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He takes the dryest subjects,- and earnestness of the orator. He is taxation and election methods, -and scarcely five feet four inches in height, holds the rapt attention of farmers, labor- squarely built, with a large head and a ers, merchants and professional men. If high square forehead, from which the there is any climax in his impassioned hair rises partly pompadour. His face addresses, it is when he mentions the pub- is powerfully expressive and earnest. lic official who neglects or refuses to do His flashing eyes and square jaw show his duty.

determination, integrity, and high ideals. He has no carefully wrought-out ex- That face, when the orator is roused to ordium or peroration. His opening is action, becomes indescribable, and when rather in the nature of a courteous greet- once seen can never be forgotten. The ing, merging quickly into the dignified leonine head, the body bent slightly forearnestness of his argument. After the ward or held rigidly erect, the hand first half-dozen sentences, his voice, rich clenched, the delivery rapid and impasand varied in quality, becomes clarion, sioned, the resonant, clarion voice, and resonant, yet musical and far-reaching. the intense and sincere earnestness, claim His delivery at times is marked with great more than unrivaled interest. They stir rapidity and is always dramatic. In the emotions and form the judgments grace of manner and action, and in dig- which control caucus, convention and nity and ease of position on the platform, election. he satisfies the most critical, yet all in his

WILLIAM KITTLE. audience are rather intent on the ability Madison, Wis.







From the days when the public-service corporations began to enter politics for the purpose of securing for the enrich

ment of the few the immensely valuable T IS A significant and to us a very franchises that would give them control

hopeful fact that the present nation- of the natural monopolies or public utilwide moral awakening finds its efficient ities which belong of right to the cities storm-centers in our great municipalities or the people and should always be owned that have long been the most active centers and operated by the people for the benefit of political corruption, graft and civic of the whole community, the great cities degradation. So long as corruption is have more and more fallen into the grip firmly entrenched in the great cities, the of the criminal classes—the criminal rich voice of the people throughout the com- public-service magnates and their venal monwealths can be easily negatived by tools who under the political boss manned corrupt practices, padded election lists, the money-controlled machines and filled stuffed ballot-boxes and criminal law- municipal governments. Shrewd and inlessness such as long marked the elections tellectually keen men who were wholly in Philadelphia and such as was so strik- wanting in the noble public spirit, moral ingly in evidence at the last municipal rectitude and civic idealism that marked election in New York City.

the infant days of the Republic and that

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made our nation the moral leader of the in the hands of the American cities and world, early realized that if private cor- operated by the people, as is the case in porations could obtain franchises that Manchester, Birmingham, Glasgow and would enable them to establish monopo- scores of other Old-World cities, would be lies in public utilities, such as street-rail- to-day blessing the millions in our muways, gas, electric lighting, etc., they nicipalities by giving better public service would have both the cities and the citizens at greatly reduced cost, while the revenue, at their mercy and in effect become pos- even after such reductions would subsessed of vast mines of wealth incompar- stantially lessen taxes. This claim is no ably richer than the great bonanza gold- unfounded opinion. It is based on the claims that had made millionaires, be- actual results that have followed municicause every passing year would add great- pal-ownership and operation in Great ly to the income, while through watering Britain, Germany and other foreign natheir stock and other practices familiar tions, and of the public lighting plants to the broadcloth gambling fraternity of of Detroit, Michigan, Duluth, MinneWall street they could levy extortionate sota, Jacksonville, Florida, and other prices on the multitude and manipulate cities of the New World. Indeed, we their stocks so as to give the few Monte believe such results have followed in Christo-like fortunes.

