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1902, an off-year, and 93 per cent. in less to say that the grafters and the cor1904. In Hennepin county, Minnesota, ruptionists, all indeed who have been enin 1904, over 97 per cent. of the voters gaged in debauching the people's servants, took part in making congressional nomi- are bitterly hostile to the primary.” Why nations. In the same year the returns is it that the politicians have suddenly from eighteen counties, scattered indis- become so solicitous about the welfare criminately throughout Minnesota (all of the public, claiming, as they do, that the returns that could be obtained), the introduction of the Direct Primary showed that over 72 per cent. of the voters would be detrimental to the best interests took part in the primaries. These figures of the people? Why is it that they fight show most conclusively that the difficulty it so strenuously? It is because they is not the apathy of the people. Their realize that they cannot control the sevencivic patriotism is as strong as it has ever ty or eighty per cent. of the voters who been in years past. They are interested turn out to the primaries as they dictate in the government and will attend the to the twenty per cent. who attend the primaries, if they are but given the op- caucuses. They realize that under it portunity to directly nominate their party their power to dominate the political candidates. The difficulty lies with the arena would be gone, that they could not caucus-system. It is indirect and in- prevent the candidacy of good men. The efficient.

Direct Primary introduces “the principle Now let us see if there are any reasons of free, open competition, where before why better men should be nominated all was secrecy, scheming and log-rolling. under the Direct Primary than under the It enables any man to become a candidate caucus and convention system.

without currying favor with the boss and In the first place it must be conceded the ring by methods which trench upon that the majority of the people are honest his self-respect.” The natural result is and that they want good government that better men come out for the nominaand honest officials. Under the Direct tion under the Direct Primary than under Primary they can make this desire felt the caucus-system. Speaking of the last more effectively. They can exercise two primary held in St. Paul, the Pioneer vetoes upon any attempt to foist bad Press of that city said: “Instead of a candidates upon the public, once at the horde of office-seekers, bound to this or primary, and again at the election. But that faction, and foisted upon the public under the caucus-system they have no to feed at the public crib and to play into choice at the caucuses, while upon elec- the hands of a small coterie of Republition it is usually a choice between two cans, the Primary law stimulated a search evils, between two machine-made can- for good candidates all over the city, and didates, and this is one reason why there the result was a primary ticket composed is such an appallingly large stay-at-home largely of men whom the office had sought, vote upon election-day.

unpledged and indebted to no one. The In the second place, who is it that so result is the strongest ticket that the Rebitterly antagonizes the Direct Primary? publican party has had for years, a ticket Most assuredly it is not the people! It is of strong campaigners, and of men who the same class of men that twenty years are entitled to the confidence of the peoago fought the introduction of the Aus- ple and who have it. No convention tralian ballot! The St. Paul Pioneer ever did so well except when stimulated Press of March 17, 1904, said: “The by popular impatience, and that was once machine-men have never liked the pri- in a decade.Hundreds of other localmary. They fought it from the start and ities, where the Direct Primary has been they continue to sneer at it.” THE ARENA tried, could testify to the same effect. of August, 1904, also said: “It is need- The mere fact that those cities and states which have adopted this system have and corruption than this bitter antagonever thought of abandoning it, and that nism of the boss and the ring ? its popularity is ever on the increase, is The Direct Primary has universally sufficient evidence that it does result in bet- proven satisfactory. Even where tried ter men being nominated for public office. under the most unfavorable circumstances

The caucus system presents no remedy placed entirely outside the pale of the for the evils of to-day. No matter how law, run by party organizations as it is highly legalized, it will still remain com- in many places, introduced into factional, plex, indirect and uncertain. In actual turbulent politics, into machine-ridden practice it represents but a small portion Minneapolis, it has proven eminently of the people. It places the power of successful. It has given the people the nomination in the hands of the few, the power to nominate their officials. It has boss and the ring. It is subversive of the brought out more voters to the primaries. principles of representative government. It has made the officials responsible to From all over the country comes the cry the people, and has freed them from the of the American people for deliverance. dictation of the machine. And finally, They demand that the control of the gov- as a rule, it has resulted in the nomination ernment be placed in their hands, and of better candidates and in the inaugurathat they be given the power to directly tion of better government. nominate all party candidates. Arrayed When these results are compared with against them in this struggle for better those of the caucus system, there is no government and purity in politics are the necessity for explaining further the unicorrupting elements of our social and in- versal demand for the adoption of the dustrial world. What greater tribute Direct Primary. can be paid to the efficiency of the Direct

IRA CROSS. Primary to destroy machine-domination Madison, Wis.

STATE-OWNED SAVINGS-BANKS.

BY DR. G. COOKE ADAMS.

