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lip's conquests; that he watches the blow, tinguished: (festivals which cost more treaing of the Etesians, and the severity of the sure than is usually expended upon a whole winter, and forms bis sieges when it is im- navy: and more numbers and greater prepossible for us to bring up our forces. It parations, than any one perhaps ever cost) is your part then to consider this, and not while your expeditions have been all too to carry on the war by occasional detach- late, as that to Methonè, that to Pegasæ, ments, (they will ever arrive too late) but that to Potidæa. The reason is this: every by a regular army constantly kept up. And thing relating to the former is ascertained for winter quarters you may command by law; and every one of you knows, long Lemnos, and Thassus, and Sciathus, and before, who is to conduct the several en, the adjacent islands ; in which there are tertainments in each tribe; what he is to ports and provisions, and all things neces- receive, when, and from whom, and what sary for the soldiery in abundance. As to to perform, Not one of these things is left the season of the year in which we may uncertain, not one undetermined. But in land our forces with the greatest ease, and affairs of war, and warlike preparations, be in no danger from the winds, either up- there is no order, no certainty, no regulaon the coast to which we are bound, or at tion. So that, when any accident alarms the entrance of those harbours where we us, first we appoint our trierarchs; then may put in for provisions--this will be we allow them the exchange ; then the easily discovered. In what manner, and at supplies are considered. These points once what time our forces are to act, their gene- settled, we resolve to man our fleet with ral will determine, according to the junc- strangers and foreigners; then find it neture of affairs. What you are to perform, cessary to supply their place ourselves. In on your part, is contained in the decree I the midst of these delays, what we are fạil. have now proposed. And if you will be ing to defend the enemy is already master persuaded, Athenians! first to raise these of; for the time of action' we spend in presupplies which I have recommended, then paring; and the junctures of affairs will not to proceed to your other preparations, your wait our slow and jrresolute measureş. infantry, navy, and cavalry; and, lastly, to These forces, too, which we think may be confine your forces, by a law, to that ser- depended on, until the new levies are vice which is appointed to them; reserving raised, when put to the proof plainly disthe care of distribution of their money to cover their insufficiency. By these means yourselves, and strictly examining into the hath he arrived at such a pitch of insolence, conduct of the general; then, your time as to send a letter to the Eubeans, conwill be no longer wasted in continual de- ceived in such terms as these : bates upon the same subject, and scarcely to any purpose; then, you will deprive
* The LETTER 28 read. him of the most considerable of his revenues. For his arms are now supported What bath now been read, is for the by seizing and making prizes of those who most part trye, Athenians! too true! but pass the seas. But is this all ?-No.-You perhaps not very agreeable in the recital. shall also be secure from his attempts: not But if, by suppressing things ungrateful to as when some time since he fell on Lem- the ear, the things themselves could be nos and Inbrus, and carried away your prevented, then the sole concern of a public citizens in chains : not as when he sure speaker should be to please. If, on the conprised your vessels at Gerastus, and spoiled trary, these unseasonably pleasing speeches them of an unspeakable quantity of riches: be really injurious, it is shameful, Athenot as when lately he made a descent on nians, to deceive yourselves, and, by dethe coast of Marathon, and carried off our ferring the consideration of every thing sacred galley: while you could neither disagreeable, never once to move until it oppose these insults, nor detach your be too late; and not to apprehend that forces at such junctures as were thought they who conduct a war with prudence, convenient.
are not to follow, but to direct events; And now, Athenians! what is the reason to direct them with the same absolute au(think ye) that the public festivals in bo- thority, with which a general leads on his nour of Minerva and of Bacchus are al forces; that the cousse of affairs may be ways celebrated at the appointed time, whe- determined by them, and not determine ther the direction of them falls to the lot their measures. But you, Athenians, alof men of eminence, or of persons less dis- though possessed of the greatest power
all kinds, ships, infantry, cavalry, and tual invectives and accusations of our oratreasure ; yet, to this day, have never em- tors, we cannot expect, no, not the least ployed any of them seasonably, but are success, in any one particular. Wherever a ever last in the field. Just as barbarians part of our city is detached, although the engage at boxing, so you make war with whole be not present, the favour of the Philip: for, when one of them receives a gods and the kindness of fortune attend to blow, that blow engages him: if struck fight upon our side; but when we send out in another part, to that part his hands are a general, and an insignificant decree, and shifted: but to ward off the blow, or to the bopes of our speakers, misfortune and watch his antagonist — for this, he hath disappointment must ensue. Such expedineither skill nor spirit. Even so, if you tions are to our enemies a sport, but strike hear that Philip is in the Chersonesus, you our allies with deadly apprehensions. For resolve to send forces thither; if in Ther- it is not, it is not possible for any one man mopylæ, thither; if in any other place, to perform every thing you desire. He may you hurry up and down, you follow his promise, and harangue, and accuse this or standard. But no useful scheme for car- that person: but to sueh proceedings we rying on the war, no wise provisions are owe the ruin of our affairs. For when a ever thought of, until you hear of some general who commanded a wretched colenterprise in execution, or already crowned lection of unpaid foreigners, hath been dewith success.
