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fortunately exists largely throughout cer- A certain subject in literature will leave tain puritanical territories and in newer opposite, or at least different, impressions geographical sections that have been in the minds of the youth and young settled by the descendants of these puri- woman hearing the same lecture, or after tans. It is a system handed down from reading a certain lesson, these divergent the old country-school and academy, and interpretations being dependent upon the has no excuse for any longer being in psychic and emotional differentiation existence.
existing at the time. A teacher well“A deep difference in constitution informed on the psychology of sex, when expresses itself in the distinction between teaching a class of girls will state a fact male and female, whether these be phys- in a different mood and manner, will exical or mental. The difference may be press it in other colors than he would to
a class of young men.
When it has to exaggerated or lessened, but to obliterate them it would be necessary to have all be indifferently stated it ceases to leave the evolution over again on a new basis.
a true and individual impression. The What was decided amongst the prehis- youth's view of life is distinct from that toric protozoa cannot be amended by an
of the adolescent girl. At this time the act of congress. The biologic difference difference between the sexes is greater between the sexes result in physiologic than at any other period. The difference and social differentiation. We must in
is in every tissue, organ and faculty. sist on the biologic conditions underlying which parents and teachers of the past
It is a few of the foregoing facts, to the relation of the sexes."'*
have been blind, that has brought about There are many more reasons based the gradual feminization of the highon biologic laws which should make it school. Other facts are, the greater plain to the understanding of all normal number of girls over boys in the schools, men and women why the sexes should and the unfortunate tendency towards be separated during the adolescent period. feminization of the male teachers in con
A successful educational plan must be sequence of being constantly in an atmosbased upon rational sex differences. phere unnatural to male instincts. This This plan must be free from that anti- demoralization is subtle, but certain, and social being, the woman of “advanced also has its insidious effect upon the boys. ideas,” and undeveloped maternal in- Ambiguas in vulgam spargere voces. stincts. It is not possible for this indi- On account of the large number of vidual to recognize any sex differentia- young women, as compared to boys, in tion in her adolescent scholars. Also, high-schools, a great injustice is done to the male teacher who has long been as- the boys who are obliged to remain. sociated with a certain class of women Boys need to be held to a different standteachers, girl pupils, and a few boys, is ard of conduct, need a different symnot apt to comprehend this differentia- pathy and a separate knowledge of hytion which is so marked during adoles- giene than girls; hence, if the school is
regulated to the physiologic and psychoIt must be generally recognized, if we logic necessities of girls, the boys do not wish our future men and women to be get the personal care and instruction due normal, that there is a difference in fun- them. If the differentiation of the sexes damental sex ideas, feelings and emotions, is ignored all the scholars are falsely -in the nervous organization of men and taught, and with these the physicians women, and that we cannot blindly mix will in later life have to deal. Many them
up in one educational hopper and boys who are so unfortunate as to remain expect to get the best results.
in high schools where no sex distinction *Geddes and Thompson.
is made,--that is, where boys and girls
are taught in the same classes, become perform the normal natural duties of unnatural in spirit and ideals.
wifehood and motherhood." The women teachers do not appeal in The male teacher is not competent to any way to the virile or feral qualities of understand the varying moods of the the youth. The want of rapport natur- young woman, nor should such an effemally causes the boys to remain indifferent inate trait be wanted in a male teacher. to their lessons, and establishes a barrier Let the man teach along the lines of for sympathetic relations between pupils manly craft, woman in womanly craft. and teachers. Many now go to boys' It is safe to say that a girl graduate of a schools where teachers and scholars can mixed high-school has not learned one come together in a bloody football con- womanly craft of specific use to her sex. test or sympathetically in the study. Many have no knowledge of the hygiene This rational movement is rapidly pro- and physiology of their sex; many have ducing an aristocracy in educational perverted ideas, and some, ruinous emocircles, but such a condition is preferable tions due to the abnormal atmosphere to feminization.
ever present when the sexes are mixed As President Stanley Hall remarks: in daily social contact during the adoles“The present approximation of matter cent period. I and methods in high-schools has at least This high-school atmosphere of femcertain elements of degeneration for both inity for adolescent boys is against all the
It repels boys from the upper laws of Nature and Man. Girls of sixteen high-school grades and virifies the tastes to eighteen years of age are matured, are and ideals of girls, many of whom wish women ready to be married. What of the they had been born boys when our need boys of that age ? Rough, developing adois to push sex distinction to the uttermost lescents; healthy young cubs. They have and make man even more manly and different moods, desires and ideas. There woman more womanly.”
