives itself a new definicianism, with all its scholarship and all tion, being satisfied, perhaps, to be a its ethical elevation, done for China ? It mere enlargement of information, with has only lulled China to add century after the development and enjoyment of taste. century to her age-long sleep.

It omits the training of the conscience; Wealth, especially when being amassed, it omits the discipline of the will; it fortends constantly to choke out spiritual gets or neglects those powers of the soul ideals, although the situation is helped by which the man reaches forth after when the rich and the poor meet under duty. It knows not any of the laws of circumstances that call out their better the spirit. It forgets the rights of fellowselves. The dependence of the schools

If our national culture, that is, upon the wealthy, especially if their the trend of life in our educated classes, wealth is ill-gotten, increases the peril ever ends upon self, then our culture is that the spirituality shall be in the out- in great peril of being added to the three” ward seeming, rather than in the inward whose great mischief has been to prevent life. Feeling keenly the peril, we rejoice the entrance of wisdom, and whose judgto believe that there still is in our educa- ment has been or may be to "go down tional system, in our methods of training, with a crash.” in the spirit of our cultivated classes,

HENRY M. WHITNEY. enough spirituality, enough alert unself- Branford, Ct.




Secretary of the Board of Regents of Normal Schools of Wisconsin.


OBERT M. LAFOLLETTE, the general science course and from the law

junior Senator from Wisconsin, department in 1880. Although regarded was born a few miles from Madison, Wis- by the politicians as a mere boy, he was consin, in 1855. He is of French Hugue- at once elected district-attorney of Dane not extraction. His boyhood was spent county and held that office for four years. on a farm. He entered the University By his eloquence and ability he had obof Wisconsin in 1874 and during his col- tained a state reputation and in 1884, at lege course won the championship for his the age of twenty-nine, he was elected a university in an interstate contest for member of Congress from the Capital oratory. In 1879, he graduated from the district. He was in Congress from 1884

* The latest and most apposite note of this fact, country] know that the present and the future are so far as we have seen, is in R. A. Hume's Missions more than the past. Therefore, while not ignoring From the Modern View (p. 19): “One fundamental the past or the present, they care for the past princiweakness in the doctrine of transmigration and of pally because it is the door into a greater future. reincarnation, which are the principal forces in That is, the lure of the ideal is the formative Hinduism, is that it is wholly or mainly the past influence in the life of the poet and the seer and the that controls the future. But poets and seers lover.” Yes, and of the patriot, too. and all lovers (including, we may add, lovers of


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to 1890, and served on the Ways and candidate withdrew. The people in every Means committee with McKinley. Dur- district had compelled the retirement of ing the next ten years, he held no official every opponent. No such victory over position. A powerful coterie in his party the politicians had ever before had remanded him to private life. This achieved. When the state convention ring parcelled out the offices, state and met, the eloquent advocate of better gornational, and quietly but effectively de- ernment was unanimously nominated by termined that on account of his independ- acclamation, and was elected governor ence and for his opposition to the senior in the following November. Senator from Wisconsin, he should hold The first long period of the contest was no office whatever. LaFollette saw clear- For ten years the man who wa ly that the great mass of the people were now governor had advocated the principle for him and that a small ring controlled of direct nominations by the people withevery caucus and convention. His con- out interference by the politicians. The fidence in the people was Jeffersonian. people of Wisconsin, in two elections, had He spoke to them on every occasion, at unmistakably declared for that principle. fairs, in churches, at celebrations, and by Twice had the platform plainly pledged formal lectures. His one theme began its enactment into law. Both branches to be “Representative Government,” in of the legislature had large majorities which the will of the majority should con- elected upon that issue. When the questrol directly the votes and acts of the rep- tion came before the legislature, a powresentative. He began to crystallize pub- erful corporation-lobby defeated the prilic opinion on a plan to secure direct nom- mary-election bill, and also a bill for the inations by the people. This plan form- equal taxation of property. Governor ulated and advocated by him became La Follette afterwards publicly stated known as a “primary election.” In that the legislature had been corrupted eight years, one man, by his eloquence, by every form of vice; that members had his integrity and his ability as an organ- been brought to the chambers intoxicated; izer, had impressed the value of this new that there could be no doubt that money and untried principle on nearly half a had been offered and accepted; but that million voters. The principle itself would money was offered and refused was susnot have carried without the remarkable ceptible of proof. Governor La Follette oratory of its advocate.