This might have formerly feated; when there are persons here, who, been pardonable, but now is the very cri« in arraigning his conduct, dare to advance tical moment, when it can by no means falsehoods, and when you lightly engage be admitted.
any determination, just from their sugIt seems to me, Athenians, that some gestions; what must be the consequence 3 divinity, who, from a regard to Athens, How then shall these abuses be removed ? looks down upon our conduct with indig. -By offering yourselves, Athenians, to nation, hath inspired Philip with this rest- execute the commands of your general, to less ambition. For were he to sit down be witnesses of his conduct in the field, in the quiet enjoyment of his conquests and his judges at your return : so as not and acquisitions, without proceeding to only to hear how your affairs are transany new attempts, there are men among acted, but to inspect them. But now, so you, who, I think, would be unmoved at shamefully are we degenerated, that each of those transactions, which have branded our our commanders is twice or thrice called state with the odious marks of infamy, cow. before you to answer for his life, though ardice, and all that is base. But as he not one of them dared to hazard that life, still pursues his conquests, as he is still by once engaging his enemy. No; they extending his ambitious views, possibly he choose the death of robbers and pilferers, may at last call you forth, unless you have rather than to fall as becomes them. Such renounced the name of Athenians. To me malefactors should die by the sentence of it is astonishing, 'that none of you look the law. Generals should meet their fate back to the beginning of this war, and bravely in the field. consider that we engaged in it to chastise Then, as to your own conduct the insolence of Philip; but that now it wander about, crying, Philip hath joined is become a defensive war, to secure us with the Lacedemonians, and they are confrom his attempts. And that he will ever certing the destruction of Thebes, and the be repeating these attempts is manifest, un. dissolution of some free states. Others less some power rises to oppose him. But assure us he hath sent an embassy to the if we wait in expectation of this, if we king; others, that he is fortifying places send our armaments composed of empty in Illyria. Thus we all go about framing galleys, and those hopes with which some our several tales. I do believe, indeed, speaker may have flattered you ; can you Athenians! he is intoxicated with his then think your interest well secured? shall greatness, and does entertain his imaginawe not embark? sball we not sail, with at tion with many such visionary prospects, least a part of our domestic force, now, as he sees no power rising to oppose bim, since we have not hitherto ?_But where and is elated with his success. But I canshall we make our descent ?—Let us but not be persuaded that he hath so taken his engage in the enterprise, and the waritself, measures, that the weakest among us know Athenians, will shew us where he is weakest. what he is next to do: (for it is the weakest But if we sit at home, listening to the mu- among us who spread these rumours)- Let
us disregard them: let us be persuaded of this, that he is our enemy, that he hath spoiled us of our dominions, that we have long been subject to his insolence, that whatever we expected to be done for us by others, hath proved against us, that all the resource left is in ourselves, that, if we are not inclined to carry our arms abroad, we may be forced to engage herem let us be persuaded of this, and then we shall come to a proper determination, then shall we be freed from those idle tales. For we are not to be so solicitous to know what particular events will happen; we need but be convinced nothing good can happen, unless you grant the due attention to affairs, and be ready to act as becomes Athenians.