is yet no psychologic change. They have Physicians for several years past have not learned to apply their minds to books, recognized the wrong done in mixed and the healthy boy of seventeen must be high-schools to the physiologic blossom- expected to be far behind girls of the ing of the
young woman. The fault has same age in this matter. Healthy-minded easily been traced to ignorance due to boys are young animals and should be prurient prudery which has kept hidden allowed the freedom and license of rough the plain facts necessary to give parent play that their energy demands. This and teacher warning. These facts have excessive physical energy directed into long been known to physicians, who have proper channels is the making of a man. published their opinions, but unfortu- Two years or more in a classroom with nately, these do not get outside of the girls changes this healthy spirit. The medical journals.*
boy tires of being told that the girls beat When a girl leaves school at eighteen him in his studies. He realizes that his she should be thoroughly prepared to woman teacher thinks his nose needs become the best possible wife and mother. washing, when in reality it is a bad bruise What is the consensus of opinion among from football or a fight. Under these medical men ?—“that the majority of conditions he becomes indifferent and educated women in America reach a leaves school. If he stays, he runs great marriageable age in such a poor condition risk of becoming feminized. of health that it is a hardship for them to Force the boy to constant association
* Adolescence, President Stanley Hall, Appleton, ican Academy of Medicine; Dominion Medical 2 vol.
Monthly, December, 1904. 7"The Present Method of Educating Girls,” “Education and Sex Differentiation,” William Professor Lapthorn Smith. Read before the Amer- Lee Howard, M.D., New York Medical Journal,
February 20, 1904.
and mental competition with young come; another small portion of the class women and the tendency will be to de- owns no manicure set, can understand velop unfortunate elements of maturity, the poetry in the English lesson as well and a too eager desire for the complete- upside down as right side up, and is thinkness of life. He believes he has laid the ing only of the practical, the business of foundation of life, for his associations the day, fishing or football. with young women have misled him. He The virile teacher under such condihas seen them mature, accepts their tions chafes and soon becomes disgusted acknowledged condition of finished edu- and looks for his proper place,-among cation, and also wishes to step into real boys whose mental attitude and physical life. Such has been the unfortunate desires he can appreciate and mingle results of the false education given the boy. with.
All schools for girls and boys over It is for this reason that the high-school thirteen years of age should be adjusted seldom has a male teacher who makes to sex needs and growth. This adjust- any impression on the real boy, or any ment is impossible where the sexes are female teacher whom the boy does not mixed in one school, and there cannot be treat as one whom he must tolerate but that personal attention given where the inwardly looks upon her as he does his teacher gradually degenerates into sex young sister: "Oh, you ’re a girl! You negativeness.
would n't understand.” The young male teacher whose sur- It must not be lost sight of that at the roundings are marked by female bound- dawn of adolescence the boy makes for aries soon finds himself in unpleasant specialization, while the girl much more fields. He is wrongly set in external matured at the same age is generic. Cercircumstances and in the false perspective tain studies which she will enjoy and of social laws and physiologic demands. easily learn, are hard and discouraging He is expected to instruct young women to the boy who has certain mental inin material matters or abstract science clinations and probably already picked at an age when there is the most sponta- his calling for life. Man makes for proneous variation in all their womanly at- ficiency in his investigations, not sterile tributes.
erudition. The man must go to the The boys in the same classes are going sturm and drang of practical life. Even through the age when the real boy's mind in the high-school the teacher must deal is figuring out baseball averages or build- with the spirit of men, realizing the ing a canoe for next summer's camp. perceptions of the mind for a broad and One portion of the teacher's class is ro- catholic view of life.” mantic, curious and interested in the
WILLIAM LEE HOWARD. poets, or else dreaming of the knight to Baltimore, Md.
BY EDWARD SLADE.
T HAS become a platitude among allegiance of the working-class to Social
students of current events that the Democracy, and in America by the phegreatest issue before this and every other nomenal growth within recent years of civilized country is not political in its the Socialist party. And the Socialist nature, nor religious, nor judicial, but vote is destined to increase by leaps and industrial. The evils afflicting modern bounds. This is evident to persons society proceed from its economic organ- avowedly opposed to the principles of ization, and not from its political, religious Socialism. For weal or for woe, Socialor judiciary institutions. This fact is ism is developing apace in every country becoming more obvious to the mass of where industrialism has created a proppeople every day. It is seen that not- ertyless proletariat. The movement withstanding democratic forms of gov- everywhere is growing, growing. It has ernment and liberal education the most long ceased to be an academic question, enlightened nations are suffering from and must now be reckoned with in the the very same diseases that are prevalent practical world. The party possesses a under despotism, namely, luxury on the vitality unsurpassed by that of any other one hand, poverty on the other, and de- organization. Though young politically, generation of the people as a whole. it is distinguishing itself in the arena of Hence the clamor for economic reform. politics. In Germany it is the largest The social problem is pushed to the fore. single party, that is, in point of votes, Radical measures are demanded. Cur- but not in point of representatives in the tailment of corporate greed, diminution Reichstag; while in the legislatures of of military expenditures, the housing of France, Austria, Italy, Belgium and the poor, the establishment of national Denmark Social-Democracy is an expandworkshops for the unemployed, public- ing factor. In this country the moveownership of natural monopolies, these ment has not as yet made much headway, an even more radical undertakings are but its growth in the last half-decade has beginning to agitate the minds of men been very rapid. At the presidential and women. To the party who can election in 1900, the Socialist party polled satisfy this craving for reform belongs the 97,730 votes; in 1904, 391,587. There future.
