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commander, and those of several of his thin veneer of Parisian vices. With his officers were displayed on poles at Cairo. treasury full, he acted as if he were posMohammed Ali made his leadership se- sessed of the lamp of Aladdin and the cure by massacring the Mamelukes. He purse of Fortunatus. Ambitious to rival and his son Ibrahim Pasha, assisted by the magnificence of European capitals, Suleiman Pasha, a Frenchman who had totally unable to appreciate the value of fought at Waterloo, eventually took money, a spendthrift by nature, he made Acre, subdued Syria and were on the eve his reign a prolonged orgy of extragaof advancing on Constantinople, when gance. He built a score of lath-andEngland interfered, and the great Pasha plaster palaces, which are already far agreed to confine his rule to the African more ruined than the temples of the continent. His sway there was undis- Pharaohs, and he paid for them as if they puted, and England for many years in- had been marble. He bought expensive dulged in no further dreams with refer- machinery for sugar-mills and other inence to the Egyptian Pashalic.

dustrial enterprises, and left it to rot unIt affords a curious illustration of the used. He spent ninety million dollars interdependence of modern nations as a and thousands of lives on the Suez canal, result of commerce to ascertain that the which damaged Egypt by enabling the domestic affairs of the United States of commerce of the world to pass through America were the primary cause of the without stopping. He spent large sums present occupation of Egypt by Great in bribes at Constantinople, his new title Britain, but such is the fact. The block- of Khedive and the hereditary right to ade of the Confederate ports by the North- the throne costing him roundly. Cairo ern navy put a stop to the exportation of became the Mecca of the adventurers cotton from America, and it became and swindlers of Europe, and when necessary for European mills to find their Ismail was slow to pay, the consuls-gensupply somewhere else. This new de- eral of the great Christian Powers made mand made itself felt at once in Egypt, him do so. With utter disregard of the where the best cotton in the world is position of the Egyptian taxpayer, the raised, save only the very restricted Sea representatives of the governments of Island cotton crop of the Carolinas, for Europe deliberately permitted their felEgyptian cotton has a much longer staple low-subjects to engage the Egyptian than the ordinary American cotton, and government in extortionate contracts, an ever-increasing amount of it is im- and then used all their power to exact ported into America for that reason. every farthing nominated in the bond. The price of cotton consequently went The results were soon evident enough, up rapidly in the early sixties, to supply although the Powers paid no attention to the lack of the American article, the pro- them. General Gordon estimated at one duction of cotton was stimulated and time that the Khedive was paying thirtyextended and the country entered upon six per cent. interest. The national debt an era of prosperity theretofore unknown, in 1863, when Ismail became Pasha, was and which soon made itself felt in a plen- fifteen million dollars. In 1876 it was tiful revenue for the government. Ismail four hundred and forty-five millions. It Pasha succeeded to the government in had increased thirtyfold in thirteen years! 1863, at the very height of this wave of This meant a debt of seventy-five dollars abundance. Grandson of Mohammed for every man, woman and child of the Ali, son of the great general, Ibrahim, he six millions of population of that day, had inherited a strong character, but it while the average cost of living for each had been spoiled by a semi-foreign edu- individual was only five cents a day cation. Affable in manner, he was at apiece. A man therefore who spent less heart an Oriental despot in spite of his than nineteen dollars a year for his own support was obliged to pay the interest a manufactory of fire-arms. The attendon seventy-five dollars in taxes, besides ant misunderstood his master, and sent his share of the cost of government. for the latter. When this gentleman was Lord Milner tells us how much less than ushered in, the Khedive at once apprecithe face of the loans included in this debt ated the error, and without hesitation was received by the Khedive. The Op- gave a large order for rifles which were penheim loan of 1873 for the nominal not at all needed. So great was the sum of thirty-two million pounds sterling courtesy of his Highness! He tried to brought only twenty millions into the make the opera at Cairo surpass that of treasury, and probably seventeen millions other capitals, and he outbid St. Petersis nearer the true figure. The balance burg and Vienna to secure stars for its had already disappeared in rake-offs to stage. “Aïda” was specially composed the distinguished usurers who managed for it, and was one of the features of the the job. Lord Milner's estimate is that mad revel of extravagance which marked only ten per cent. of the Egyptian national the reception of the Empress Eugénie in debt was used on works of permanent 1869 upon the opening of the Suez Canal. utility, but this is surely an optimistic Obscure indeed was the public man who view of the situation. And the Powers could not obtain an invitation to those either participated in this international festivities and a free pass to everything. knavery, or at best sat by consenting. Champagne ran like water, new roads Hard-pressed by his creditors Ismail dis- and palaces were constructed, and the posed of the Egyptian shares in the Suez fellah had to pay for it all. Ismail had Canal to D'Israeli for the British Govern- in office nearly thirteen hundred Euroment for twenty million dollars. A few peans, most of whom held sinecures and years ago they were worth ninety millions. were only active in drawing their salaries. It was a neat piece of business which M. G. Mulhall, the well-known statisought to entitle the United Kingdom to tician, in his Dictionary of Statistics (tit. quarter the bearings of the Medici on Finance, subtit. Egypt) says: “The nine her coat-of-arms. England had put every loans effected between 1862 and 1880 possible obstacle in the way of building represented nominally seventy-seven millthe Canal which Egypt built. But ions sterling, but produced only £50,Egypt paid the bills and England got the 589,000, the difference being lost in disprofit.

