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It is the function of the Social- should be abolished, and (2) that until Democratic party to shape the proletarian the Coöperative Commonwealth is inrevolt into a well-defined, class-conscious, augurated the whole burden of taxation political movement. movement. Recognizing
Recognizing that should be shifted upon the shoulders of the interests of working-people in all lands the well-to-do through inheritance, gradare the same, Social-Democracy teaches uated income and property taxes. The the international solidarity of labor. appropriation of mining royalties, taxaThough emphasizing the class-struggle, tion of land values, repudiation of nathe Social-Democratic party exonerates tional debts and the nationalization of itself of creating it. The party deplores banks are also suggested. the existence of classes and looks forward to their abolition in the Coöperative Com
Though universal peace is embraced in The International Socialist party de- the Socialist ideal, Socialists do not adclares itself the uncompromising cham- vocate immediate disarmament. Until pion of labor. It recognizes no other such time that arbitration becomes the interests than those of the workers. It sole means of settling international disshall exert whatever influence it possesses putes, they recommend the substitution for the immediate betterment of the work- of national citizen-forces for standing ing-class, but its great and ultimate ob- armies, the furtherance of arbitration ject (to quote the S. D. F. of Great Brit- schemes, renunciation of aggressive forain) is: “the Socialization of the Means eign policies, the transference to the jurisof Production, Distribution, and Ex- diction of the civil courts of offences change, to be controlled by a Democratic against discipline, and the decision by State in the interests of the entire com- the representatives of the people of quesmunity, and the complete Emancipation tions pertaining to war and peace. of Labor from the Domination of Capi
Juridical. talism and Landlordism, with the establishment of Social and Economic Equality Judgment by popularly elected judges, between the Sexes."
free legal advice, free administration of
the law, indemnification of innocent perPROGRAMME OF IMMEDIATE REFORMS.
sons arrested and condemned, and aboPolitical.
lition of capital punishment are the prinSocialists stand for the fullest demo- cipal legal reforms advocated. cratization of political institutions. They
Education. are a unit in demanding universal, equal
In matters educational socialism preand adult suffrage; proportional represents us with a very liberal programme: sentation; payment of members of all legislative and administrative bodies; children under sixteen years of age;
Compulsory school attendance for all the initiative and referendum; the right their equipment and maintenance at the of recall; abolition of all Upper Cham
public expense; the extension of manual bers; the suppression of all hereditary training and technical education; free offices; the maximum of local autonomy tuition in the higher institutions of learnin state and municipality; more liberal naturalization laws; and a legal holiday all education to be secular.
ing for pupils capable of advanced studies; for elections. Fiscal.
Religion. Social-Democrats are agreed on two Religion is to be declared a private things in matters fiscal: (1) that all in- matter, religious bodies to have no other direct taxation, especially customs tariffs, status than that of other private organizations, and where the old ecclesiastical labor in industries specially injurious to relations to the state obtain churches are woman's physique; an uninterrupted to be disestablished and disendowed. rest of thirty-six hours per week for every Women.
worker; the fixing of a minimum wage In every department of life Socialists and a maximum working-day of eight desire the absolute equality of the sexes.
hours; more thorough government inThey stand for the enfranchisement of spection of business establishments; rewomen, the abolition of all laws preju- sponsibility of employers for injuries to women, the abolition of all laws preju- their employés ; insurance by the governdicial to women in their relations to men in public and private law, the exclusion ment of working-people against unemof women from all industries specially ployment, disablement, old age and death. injurious to their physique, and equal pay of the sexes for the performance of
Among sundry other reforms advocated equal work.
may be mentioned free medical attend
ance of the sick, including medicine and Working-Class Legislation. midwifery; liberal divorce laws; municFor the protection of labor the follow- ipal dwellings for the poor; and public ing reforms are demanded: Prohibition control of the drink traffic. of child-labor; prohibition of unneces
EDWARD SLADE. sary night-work; prohibition of female Toronto, Canada.
A PRIMER OF DIRECT-LEGISLATION.
Prepared by Professor FRANK PARSONS, Ph.D., President of the National Public-Ownership League and
C. F. TAYLOR; RALPH ALBERTSON, Secretary of the Massa-
Editor of THE ARENA.
in any form, the said measure together The Initiative.
with the amendment, substitute or other
action of the legislative body goes to the WHAT is the Popular Initiative ? electorate for final decision at the polls.