is no reason to believe that this rate of None of the old historical parties seem progress will not continue. Mark Hanna likely to take upon themselves the in- predicted that the two great contending cubus of solving the social problem. In parties in this country will be, not Repubdeed, their chief care seems to be to evade lican and Democrat, but Republican and it. At best they effect reforms calcu- Socialist. Lord Rosebery is reported lated to satisfy the public for a time, but to have said that the impending struggle which are seldom, if ever, fundamental. in England is between the “haves" and The opinion is gaining ground through- “ have nots.” Yerkes and other great out the labor community that nothing financiers, besides many shrewd observadequate need be expected from any of ers whose opinions are valued, have the old established parties. In England warned us that Socialism is the issue on this fact is demonstrated by the remark- the political and industrial horizon. able gains of labor at the recent general With these statements in mind, it is to elections, in Europe by the increasing be regretted that the principles and aims of Social-Democracy are not more widely their ability to sell their labor-power. and better understood. The greatest Expropriation of the mass of the people revolutionary movement of all time, for from the sources of wealth production such the Socialist movement is, surely continues apace. The concentration of merits the investigation of the public- wealth and industry under the control of spirited citizen. A party which comes trusts and a privileged minority is sinking forward with a definite economic pro- the middle-class-small employers, tradgramme and claims that in its programme
ers and middlemen-into wage-earners. is contained the solution of the social Hence arises the division of society into problem, a party which is gaining the ear two classes: the Bourgeoisie or capitalist of the people and threatens to revolution- class on the one hand, and the Proletariat ize our civilization, that party is either a or laboring class on the other. Between blessing or a menace to the State, and these two classes there is an irreconcilable should not be ignored. If it is to be op- conflict-a class-struggle, a struggle over posed, it should be opposed intelligently the division of wealth between capital and with fairness. If it is to be sup- and labor. But labor is the producer ported, it should be supported rationallyes of all wealth, and to labor, therefore, all In either case an examination of its form wealth should belong. ulated principles and objects, to say noth- Production to-day, owing to the minute ing of its personnel and literature, is de- division of labor, is social in its nature, , sirable.
but the ownership of the tools of producLying before the writer are the pro- tion and the appropriation of the surplus grammes of the Social-Democratic par- value produced is individual. Thus it ties of Germany, France, Austria, Bel- is that the labor of the many is exploited gium, England, the United States and to the enrichment of the few. This inCanada. Guided by a familiarity with justice can only be corrected by the socialsocialist thought, he proposes to give a ization of industry. concise and lucid summary of these pro- The competitive system is the root of grammes. Some of the demands of the all evil. The fact that large sections of European Socialists would, of course, be the community are condemned to strugsuperfluous in the platform of the Social- gle for an ignominious existence, that ist party of America, but I have never- insecurity has come to be the normal theless embodied them in the summary. condition of society, that large bodies of As Social-Democracy is avowedly inter- men and women are unable to procure national, I have deemed it better not to work, that widespread misery is periodomit the items which have no application ically endured because of crises, that to American institutions.
morality and life are unsparingly sacriPREAMBLE.
ficed for profit, that strikes and warfare
are inevitable under capitalism, the fact In the declaration of principles of all that these things are the natural corollary Social-Democratic parties is set forth the of competition and individual ownership scientific basis of the movement. It is of the sources of wealth suffices to show pointed out that the development of the necessity of the economic reörganizamachinery and the factory system in- tion of society. volved the suppression of the small or The historic mission of the proletariat cottage industries and the consequent is the emancipation of labor from all alienation of the worker from the tools forms of exploitation. This emancipaof production. The effect of this indus- tion must be the work of the proletarians trial evolution has been the creation of themselves. It must be based upon the propertyless wage-earners, who are de- principle of the class-struggle and be pendent for their subsistence entirely on achieved through the exercise of political