counts and other unavoidable drawbacks," Ismail at last understood the situation, and he is quoted as saying elsewhere that but he was unable to curb his extravagant British contractors charged as much as tastes. He had some sense of humor, eighty per cent. profits on Egyptian pubhowever, which may have relieved the lic-works during this period. The Egypgloom a little. “Close that window be- tian national debt on December 31, 1904, hind his Excellency,” he is reported to was £101,275,340. If the sums included have said to a servant, while he was con- in this enormous debt had been borrowed versing with some official European vis- at par and at six per cent. interest per itor. “If he should catch cold, I might annum, it would have been entirely paid have a big claim for damages on my off by the amounts already paid under hands!” I heard another story which the head of interest, and yet the Egyptian goes to show his prodigality, but for the people are still forced to pay interest on truth of which I cannot vouch. He told this unholy debt and the full principal one of his attendants that he would like is still held due against them. to have “Schneider” come to Cairo. None of the statesmen of Europe so happened that there were two Schnei- showed any interest in the scandalous ders, one an actress, whom the Khedive condition of affairs in Egypt until it behad intended, and the other an agent for came difficult to collect the interest on


he bonds. Ismail might do what he in ministerial circles, should undertake pleased to force money out of his sub- with the aid of his friends to put himself jects for the purpose of meeting his obli- at the head of a revolt. It is unnecessary gations to the swindlers of Europe, but to recite the “Events” as they are called that was nobody's business but his own. in Egypt to this day. Arabi gathered a When, however, the payment of interest force and took possession of the venerwas delayed, the situation took a new able fortifications of Alexandria. The aspect and the righteous indignation of fleets of the Powers were sent to the neighthe Powers began to kindle. Mr. Go- borhood to watch the issue, and as many schen, now Lord Goschen, was sent out as possible of the foreign residents took with M. Joubert in 1876, by the bond- refuge upon their respective men-of-war. holders, to put Egyptian finances into The British government, nominally supshape and they arranged a plan which porting the government of the Khedive, however proved too onerous and was ordered their fleet to bombard the forts followed only for a short time. Then and invited the French fleet to join with the estates of the Khedive and of his them, but under instructions from Paris family were hypothecated and with this the French vessels withdrew. On July security Mr. Rivers Wilson went to Paris 11, 1882, the British ships went into and negotiated a loan of eight millions action and without any difficulty or apand a half sterling, upon which it is said preciable loss demolished the fortificathere was a discount of twenty-seven per tions, which were totally unfit to withcent. Wilson is reported to have retained stand modern ordnance. The guns in a commission of 2 per cent. on the nom- the forts were also out-of-date and the inal sum, thus receiving £212,000, that men who manned them were unskilled is, over a million dollars, for his services. and inefficient. The contest under the The Khedive Ismail was unable to adapt circumstances hardly deserved the name himself to the rôle of prince of a bankrupt of a battle. When the fortifications lay country. He had always been a spend- in ruins the unruly classes in the city thrift and he could not learn frugality. formed mobs, and set buildings on fire It was useless to remodel the Egyptian and the best portion of Alexandria was finances, so long as the leakage continued, swept by flames. The marines on the and finally in 1879, moved by the com- American men-of-war which were in the plaints of European bondholders, Eng- offing were sent on shore and succeeded land and France intervened and deposed in restoring quiet and putting an end to the Khedive, setting up his son, Tewfik, the conflagration. Meanwhile Arabi's in his place. Mr. Goschen on behalf of routed forces retired southward. To England and M. Joubert on behalf of follow up her success upon the water, France took hold of the finances, and England now organized a land-force what is known as the Dual Control of under Sir Garnet Wolseley and sent it these two Powers began.

into the Delta to complete her triumph The fact was that the taxpayers of by annihilating the army of Arabi. This Egypt, the fellaheen peasants who have expedition engaged the native forces at always lived in grinding poverty and Tel el Kebir on September 13, 1882, and worked like slaves,

were now being press- fully accomplished its purpose. When ed beyond their power to respond, and we remember that the Egyptians were their discontent began to make itself imperfectly armed, drilled and comaudible. It was natural that the edu- manded, and that the British army had cated natives of the pasha class should all the advantages which skill, science begin to resent the presence of foreign and wealth could give it, it will be readily tax-gatherers, and that Arabi, an officer seen that this widely-heralded victory in the Egyptian army and standing high was not much to boast of. Sir Garnet

was nevertheless created a viscount by the country under the British Governway of reward, the same honor that Nel- ment. If the action of France in refusson received for all his great victories up ing to bombard Alexandria could be to his death at Trafalgar. Arabi's army attributed in any way to sympathy with completely disappeared after this defeat, the cause of the natives or disapproval its survivors quietly going back to their of foreign intervention on any moral homes, and England took possession of ground, it would be a pleasure to record Egypt in the name of the Khedive Tewfik, the fact, but unfortunately such is not who ever afterwards loyally supported the case. The French Government was her influence. British under-secre- vacillating and undetermined. They taries” were placed in charge of each hoped that England might get involved ministry, under a native figure-head, in some mistake by which they could British officers were assigned to all the profit, and they have never ceased to leading posts in the army, and the British regret that on that day in July, 1882, Diplomatic Agent and Consul-General, they permitted England to proceed alone. Sir Evelyn Baring, now Lord Cromer,

(To be continued.) has ever since been the actual ruler of Rhinebeck, N. Y. ERNEST CROSBY.