I, on my part, have never, upon any occasion, chosen to court your favour, by speaking any thing but what I was convinced would serve you. And, on this occasion, I have freely declared my sentiments, without art, and without reserve. It would have pleased me indeed, that, as it is for your advantage to have your true interest laid before you, so I might be assured that he who layeth it before you, would share the advantages: for then I had spoken with greater alacrity. However, uncertain as is the consequence with respect to me, I yet determined to speak, because I was coavinced that these measures, if pursued, must have their use. And, of all those opinions which are of. fered to your acceptance, may that be chozen, which will best advance the general weal!
stood candidate, but still met with the same fate. It appears that he made a fourth attempt under the consulship of Cicero, who made use of all his credit and authority to exclude him, in which he succeeded to his wish. After the picture Sallust has drawn of Cataline, it were needless to attempt his character bere; besides, that the four following orations will make the reader sufficiently acquainted with it. This first speech was pronounced in the senate, convened in the temple of Jupiter Stator, on the eighth of November, in the six hundred and ninth year of the city, and forty-fourth of Cicero's age. The occasion of it was as follows: Cataline and the other conspirators had met together in the house of one Marcus Lecca ; where it was resolved that a general insurrection should be raised through Italy, the different parts of which were assigned to different leaders; that Cataline should put himself at the head of the troops in Etruria ; that Rome should be fired in many places at once, and a massacre begun at the same time of the whole senate and all their enemies, of whom none were to be spared except the sons of Pompey, who were to be kept as hostages of their peace and reconciliation with their father; that in the consternation of the fire and massacre, Cataline should be ready with his Tuscan army to take the benefit of the public confusion, and make himself master of the city; where Lentulus in the meanwhile, as first in dignity, was to preside in their general councils ; Cassius to manage the affair of firing it; Cethegus to direct the massacre. But the vigilance of Cicero being the chief obstacle to all their hopes, Cataline was very desirous to see him taken off before he left Rome: supon which two knights of the company undertook to kill him the next morning in his bed, in an early visit on pretence of business. They were both of his acquaintance, and used to frequent his house; and knowing his custom of giving free access to all, made no doubt of being readily admitted, as C. Cornelius, one of the two, afterwards confessed. The meeting was no sooner over, than Cicero had information of all that passed in
L. Sergius Cataline was of Patrician
extraction, and had sided with Sylla, during the civil wars between him and Marius. Upon the expiration of his prætorship, he was sent to the government of Africa; and after his return, was accused of mal-administration by P.Clodius, under the consulship of M. Emilius Lepidus, und L. Volcatius Tullus. It is commonly believed, that the design of the conspiracy was formed about this time, three years before the oration Cicero here pronounces against it. Cataline, after his return from Africa, had sued for the consulship, but was rejected. The two following years he likewise
it: for by the intrigues of a woman line, he broke out into the present named Fulvia, he had gained over most severe invective against him; Curius, her gallant, one of the con- and with all the fire and force of an spirators, of senatorian rank, to send incensed eloquence, laid open the him a punctual account of all their whole course of his villanies, and deliberations. He presently imparted the notoriety of his treasons. his intelligence to some of the chiefs of the city, who were assembled that How far, O Cataline, wilt thou abuse evening, as usual, at his house, in- our patience ? How long shall thy frantic forming them not only of the design, rage baffle the efforts of justice? To what but naming the men who were to height meanest thou to carry thy daring execute it, and the very hour when insolence ? Art thou nothing daunted by they would be at his gate : all which the nocturnal watch posted to secure the fell out exactly as he foretold; for the Palatium ? nothing by the city guards ? two knights came before break of nothing by the consternation of the people? day, but had the mortification to find nothing by the union of all the wise and the house well guarded, and all ad- worthy citizens ? nothing by the senate's mittance refused to them. Next day assembling in this place of strength ? no. Cicero summoned the senate to the thing by the looks and countenances of all temple of Jupiter in the capitol, where here present? Seest thou not that all thy it was not usually held but in times designs are brought to light? that the of public alarm. There had been senators are thoroughly apprized of thy several debates before this on the conspiracy? that they are acquainted with same subject of Calaline's treasons, thy last night's practices ? with the