ONI

NE OF the most urgent reforms are grandfathers and grandmothers, bent

necessary in the direction of state with age and scarcely able to stand; or municipal-ownership of public utili- others are parents and children; but all ties at the present time in the United are there for the one purpose of endeavStates is that of the people's savings- oring to obtain their savings. Their banks.

faces express the wretched anxiety and Is it possible to describe a more heart- misery that they are undergoing. They rending or deplorable sight than we have are wondering whether there will be been witnessing the past winter in Chi- sufficient money left in the bank by the cago and elsewhere, of thousands of in- time their turn arrives to give them back dustrious workers, old and young, stand- their hard-earned savings——their life's ing in the street from seven o'clock in the blood-perhaps their all. They are morning until bank-closing hours, lined aware that if it is not returned they may up by the police like a lot of cattle, shiv- be turned out of their homes to spend ering in the cold, contracting rheuma- the remainder of their days,-where? tism, pneumonia and pleurisy? Some On the street, in the poorhouse or peni

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tentiary (for men are driven thus to steal The savings-banks in the commonto obtain food for their dear ones); or wealths of Australia and New Zealand perhaps they may find a last resting- may be divided into two classes: those place in the potters' field.

worked in conjunction with the postIt is criminal on the part of govern- office, consequently directly administered ments in any civilized country to permit by the federal government, and those such unnecessary scenes or so unwarrant- under trustees who are nominated by the able a state of affairs.

state governments are thereby under Are the people's savings secure and state control. They are therefore so safe under existing conditions ? Abso- safeguarded as to enjoy the full confidence lutely not. Recent events and disclos- of the public. ures have clearly shown that the people's The declared objects of these banks savings are even used by the directors are to encourage

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the workand officials of their own banks in fur- ing-classes and to provide a safe investthering their individual speculative un- ment for the funds of trades-unions, dertakings; or else they are deposited in friendly societies, charitable institutions, other trust companies and banks which etc. are controlled by fraudulent directors The state-owned banks have become and officials of life insurance companies so popular that all classes of the commuand other corporations and used in pur- nity are represented among their deposichasing bonds, debentures and mort- tors. The Australian banking crisis of gages which are secured upon the specu

specu- 1893 among the private-owned commerlative, heavily-watered stock of steam- cial banks had the effect of largely inship, railway, real estate, traction and creasing the business of the state-owned other trusts promoted by these already banks. convicted but unjailed criminals. Such Deposits of twenty-five cents and upan instance we have witnessed in the wards are received in all the state savingstraction trust of Chicago, whose chief banks, but the amount of each depositor's value was based upon a fraudulent fran- savings bearing interest varies somewhat chise enabling the companies concerned in the different state institutions. Thus, to rob the people and trespass upon their in New South Wales deposits exceeding thoroughfares. The recent collapse in $1,000 do not bear interest on such extheir stocks and securities, in which the cess, with the exception of the funds of people's savings were directly or indi- charitable institutions, trades-unions and rectly invested, is but a forerunner and a friendly societies. The average interest warning of what may be expected in other payable on deposits is 3 per cent. such fraudulent monopolistic concerns.

In Victoria interest is allowed at the Is there any remedy to prevent the rate of 27 per cent. on sums not exceeding looting of the people's savings and pro- $500, and 2 per cent. on sums from $500 tect them from loss? The remedy lies to $1,250, the latter being the maximum in federal, state or municipal-owned amount carrying interest. savings-banks. If the people's savings In Queensland interest of 3 per cent. are to be protected, the federal, state or is allowed on all deposits below $1,000. municipal governments should immedi- In December, 1895, authority was obately establish their own savings-banks tained for the issue of savings-bank stock or take over the control of existing sav- at 3 per cent. to enable depositors of upings-banks by appointing their wards of $1,000 to obtain interest on such trustees in a similar manner to that adopt- excess, as it was found that under the old ed by the various state governments in constitution of the bank large sums were the commonwealths of Australia and New entrusted to the government that could Zealand.

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In Western Australia and Tasmania its to their credit of $200,630,305, or an interest at 3 per cent. is allowed on $750 average of about $160 to each depositor. deposits in one year. In South Australia The proportion of depositors to the the maximum amount bearing interest entire population has been steadily inat 3 per cent. is $1,250.

creasing all along. Thus in 1861 it was In New Zealand post-office and trustee on 2.31 per cent.; in 1871 it had increased institutions also established, the to 5.98 per cent.; in 1881 to 11.33 per former since February, 1867. Deposits cent.; in 1891 to 19.47 per cent.; while of twenty-five cents and upwards are in 1901–02 the proportion had increased received. Interest was formerly allowed to 27.02 per cent. at rate of 4 per cent. up to $1,000, and The funds of the federal and state-owned at 4 per cent. from $1,000 to $2,500; but savings-banks are invested in government in 1893 the rates were reduced to 4 per and municipal securities or as fixed deposcent. and 3} per cent. respectively, the its in the government treasuries. maximum amount bearing interest re- All the governments in Australia hold maining at $2,500. Amount of interest considerable sums in trust either directly was further reduced in 1900 to 3 per cent., or indirectly for the people. the rate now allowed.