A. The Popular Initiative is the In Oregon a somewhat different form right of a certain percentage of the voters, is in use. Here, on the petition of eight usually five to ten per cent., to propose per cent. of the voters filed with the Seca law, ordinance or constitutional amend- retary of State, the bill or constitutional ment for action by the legislature or de- amendment included in the petition is cision at the polls or both.
submitted to the people at the next genUnder what is considered by many as eral election, and if the majority of those the preferable form, the measure which voting on the question vote Yes, the Govis petitioned by the requisite number of ernor announces that fact by proclamavoters, goes to the proper legislative body, tion, and from that date it is the law of which may adopt or reject it, amend it, the state without further question. pass a substitute, or refrain from any Q. Give reasons why the Initiative is action in reference to it. If the legisla- needed now to preserve a government of, tive body does not enact the measure as for and by the people in the United States ? petitioned for, or if it takes adverse action A. Without the Initiative the legisla
ture can block the will of the people by largely under the influence of private and refusing to act. By the Referendum the special interests, now in operation in this people can veto legislative action when it country. goes wrong. When through timidity, In the long run the judgment of a free conservatism, corruption or the pressure people is likely to be superior to the judgof private interest in any form, the legis- ment of any small legislative body. This lative body neglects or refuses to pass a follows from a fundamental psychologic law or ordinance desired by the public, law: Truth is a unit; error and private action may be secured through the Initia- interests are multiple. When men foltive.
low their errors or private interests they Year after year the legislature of Mas- diverge. A few men may go together sachusetts has refused to act upon the in allegiance to some error or private ineight-hour bill. If the right of Initiative terest, but when the people as a whole existed the matter could be brought to a unite it must be by a cancellation of their vote without delay and at a small part of errors and private interests. In large the cost that is consumed in the yearly communities as a rule it is only on the battle for it.
basis of truth and right that the people In many other instances during recent can get together in controlling numbers. years the people have expressed their Moreover, the inertia of mankind and desire for legislation and their repre- the effort and cost necessary to secure sentatives have made ante-election pledges the requisite percentage of signatures to but after they were elected they came the petition render the Initiative essenunder the influence of the lobbyists and tially conservative. People will not ask the representatives of public-service cor- for the passage of a law unless they are porations and other privileged interests, convinced that it is needed. This has when they have been false to their trust been proved to be the case wherever the and have deliberately violated their Initiative has been employed. But the pledges. By the Popular Initiative the possession of this right, together with the people can secure needed legislation in a Referendum, has practically led to the peaceful and orderly way, in spite of cor- disappearance of corrupt lobbies and rupt influences that have thwarted the other sinister influences that have long voters and defeated the interests of the offered great temptations to the people's community.
representatives and in many instances The Initiative constitutes an effective have rendered impossible the enactment means by which at all times the people of needed legislation while forcing to a may exercise their right of instructing successful issue laws that were not detheir agents.
sired by the people and were inimical to Q. Would the Initiative result in the their interests. demand for a number of unnecessary or
Q. What has been the result of the foolish laws ?
Initiative in Switzerland ? A. Experience in Switzerland and in A. Like the Referendum, it has so our Western States proves that legislation safeguarded the people's interests that under the Initiative is on the whole wise the lawmakers have striven to carry out and conservative. Anyone who will the wishes of the voters. In Switzerland, take the trouble year after year to read after the Federal Initiative was adopted, the statutes passed by our legislatures only two measures were petitioned for will find it difficult to imagine how any in four years. system likely to be adopted in a free Q. Has it proved beneficial where incountry could possibly produce more troduced in America, and in what way? foolish or vicious laws than the system of A. It has proved very valuable in law-making by final vote of a few men, Oregon. The people have enacted a Direct Primary Nominations law which Q. Is there anything un-American in seems to be utterly destroying the political the Initiative? machines, and a local option in licensing A. No. The Initiative has been in use liquor selling, which is only applying in America from the earliest days and is Direct Legislation locally to one question still in use wherever the New England and was needed and is valuable. The town-meeting system obtains. Here any Initialive tends, as in this case, to decen- ten citizens may by petition which is tralize and localize government by re- nothing more nor less than the Initiative, ferring all local matters to each local bring measures before the voters for concommunity to decide for itself. They sideration at the town-meeting. The are going ahead this year to enact some Initiative simply adapts this well-estabamendments to the Constitution giving lished principle of the New England them Initiative and Referendum powers town-meeting to a larger and more comon all local and special legislation and plex civilization. city charters and ordinances, to be ex- Q. Is the Initiative inimical to repubercised by the people interested in the lican government? measures proposed and other measures. A. Certainly not. It is the corner
In South Dakota honest citizens have stone of a truly republican form of gorseveral times been able to checkmate ernment. This is well expressed in the measures opposed to the public interest opinion of the Supreme Court of Oregon, by the mere threat of agitation for the rendered December, 1903, in the case of Initiative.
