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annually attend the various universities, ties are agreed that the United States colleges and technical institutions of possesses only a deplorably insignificant Great Britain, France, Germany and fraction of the foreign commerce and other European countries. These young transportation of Latin America, which, men naturally form ties in Europe, and in 1902, reached the enormous sum of thus the main channels of trade from $1,198,000,000, or a per capita amount Latin America continue to flow towards of about $20 for each member of the 60,European lands instead of towards their000,000 population of Latin America. natural market, the United States. To gain a more adequate idea of the the annual stream of 25,000 Latin-Ameri- value of her commerce, it is necessary to can students, or, at least, a large portion bear in mind that she has an urban popuof them, could be diverted from Europe lation of 8,000,000, of which 1,000,000 and induced to receive their education live in the highly cultured and rapidly in the United States, not only would en- growing commercial metropolis Buenos during ties of friendship and respect be Aires, Argentine Republic. established but also an important step

To realize how valuable increased would be taken towards enabling the commerce with Latin America would be United States to capture a proper share to the United States, it is well to consider of the markets of Mexico, Central Amer- a moment actual conditions as they preica and South America. An ideal spot

An ideal spot vail in the New World as compared with for founding a Pan-American Trades- the Old.

the Old. With scarcely any exception, College would be in either San Antonio all the nations of America, from Canada or Corpus Christi, Texas. The climate to the far distant Argentine Republic, of southern Texas, being exempt from at the southern extremity of the American both the rigorous cold of the Northern continent, have stable governments, are States and the excessively enervating enjoying the fruits of many years of proheat of the tropical lowlands of equatorial found peace, and are, on the whole, America, would be admirably suited as a highly prosperous. These happy condiplace of reunion for students coming tions are likely to continue permanently, from all parts of Latin America. Its as arbitration of international disputes curriculum should include all that is best has long been the settled policy of the in universities as well as what is most New World, the progressive Republics useful in technical institutions. It should of Argentina and Chile having taken the in addition to fitting Latin-Americans most advanced stand in regard to univerfor careers, trades and professions, pos- sal peace and disarmament. A steady sess practical exhibitions of the manu- tide of European immigrants, from the factures, mining, agriculture, fine arts, best elements, are invigorating both and other industries of both the United English-speaking America and Latin States and Latin America. A perma- America. A vast portion of the Old nent bureau of experts could give valuable World, on the other hand, has been, for information as to the best means of cul- the last two years, a prey to the most tivating commerce with various parts devastating, bloody and murderous war both Americas.

of modern times, if not of history. Argue Such are a few of the many advantages as sophists may, it will require a hundred which would arise from the successful years for Japan, China and the Far East inauguration and establishment of a Pan- to recover from its disastrous and baneful American Trades-College in Texas. It effects. Russia is in the convulsive would seem as though every patriotic throes of a reign of terror comparable American should encourage so laudable only to that of France in 1789. Generaa project until what is at present a vision tions may pass before the ravages caused becomes a practical reality. All authori- by her late war with Japan and her present

revolution of blood, fire and destruction gether to $238,000,000. Comment on will be repaired. Moreover, a new factor such a deplorable showing is unnecessary: has entered into the commercial and the figures speak for themselves. These political relations of the world. China statistics, however, tell only a portion of is awakening from the lethargy and sleep the lamentable story. Except in Cuban of centuries, and is leading in the cry of and Mexican ports, the Stars and Stripes “Asia for the Asiatics!” Her boycott are rarely seen flying from a merchant of American and, incidentally, European vessel. The lucrative ocean transportagoods, concessions and influence will tion of Latin America is mainly carried continue to increase and spread, entailing, on in foreign bottoms, Great Britain, annually, millions of dollars of loss upon Germany, France and even insignificant Americans who have laboriously spent Belgium and Norway sharing the profits. years of efforts and much capital in build- In many of the most important Latining up trade with the Far Orient. Hence, American centers of industry and civiliunder such adverse conditions prevailing zation, like Rio and Buenos Aires, which in the Old World and especially in Russia together have a population equal to that and Asia, the United States will soon be of Chicago, there is no American bank, forced to seek open markets in Latin and exchange is conducted through LonAmerica, her next-door neighbor to the don, Paris and Berlin. south, as Canada is to the north.