and the people were given a striking obIn 1898 La Follette was a candidate ject-lesson of the power of a ring of profor governor before the state convention. fessional politicians backed up by a lobby He was defeated by the politicians, but sent by the public-service corporations. his principle of primary election was put This defeat called out all that was best in the platform. His candidacy had now in a virile, able and honest man. He become formidable to the ring. From sprang to the contest with renewed vigor. Washington came a tempting offer of a He saw that free government is but a lucrative position in the treasury depart- name if the will of great majorities, defiment to get him out of the state. His nitely registered at the polls, can be delaw practice had been neglected. He was feated by money. He informed every known to be in debt. He declined the voter in the state that their expressed will position offered by his enemies, and car- had been defeated by a corrupt lobby in ried on his continuous campaign. In the Capitol. By conferences with hun1900 he was again a candidate for gov- dreds who visited Madison, by earnest ernor. Nearly every Congressional dis- addresses in various parts of the state, trict had an opposing candidate. The and by messages to the legislature degreatest daily paper in Wisconsin opposed fining the issue, he literally made public La Follette. One by one every other opinion against three hundred papers

throughout the state supported by the the men who for months had denounced politicians and the corporations. In his every act. There, too, were his loyal order to win, he had to triumph over the friends from Lake Superior to Illinois corporations, the politicians, and many and from Lake Michigan to the Missisof the chosen representatives of his own sippi. His home-city saw a great host party in the legislature,-and he won. summoned there after ten years of public

The next contest was before the voters service for good government. His wife of Wisconsin in the campaign of 1902. It and daughter and little son, closer to him was fought out with vigor in every voting than any in that great array of close perprecinct in the state. The politicians sonal friends, were just at his right on the and the corporations bought up three platform. His address had been carehundred country-newspapers, and sent fully prepared; but in delivery and eloout from Milwaukee carefully-written quence it held the rapt attention of the editorials purporting to emanate from the great audience and, when published in local editors. They united on a candi- the next morning's papers, had a prodate subservient to their interests. They found influence in the state. At the close avoided the issues raised by the governor, he said: “I do not treasure one personal and from three hundred villages and injury or lodge in memory one personal cities they made the state ring with de- insult. The span of my life is too short nunciations of the “populist” and “dem- for that. But so much as it pleases God agogue” who had simply advocated the to spare unto me, I shall give, whether in direct nomination of public officials and the public service or out of it, to the conthe equal taxation of all property.

test for good government." The Republican state convention of In the campaign which followed, La 1902 was held in the huge university Follette spoke fifty-five consecutive nights gymnasium at Madison, the home-city and a greater number of times during the of Governor La Follette and the home- days as he went from city to city. On the city also of his arch-enemy, Senator John last night of the campaign, he spoke for C. Spooner. More than a thousand dele- three hours and his voice was clear and gates were present from every part of Wis- strong. Against the strongest opposition consin. Twice had the party violated he had ever met, an opposition wielding its pledges to the people; and now more great wealth and political power, he was than two hundred delegates were there elected governor by a plurality of 47,599. with unblushing front in the bad cause. Both branches of the legislature had large But eight hundred delegates were also majorities pledged definitely for a prithere to speak in no uncertain terms for a mary-election law and a law for the equal primary-election law and for equal taxa- taxation of property. Yet, when bills tion, and to nominate their loved and were introduced for these two purposes admired leader. The proceedings were in the next legislature, they were openly orderly, but there was an air of expecta- defeated by the corporation-lobby. Three tion in the great assemblage for the mo- times had the platform pledges been vioment when the governor and finest oratorlated. Twice had the members of the of the commonwealth was to be nomi- upper house of the legislature prostituted nated.

their office. But in the executive chair A man of marked integrity and ability was a man who could not be bribed or nominated La Follette. Three-fourths silenced. Though defeated again and of the convention ratified the nomination, again, his integrity and courage were still and a committee was dispatched to in- formidable to the ring. He was a lion, vite the nominee to address the conven- but not at bay. He carried on a contintion. When he appeared, nothing was uous campaign. He said in December, wanting in the ovation. Before him were 1903: “The contest must go on, and on,


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and on, until it is settled and settled right.” It purported to elect four delegates to the

Extraordinary interest attended the Republican National Convention, -Senelection of delegates in the primaries for ator John C. Spooner, Senator Joseph V. the State Republican Convention to be Quarles, Congressman Babcock and Emil held in Madison, on May 18, 1904, to Baensch, the Stalwart candidate for govelect delegates to the National Republi- ernor. The regular republican convencan Convention. The influence of the tion also nominated a complete state railroads and other corporations was ticket and elected delegates to the Naopenly exerted to defeat the champion tional Convention. of equal taxation. Every station-agent

The case

now appealed to the of the railroads was ordered to do his Republican National Committee at Chiutmost to defeat the La Follette delegates cago. A formal but farcical “hearing” on the day of the caucus. As these cau- was given on June 16–17, 1904, at Chicuses were held on different dates in the cago. Gas Addicks was a member of different counties, train-crews were held that committee. For days preceding the at given points to elect the Stalwart dele- trial of the Wisconsin case, Senators gates. Money was freely and notoriously Spooner and Quarles appealed to Senaused. As the morning-papers reported torial courtesy to sacrifice the leader of the election of delegates who had been the regular Republican party in Wisconchosen the preceding day in a group of sin. George R. Peck, the attorney of the counties, they were as eagerly read as St. Paul railroad, labored indefatigably were the reports of battles in the Spanish to defeat La Follette. Walter Wellman or in the Civil war. The largest vote stated that the plucky governor of Wisever recorded was given at these pri- consin was run over by the “bullgine.” maries.