In Victoria, South Australia and New A feature of the New Zealand post- Zealand public trustees have been apoffice savings-banks is that deposits of pointed to control trust-funds in the hands one shilling (twenty-five cents) may be of their various governments; but in the made by means of postage stamps affixed other states of the commonwealth these to cards especially issued for the purpose. trust funds are directly subject to the conThis plan was specially adopted to en- trol of the treasury. At the present time courage thrift among children and the the governments of Australasia have very poor, as it was recognized that it under control over $200,000,000 of trustwas a very difficult matter in such in- funds, of which they have invested about stances for them to save their pence until $130,000,000 in government securities, they had accumulated to a shilling; but the balance remaining uninvested to meet under the present system this is avoided payments on demand. by purchasing a postage-stamp and The success of state-ownership and affixing it to a card.

control of savings-banks has also been As instancing the confidence of the demonstrated in Great Britain and other public, more particularly the industrial countries, as also has the government classes, in these state-owned or controlled control of trust-funds. institutions, reference need only be made A rush upon a government savingsto the enormous, steady increase in the bank and such a scene as above depicted number of depositors and the amount of is almost a thing unheard of in Australia. their deposits during forty years, from Will not the workers of this country, 1861 to 1901-02, as shown by the returns in whose hands the matter alone rests, from the banks.

force the federal, state and municipal In 1861 the number of depositors in governments to take immediate action Australasia was 20,062, having the sum in this direction by returning to power of $6,836,980 to their credit; in 1881 only those representatives sworn to carry (twenty years later) the number of de- out that most vital of all reforms-state positors had increased to 311,124 and protection of the people's savings and their deposits to $47,214,895; whereas in trust-funds ? 1901 (or forty years later) the number of de

G. COOKE ADAMS. positors had risen to 1,252,219, with depos- Chicago, Ill.

By William LEE HOWARD, M.D.

TH

HE HIGHEST aim of the medical based upon knowledge,” said Huxley.

profession is to prevent physical The knowledge which is necessary to and moral disease by teaching people the understand the injustice done to adolaws of health. It is unfortunate that lescents by placing the sexes together in the majority of people and some physi- high schools, having them indifferently cians-do not see the great factor under- taught by many women and a few men, lying the basis of physical and moral means an acquaintance with the basic health; i. e., the early guidance of mental facts of physiology and of physiologic and physical activities into their proper psychology. These basic facts are unchannels. This can only be done by known to the majority of teachers. The those who are cognizant of sex differen- superstructure that is given to them as tiation, of the pitfalls and whirlpools into knowledge on these subjects lacks the which the slightest psychic variant may vital and intimate acquaintance with the be drawn, and of the polymorphic changes underlying causes of sex moods and deduring mental development in the ado- sires. lescent of both sexes.

This is the starting-point of the errors: Any form of education is a failure that The women teachers have physiologic has not given the youth or young woman facts which have jumped the elementary perfect health in all that the word implies. knowledge of life. Consequently they But more also should a correct education are blind to psychologic upheavals, find give,-the knowledge of how to keep in interpretations of moods, desires and good health. This means a clean mind, morbidities difficult, and derive a wrong and its corollary, moral living.

understanding of many of Nature's sigIt is true that a certain proportion of nals. mankind is by the universal law of or- There is a class of teachers who have ganic failure doomed to physical and been over the daily routine and drudgery mental imperfections, even the lowest of high-school teaching so long that they grade, but this proportion can certainly have about as much knowledge of their be reduced by educating girls and boys scholars' varying moods and abilities as so they will possess the potentialities of the hybrid manikin they use to demonfit parents. In some respects it would strate the location of the lungs. When be beneficial if we adopted a few of the we hear one of these individuals state ancient Greeks' methods of training that the constant mingling of the sexes youths.

during the active period of adolescence The true physician knows the wide has absolutely no effect on the emotional range of psychological curves and modi- side of the girl; that this girl can and does fiable conditions in the adolescent and do her daily work every day in the month how to influence them toward the build- without psychic symptoms of sex differing of healthy minds and strong bodies. entiation demonstrating themselves, we The difficulty is to get the general public, have a pitiable feeling of disgust at such the parents of pupils, to give an intelli- a condition of sex degeneracy. gent hearing and assent to what we know We should start by at once abolishing must be laid down as rules if the future the custom of teaching boys and girls health of our children is to be assured. together after they have reached the

An intelligent assent is an assent puberal age. This state of affairs un

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