Considering that Latin America has Latin America, with its stupendous been delivered only eighty years from area vaster by over 1,500,000 square over three centuries of Spanish misrule miles than the combined areas of the and oppression, her progress in the arts, United States, Canada, Alaska and Ha- education, civilization, industry and comwaii, and extending, through four zones, merce has been marvelous. Buenos from the northermost boundary of Texas Aires, her greatest commercial emporium to Cape Horn, 56 degrees below the equa- and maritime port, has an annual comtor, is so little known to the people of the merce of $217,000,000 against $188,000,United States that it may be well to con- 000 for Shanghai, China, and $128,000,sider briefly just what is the actual value 000 for Yokohama, Japan: a commerce of her commerce and how it is distributed. which considerably exceeds that of any On these points, the most recent issues seaport of the United States, New York of the Monthly Bulletin of the Interna- excepted. Santos and Rio, Brazil, the tional Bureau of the American Republics, next largest Latin-American ocean-ports, are extremely instructive. The foreign have, respectively, a yearly commerce of trade of Latin America with Europe and $89,000,000 and $82,000,000. If these the United States alone reached, in 1904, figures be added to those for Buenos the grand total of over $975,000,000. Aires, we have a combined total of $388,The former obtained $669,000,000 of 000,000, or a value closely approximating this amount and the latter $306,000,000 one-third that of New York City ($1,-in other words, Europe secured more 106,979,000) and easily exceeding that than twice as much of this splendid com- of Calcutta ($294,000,000), the greatest merce as the United States. The total maritime port of Asia. value of European exports to the Latin- Manufacturing has already made surAmerican Republics was $324,000,000, prising headway in Latin America. The while the imports into Europe from Latin imperial republic of Brazil, of the Tropical America were $345,000,000. As a con- and South Temperate zone, and almost trast to this, American exports to Latin as vast as the United States and Alaska America were $68,000,000 while the im- combined, had, on July 31, 1905, one ports from the Latin-American Republics hundred and eight cotton-mills in operainto the United States amounted alto- tion, with 715,078 spindles and 26,054 looms. These mills consume annually ding snowy Cordillera of the Andes, to a 30,764,523 kilos (68,000,000 pounds) of height of 10,000 feet, a spiral tunnel of cotton, and produce 234,473,424 meters, 16 kilometers or 10 miles remaining to or, approximately, 260,529,000 yards be pierced through the mountains. Thus of cloth. The number of operatives em- Chile and Argentina bid fair soon to be ployed is 37,638. Another instance of linked together by bands of steel from the remarkable progress of Latin America Buenos Aires on the Atlantic to Valpais seen in the energetic Republic of Chile. raiso on the Pacific, and a rapid and inAccording to the annual report of United estimably valuable highway to Australia, States Consul Mansfield, of Valparaiso, China, India and the Far East will prob$40,000,000 capital has been invested in ably be inaugurated and in highly sucnew enterprises during the year 1904. cessful operation ten years before the In this investment, companies for exploiting completion of the Panama canal. nitrate, useful and precious metals, for Such, then, is the brilliant destiny of promoting municipal improvements, for Latin America, and, hence, every movemanufactures of various sorts, for encour- ment should have the united support of aging agriculture, and for the establish- reflecting and patriotic Americans which, ment of new banks, are represented. like the proposed Pan-American College

Railroad construction in Latin America of Texas, would stimulate commercial is going on a pace. The Transcontinental and social relations between the United Railway between the Argentine Republic States and the Latin-American Republics. and Chile has been steadily pushed up

FREDERIC M. Noa. among the highest passes of the forbid- Malden, Mass.




Part III.

ed bloods who came down to the South HAVE now discussed the subject of from a period before the war, or the abothe contact of two races living to

lition of slavery. Such visible evidence gether on the same land and on terms of

not even a fool could refuse to accept at

its full face-value. And the white women inequality, in its relations to the morals its full face-value. of the men of those races. It yet remains

of the South are not fools. Far from it. to consider the same subject in its rela- They have eyes like other women, and tions to the conduct of the women. What

ears, and with them they see and hear is the effect of such contact, to be specific, what goes on about them. Their intelon the women of the two races in the

ligence is not deceived in respect to apSouth? And first, what is it on white pearances and underlying causes. Cerwomen? Do these women know of the tainly they are not ignorant of the fact existence of the criminal commerce which

that a negro can no more change his skin goes on between the world of the white than a leopard his spots. When thereman and that of the colored woman? fore they see black mothers with lightAnd if so, are they cognizant of its extent colored children, they need not ask the and magnitude : They do perceive, meaning of it, the cause of such apparent without doubt, what it must have been

wonder. For they know to their sorrow in the past from the multitude of the mix- its natural explanation, and whence have

come all the mulattoes and quadroons * The first and second parts of Mr. Grimke's article appeared in THE ARENA for January and March, respectively.

and octoroons of the South. And to


these women this knowledge has been lines, designed to limit contact of the bitterer than death. The poisoned ar- races there at the single point where they row of it long ago entered deep into their come together as superior and inferior.

Buch! souls. And the hurt, cruel and immedi- Hence the South has its laws separating

hozuch cable, rankles in the breasts of those the races in schools, in public libraries, women to-day, as it rankled in the breasts in churches, in hotels, in cars, in waitingof their mothers of a past long vanished. rooms, on steamboats, in hospitals, in

What pray, is engendered by all of this poorhouses, in prisons, in graveyards. widespread but suppressed suffering Thus it is intended to reduce the contact transmitted, as a bitter heritage for gen- of the races to a minimum, to glut at the erations, by Southern mothers to Southern same time the hatred of the white women daughters ? What but bitter hatred of of the South to the black women of the the black woman of the South by the South, and to shut the men of each race white woman of the South. How is this from the women of the other