Every effort was made by La Follette to The state convention of 1,065 delegates secure a fair trial, but without success. met at Madison, May 18, 1904. 952 It became evident that the National Comwere uncontested delegates, their election, mittee had prejudged the case. Printed credentials and regularity being unques- briefs covering every material fact in the tioned by either faction. 5154 of these case were laid before the Committee, but were conceded by the Stalwarts as being they were not even read. Before the favorable to La Follette. The six Stal- Committee could report back to the Conwart members of the State Central Com- vention, La Follette issued a defiance to mittee on May 17, the day preceding the the corrupt tribunal and took an appeal convention, unanimously conceded 20 to the voters of his state. Before the more votes from the first districts of Grant election, the Supreme Court of Wisconsin and Eau Claire counties. These 20 handed down a decision that the convenvotes were not included in the 515), which tion which had nominated the La Follette were at all tiriges conceded by the Stal- delegates was the regular Republican warts. Therefore they openly admitted convention of Wisconsin. the election of 535} delegates for La Foll- A campaign of extraordinary bitterness ette. 533 was a majority. As a matter ensued. The Stalwarts placed ex-Govof fact, Governor La Follette had 5745, ernor Scofield as candidate for Governor a clear majority of 844.

under the party name of “National The Stalwart delegates, 485 in number, Republican." Senators Spooner and held a bolting convention, with no formal Quarles took the platform against La notice, no roll-call, no regularity. No Follette. It was not expected by the one really knows how many delegates Stalwarts that Scofield would be elected. were present and it is certain that persons He was put in the field to capture those not delegates attended and took part in old-time voters who could not be brought the irregular proceedings of this meeting. to vote the Democratic ticket. The great


majority of the Stalwart votes went to cient number of the delegates had been the Democratic candidate for governor, literally bought with money, Charles and were so intended by Spooner, Quarles Pfister, then one of the bosses and recently and by Scofield himself.

indicted by the grand jury, came to La But Governor La Follette carried on a Follette's hotel-room after midnight, precampaign that must have extorted the ceding the convention, and said: “We admiration of his foes. He bought an have got you skinned, Bob; but if you automobile and used the railroads and will behave yourself, we will take care carriages to enable him to meet the peo- of you.” Not long after he was offered ple. · In many cases, the farmers know- a tempting position in the treasury deing that he would pass along a certain partment at Washington, but he refused road, would meet him and call for an ad- it. When he was nominated in 1900 dress by the roadside. Wrapped in a for governor, the railroads placed at his large fur-overcoat and wearing the well- command special trains; and after the known soft-wool hat turned up all around election, by every insidious means, tried and speeding along the country roads to to swerve him from the platform pledges. meet audiences, he presented a striking The people of Wisconsin know in whom appearance. For months he spoke to they have put their trust. tens of thousands in the country, in vil- He is an organizer of the first rank. He lages and cities. On Friday evening began without a party. He has created preceding the election he addressed ten He had nearly all the old-line polithousand people in the Exposition Build- ticians against him, but by appealing ing in Milwaukee for three hours. When directly to the people he has retired them he retired to the Plankington Hotel, he to private life and built up a new organiwas wet with perspiration and was cared zation. This has been called the “mafor by an attendant and rubbed in alcohol. chine," the "ring," etc. But its main The next morning he was up at seven strength lies in the fact that it represents o'clock to take a train for å forenoon and is close to the mass of the people. meeting. The next Monday evening he But such a body of workers presents peaddressed the students and people of his culiar difficulties to leadership. Yet La home-city in the university gymnasium, Follette has not only inspired them with where three thousand had assembled to confidence and respect, but also with adhear his last speech before the election. miration and affection. Probably no The next day Wisconsin gave him a man in American history, not even Henry plurality of 50,952 votes.

Clay or Blaine, has called forth such perThree qualities distinguish this virile, sonal loyalty and friendship. resourceful and eloquent leader:

But as an orator he appears at his best. He is an absolutely honest man. Had His gracefulness in delivery, the strength his great ability been devoted to the in- and vigor of his thought, the purity of his terests of the public-service corporations, English, his high ideals, and his lofty conhe would have had Spooner's place in the ception of the integrity and courage of a United States Senate long ago. Before public official indicate unmistakably the he had been doomed to defeat by the ring, character of the man. he was called to Milwaukee by a United This orator quotes no poetry or literary States Senator and offered a large roll of gems of any kind, uses no figures of speech bills if he would betray a public trust. He has no climaxes, tells no stories, indulges refused and was thrown out of Congress in no humor. Though familiar with all and public life for ten years. In 1898, the masterpieces of literature, and lectures when a clear majority of the delegates to on certain plays of Shakespeare, he never the State Convention had been elected to refers to them in his political addresses. nominate him for governor and a suffi- He uses no historical examples or allu

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