every instance where public-ownership Seeing these enormous possibilities for and operation has been fairly or honestly acquiring unearned wealth, they were tried or where the backbone of private quick to act, gaining control of unscrupu- corporations operating public utilities lous political bosses and pushing to the has been sufficiently broken to enable the front men who would be responsive to people to overthrow the corrupt machine their desires and who would permit them and official tools whose presence in muto select or pass on the persons who were nicipal life had been due to the publicto be chosen for the people to vote upon. service corporations. In recent years In this way and by enormous corruption corruption in American cities has had its funds contributed for campaign purposes fountain-head in the criminal rich and and other uses, it was not long before the not in the criminal poor. The latter great cities became the prey of highly were merely powerful by reason of the respectable bands of moral criminals- wealth and power of the master-spirits gentlemen in broadcloth who as presi- behind the scenes who rendered the dents of banks, directors in insurance bosses and their tools invincible and incompanies, railway magnates, express sured them from punishment for crimes company officials and officers in other against the ballot and other corrupt and leading enterprises, stood as the very lawless practices. pillars in the business and social world. The strength and power of Durham And these men, by the aid of the municipal in Philadelphia. were due to the highly and state bosses, reinforced by shrewd respectable moral criminals who had lawyers who received princely incomes, plundered the city of her street-car franastute lobbyists supplied with enormous chises, her gas rights and numerous other corruption funds, and hirelings in the city invaluable privileges. So in St. Louis, and state government, together with the Boss Butler, like Durham, was able to pressure they knew so well how to bring make elections a farce and a by-word to bear upon the press, pulpit and school, because of the enormous wealth he drew were able to secure for absolutely nothing from the privileged interests and the or next to nothing grants and special princely bribes paid by the street-car privileges that are to-day diverting into officials and other public-service maga few scores of pockets hundreds of mill- nates for turning over to the corrupt ions of dollars from public utilities which grafters the enormously valuable public




franchises. And what has been made secure honest government, is typical of so obvious in Philadelphia and St. Louis the new awakening. The movement for has been true in greater or lesser degree municipal emancipation and the estabof all the great American municipalities. lishment of efficient public service under

Against this riot of criminality and ex- popular rule in the place of corrupt govtortion Mayor H. M. Pingree raised his ernment in the interests of privileged voice in protest. He was a pioneer in classes, by machine rule, is spreading all the warfare for civic righteousness and over the country. in the battle against the great and pow- One of the latest and most striking erful thieves who had filched from the victories won for good government has cities their greatest wealth-yielding prizes. been achieved in the rich and populous Detroit is far from being a free city yet, city of Buffalo, where a civic leader who but the progressive steps she has taken already looms large on the horizon of toward civic emancipation were due to American life, having been elected as the moral awakening occasioned by the chief magistrate, has inaugurated a promovement inaugurated by Mayor Pingree. gramme of progress and civic efficiency

Next came Mayor Tom L. Johnson, that reflects the highest honor and credit overcoming the great machine majority on the new mayor and the people who of Cleveland and calling a halt in the so enthusiastically holding up his systematic raids of the plunderers. No hands. city official in America has done more to arouse a healthy, honest civic spirit in

J. `N. ADAM, THE MAN. municipal life or to demonstrate to the people the insane folly and moral crim- The Mayor of Buffalo, up to three inality of turning over to private interests years ago, had been for many years the public utilities than has Cleveland's high- head of one of the largest dry-goods deminded, incorruptible and aggressively partment stores in Buffalo. He was born honest mayor; and no man in America in Scotland in 1842. His father was a has struck more telling blows against the Scotch clergyman, and his early educadebauching union of corrupt political tion was obtained in Edinburgh. When machines and the criminal rich of the twelve years of age he was apprenticed great public-service corporations than in a small tin-ware and notion establishhas Mayor Johnson.

ment, receiving one dollar a week for the After Mayor Johnson came County-first three years and $1.50 a week for the Attorney Folk, a veritable David in the fourth year. The fifth and last year of camp of the Philistines. He carried the his apprenticeship he earned two dollars work forward by uncovering the nest of a week. He began as a delivery or bundle villains at work, taking them red-handed boy but afterwards became a clerk. as it were by seizing over $100,000 of Later with a friend he established a busicorruption money put up by the street- ness for himself, but in 1872 he came to car corporations to debauch the council Buffalo, New York, at the suggestion of and through this corruption rob the city his brother Robert, who wrote from that of franchises worth millions of dollars. city describing the superior opportunities Mr. Folk secured evidence and confes- offered in America to young men of push, sions of criminality that enabled him to business ability and integrity. Mr. Adam convict numbers of great rogues, from soon displayed a remarkable aptitude for the boss down.

managing large concerns. He was inThe revolt in Chicago and later in dustrious, temperate, honorable, alert Philadelphia, in which the masses have and progressive; hence he soon achieved rallied against the respectable but crim- a pronounced success in business. He inal rich for the honor of the city and to learned to love America without losing

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