But hatred expressed ? In a hundred ways how foolish are all these laws, how futile and by a hundred means. One cannot are all these class distinctions! Do they keep down a feeling of pity for a large really effect the separation of the races ? class of women in the South who cannot They do not, they cannot under existing meet in the street, or store, or car, a well- conditions. What then do they? (They dressed and comely colored girl without do indeed separate the world of the white experiencing a pang of suspicion, a spasm man and woman from the colored man of feas. For there arises unbidden, un- and woman, but they fail utterly to sepaavoidably, in the minds of such women rate the world of the colored woman from the ugly question, whose daughter is she, the white man. and whose mistress is she to be ? For in (The joint fear of the white woman and that girl's veins, may flow the proudest the white man is incorporated to-day in blood of the South. And this possibility, every State of the South in laws interaye, probability, so shameful to both dicting intermarriage of the races. But

no one in the South knows better do those laws put an end to the sexual than the Southern white woman. What commerce which goes on between the happens ? The most natural thing in world of the white man and that of the the world, though not the wisest. The colored woman? Have they checked hatred, the suspicion, the fear of these perceptibly this vile traffic between these women find expression in scorn, in active two worlds? They have not, nor can ill-will, not only toward that one particu- they diminish or extinguish this evil. On lar girl, but toward her whole class as well. the contrary, because they divide the two They are all put under the ban of this worlds, because they uphold this legal accumulated hatred, suspicion and fear. separation of the races, they provide a

A hostility, deep-seated and passionate secret door, a dark way between the two as that which proceeds from white women worlds, between the two races, which the as a class toward black women as a class,

men of the
upper open

at will and shoots beyond the mark and attacks in- travel at pleasure. For they hold the discriminately all colored women without key to this secret door, the clue to this regard to character, without regard to dark way. Such preventive measures standing or respectability. It is enough are in truth but a repetition of the fatal that they belong to the black race: ergo, folly of the ostrich when it is afraid. For they are bad, ergo, they are dangerous. then while this powerful bird takes inAll this bitter hatred of the women of one finite pains to cover its insignificant front race by the women of the other race has lines, it leaves unprotected its widely borne bitter fruit in the South in merciless extended rear ones, and falls accordingly ɔlass distinctions, in hard and fast caste- an easy victim to the enemy which pur



sues it. The real peril of an admixture a terrible one, sad for both races and terof the races in the South lies not in inter- rible for the women of both races in the marriage but in concubinage, lies through actual and potential wickedness of it. that secret door which connects the races, No colored girl, however cruelly wronged the key to which is in the hands of the by a white man in the South will be able white men of the South. It is they who to obtain an iota of justice at the hands of first opened it, and it is they who continue that man in any court of law in any Southto keep it open. Were it not for the folly ern state, or get the slightest hearing or of the white women of the South, it might sympathy for her cause at the bar of yet be closed and sealed. The folly of Southern public opinion. Were she to the white women of the South is their enter the upper world of the white woman hatred, their fear of the colored women with such a case against some white man, of the South. They first think to rid who but the Southern white woman themselves of the rivalry of the second would be the first to drive her back into class by excluding them from the upper her world ? But unless she is not only world, by shutting them securely within allowed but encouraged to emerge out of the limits of the lower one. But these her world with the shameful fruit of her women forget the existence of that secret guilty life and love, and so to confront door, of the hidden way. They forget her white paramour in his world, how is also the hand which holds the key to the the lower world ever to rid itself of such one and the clue to the other. That hand

as she, or the upper one of such as he ? is the hand of the white man; it is cer- In the segregation of the black woman tainly not that of the colored woman. under such conditions lies the white

(Is it not the white women of the South woman's greatest danger, lies the white more than any other agency, or than all race's greatest danger from admixture of other agencies put together, who are re- the races, lies the South's greatest danger sponsible for the existence of a public to its morals. For through such segresentiment in the South which makes it gation runs the white man's secret way legally impossible for a colored girl to to the black woman's world, and thereobtain redress from the white man who fore to miscegenation of the races, to betrays her, or support from him for his their widespread moral degradation and bastard child ? )The white woman of the corruption. (Amalgamation is not thereSouth thus outlaws, thus punishes her by made hard, but appallingly easy. black rival. But what does such out- But there is another aspect to this side lawry accomplish, what such punishment? of the subject which must not be entirely What do they but add immensely to the ignored, and that is the existence in a few strength of the white man's temptation instances of illicit relations between some by making such illicit intercourse safe white women and some colored men in for him to indulge in? Thanks to the the South. That such relations have white woman's mad hatred of the colored existed in the past, and do actually exist woman, to her insane fear of her colored there at the present time, there is absorival, the white man of the South is en- lutely no doubt whatever. In certain abled to practice with singular impunity localities these relations although known this species of polygamy. For the pen- or suspected, have been tolerated, while alties against the adulterer, against the in general as soon as they are discovered fornicator, which the law provides, which or suspected they have been broken

up public opinion provides, for him in the by mobs who murder the black particiupper world, he well knows will not be pants when they are caught, sometimes called down on his head were the acts of on trumped-up charges of having comadultery or fornication committed by him mitted the “usual crime."

usual crime.” The existin the lower world. It is a sad fact and ence of such relations is not so strange

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