Kadderly versus Portland.* In this rulEven the Initiative of the Public Policy ing the Court held that: law of Illinois has through the several expressions of the electorate of Illinois “The representative character of the and the city of Chicago brought about government still remains. The people important and far-reaching changes in have simply reserved to themselves a the policy of that state and especially of larger share of legislative power, but they the metropolis. By means of this law have not overthrown the republican form and with immense majorities the voters of government, or substituted another in of Illinois have expressed themselves as its place.” favoring the Initiative and Referendum in state and in municipalities, as favoring Q. Does the Popular Initiative take Direct Primaries, and as favoring home- from the people's representatives any rule in taxation and the direct election of rights or powers that properly belong to United States Senators. As the result of them? this last expression regarding the election A. No. By it the people are enabled of Senators, the legislature of Illinois put more thoroughly to control their repretheir state in line with other states in call- sentatives, who are or should be servants ing for a United States Constitutional and not masters of the people. Convention, and in their action used Q. What classes of citizens oppose the these significant words: “Now, there- introduction of the Popular Initiative, fore, in obedience to the expressed will and why? of the people as expressed at said election, A. Those who doubt the people; those be it resolved,” etc.
who have interests opposed to the people. Also by means of this Public Policy Q. What classes favor the Initiative? law and with most decisive majorities, A. Those who desire real popular the voters of Chicago three times express- sovereignty instead of sham sovereignty ed themselves as favoring municipal- those who desire that the legislators electownership of street-railways and some ed by the people shall be representatives other public utilities.
*74 Pacific Reporter, page 710.
and not misrepresentatives; those who the people, to open the door of progress desire to terminate the private monopoly to all wise measures of reform, to estabof law-making; those who desire to kill lish a reasonable safety-valve for disthe corporation lobby and abolish boss- content, and to take the next great step rule and machine-government; those in the improvement of representative who desire to bring better men into poli- government in harmony with the whole tics, to simplify elections, to lessen the trend of modern political history throughpower of partnership, to stop class-legis- out the civilized world and with the funlation, to elevate the press and educate damental demands of democracy.
THE PROPOSED PAN-AMERICAN TRADES-COLLEGE.
By PROF. FREDERIC M. Noa.
FTER a lapse of eighty years, Pan- Senator of the Legislature of Texas, has
Americanism seems again to be for many years agitated this matter, and in the air, and it is probable that the Hon. it is to be hoped that his untiring efforts Elihu Root, United States Secretary of will now win the favorable consideration State, will make his administration of the of President Roosevelt and the Congress State Department memorable in culti- at Washington. The history of the movevating the closest commercial and social ment may be briefly summarized as folties between the United States and all the lows: extensive Latin-American Republics. He A special Joint Committee on Panappears destined to accomplish as much American Relations to whom was referred on the American continent as his lamented a concurrent resolution of the Texas legpredecessor the Hon. John Hay accom- islature on the expediency of establishing plished on that of Asia. No American, in that State, near the Mexican frontier, indeed, with the possible exception of a Pan-American Trades-College, made the martyr President McKinley, since the a favorable report on the sixth of May, days of the late Hon. James G. Blaine, 1905, and after reviewing the great dishas shown a keener insight into the im- advantages under which the United perative necessity of increasing the ties of States are laboring as regards the vast respect, friendship and commerce be- and constantly growing commerce of all tween Latin America and the United the Latin-American Republics to the States. He will prove the faith of his south of the Rio Grande, most of which convictions by attending in person the highly profitable commerce is monopocoming Pan-American Congress, to be lized by Europe, recommended that imheld, next summer, in Rio de Janeiro, mediate steps should be taken to establish Brazil, and, while in South America, will the Trades-College proposed, and that a carefully study conditions on the spot, special commission should be appointed and the obstacles to be overcome.
to disseminate general information and A significant and important step in the to agitate for favorable action before direction of reviving the decadent trade Congress. They adduced very powerful of the United States with Mexico, the and convincing arguments why such an West Indies, Central America and South institution should be in active operation America has already been taken by the at the earliest possible date. One of their State of Texas, by officially sanctioning strongest points is the humiliating fact the proposed Pan-American Trades-Col- that 25,000 Latin-American students, of lege. The Hon. George B. Griggs, a the wealthiest and most cultured classes,