HE STORY of politics in the United of the dominant parties, while candidates


struggle on the part of the people to ob- sponsible to the voters, are responsible tain control of the political machinery of to the boss and the ring which nominate the nation.

them. It was thought that the introduction All attempts at reforming the caucus of the Australain ballot would inaugurate and the convention have resulted in disa millennium in the political world, and it mal failures. New York, California, did work a partial reform. Political and Cook county, Illinois, which have bosses could no longer march the voters the most highly legalized caucus-systems, to election-booths in gangs of “tens” are still boss-ridden and machine-conand “twelves ” and force them to cast trolled. the ballots which had been thrust into There can be but one remedy,—the their hands. But this reform only caused government must be brought back to the the professional politician to transfer his people. They must be given the power activities from the election-booth to the to directly nominate their party-candicaucus and the convention. If he could dates. If they are sufficiently intelligent control these and nominate the candidates to directly elect them by means of the of all parties, it was immaterial to him Australian ballot, they are sufficiently whom the people elected.

intelligent to directly nominate them. And what has been the result ?

Experience with the Direct Primary To-day we find that the, caucus and in thirty-two states, where it is now being convention no longer express the popular used in one form or other, shows that will. Delegates have become the main- every good Direct Primary law, whether shafts of political machines. Corporate applied to city, county or state, must have wealth and influence dictate the policies the following five essentials: (1) It must be compulsory upon all parties; (2) the cus-system the resulting government canAustralian Ballot must be used; (3) all not represent the will of the majority. primaries must be held under state regu- . It can only represent the will of the minorlations; (4) the state must bear the ex- ity, and it is to this small minority (compense; (5) all parties must hold their posed though it usually is of men who primaries at the same place and time. are in politics for what there is in it) that Under a system of Direct Nominations, our officials are directly responsible, not one of the registration days is set aside only for their nomination but also for for the primary. The voter goes to the their subsequent election. polls, registers, receives a ballot contain- On the other hand, it cannot be denied ing a list of the candidates, and votes that the Direct Primary greatly increases directly for the men of his choice. Noth- the attendance at the primaries. The ing could be more simple in operation reason for this is that it gives the voters than this. It places in the hands of the a real voice in making party nominations. voters the power to nominate their party. They can express their choice upon all candidates, and in all sane governments candidates from governor down to justhat is where it should be placed.

tice of the peace, and by this means are The real tests of any nominating sys- able to exert a direct influence upon the tem, however, are (1) the number of final results. voters that take part in the primaries, In Cleveland, Ohio, under the old and (2) the kind of candidates nominated. caucus-system, only 5,000 voters took

Under the caucus-system, no matter part in nominating the Republican canhow highly legalized, the voters will not didates for city offices in 1892, but in take part in making the nominations. 1893, when they used one of the most They are not even interested, for in the poorly-framed and extra-legal primary caucuses they do not nominate candidates, systems imaginable, over 14,000 Repubthey only elect delegates, and a delegate, licans turned out. This number inno matter how honest he may be, cannot creased to 23,000 in 1896, to 28,000 in correctly represent the wishes of his con-. 1899, and to 31,000 in 1901, the vote at stituents upon all, and quite often not the primaries during these years avereven upon a small portion, of the candi- aging more than 95 per cent. of the vote dates to be nominated in the convention. cast by the Republicans at the subsequent Do the facts uphold the argument ? Take elections. In Crawford county, Pennthe caucus-system at its best and what do sylvania, where the Direct Primary has we find? In San Francisco, New York been used since 1860, the average attendcity, and Cook county, Ilinois, which ance at the primaries has been more than places since 1901, 1900, and 1899 re- 73 per cent. In the 25th Congressional spectively, have had the most highly District, where the system has been used legalized and reformed caucus-systems since 1890, 77 per cent of the voters have in the United States, an average of but made the nominations. Even where 39 per cent. of the voters of San Francisco, there was no contest, as was the case in 41 per cent. those in New York, and 1894 and 1900, more than 62 per cent. 38 per cent. of those in Cook county, Illi- of the voters attended the primaries. nois, take part in making nominations. What other portion of the United States If but this small number of people attend can show such a record as this? ? “ In the caucuses when such great care is Minneapolis," writes Mr. Day of that taken to protect the voice and the will of city, “under a highly legalized caucusthe people, what a handful must turn system, but 8 per cent of the voters atout in those states in which few if any tended the caucuses. Under the Direct legal regulations are thrown around the Primary, however, 91 per cent. of the nominating machinery! Under the cau- voters attended in 1900, 85 per cent. in

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