pracand his design of killing the consul; tices of the night before; with the place and a decree had passed at the motion of meeting, the company summoned togeof Cicero, to offer a public reward to ther and the measures concerted ? Alas, the first discoverer of the plot; if a for our degeneracy! alas for the depraslave, his liberty, and eight hundred vity of the times ! the senate is apprized pounds; if a citizen, his pardon, and of all this, the consul beholds it; yet the sixteen hundred. Yet Cataline, by traitor lives. Lives ! did I say, he even a profound dissimulation, and the comes into the senate; he shares in the constant professions of his innocence, public deliberations; he marks us out still deceived many of all ranks ; re- with his eye for destruction. presenting the whole as the fiction of bold in our country's cause, think we have his enemy Cicero, and offering to give sufficiently discharged our duty to the state, security for his behaviour, and to de- if we can but escape his rage and deadly liver himself to the custody of any darts. Long since, O Cataline, ought the whom the senate would name: of M. consul to have ordered thee for execution; Lepidus, of the prætor Metellus, or and pointed upon thy own head that ruin of Cicero himself; but none of them thou hast been long meditating against us would receive him; and Cicero plain- all. Could that illustrious citizen, Publius ly told him, that he should never think Scipio, sovereign pontiff, but invested with himself safe in the same house, when no public magistracy, kill Tiberius Grache was in danger by living in the chus for raising some slight commotions in same city with him. Yet he still kept the commonwealth; and shall we consuls on the mask, and had the confidence suffer Cataline to live, who aims at laying to come to this very meeting in the waste the world with fire and sword? I capitol; which so shocked the whole omit, as too remote, the example of Q. assembly, that none even of his ac. Servilius Ahala, who with his own hand quaintance durst venture to salute slew Spurius Melius, for plotting a revohim: and the consular' senators quit- :lution in the state. Such, such was the ted that part of the house in which he virtue of this republic in former times, sat, and left the whole bench clear to that her brave sons punished more severely him. Cicero was so provoked by his a factious citizen, than the most inveterate impudence, that instead of entering public enemy. We have a weighty and upon any business, as he designed, vigorous decree of the senate against you, addressing himself directly to Čata- Cataline: the commonwealth wants not
wisdom, nor this house authority: but we have hitherto done, when thou little the consuls, I speak it openly, are wanting thoughtest of it. in our duty.
But what is it, Cataline, thou canst now A decree once passed in the senate, en. have in view, if neither the obscurity of joining the consul L. Opimius to take care night can conceal thy traitorous assemthat the commonwealth received no detri. blies, nor the walls of a private house prement. The very same day Caius Grac- vent the voice of thy treason from reachchus was killed for some slight suspicions ing our ear! If all thy projects are disof treason, though descended of a father, covered and burst into public view ? Quit grandfather, and ancestors, all eminent for then your detestable purpose, and think their services to the state. Marcus Ful- no more of massacres and conflagrations. vius too, a man of consular dignity, with You are beset on all hands; your most his children, underwent the same fate. By secret councils are clear as noon-day; as a like decree of the senate, the care of the you may easily gather, from the detail I commonwealth was committed to the con- am now to give you. You may rememsuls C. Marius and L. Valerius. Was a ber that on the nineteenth of October last, single day permitted to pass, before L. I said publicly in the senate, that before Saturninus, tribune of the people, and C. the twenty-fifth of the same month, C. Servilius the prætor, satisfied by their death Manlius, the confederate and creature of the justice of their country? But we, for your guilt, would appear in arms. Was I these twenty days, have suffered the au- deceived, Cataline, I say not as to this thority of the senate to languish in our enormous, this detestable, this improbable hands. For we too have a like decree, attempt; but, which is still more surprisbut it rests among our records like a sword ing, as to the very day on which it hapin the scabbard; a decree, O Cataline, by pened? I said likewise, in the senate, that which you ought to have suffered imme- you had fixed the twenty-sixth of the same diate death. Yet still you live; nay more, month for the massacre of our nobles, you live, not to lay aside, but to harden which induced many citizens of the first yourself in your audacious guilt. I could rank to retire from Rome, not so much on wish, conscript fathers, to be merciful; I account of their own preservation, as with could wish too not to appear remiss when a view to baffle your designs. Can you my country is threatened with danger; bat deny, that on that very same day you I now begin to reproach myself with neg- was so beset by my vigilance, and the guards ligence and want of courage. A camp is I placed about you, that you found it imformed in Italy, upon the very borders of possible to attempt any thing against the Etruria, against the commonwealth. The state; though you had given out, after enemy increase daily in number. At the the departure of the rest, that you would same time we behold their general and nevertheless content yourself with the leader within our walls; nay, in the se- blood of those who remained ? Nay,when nate-house itself, plotting daily some intes- on the first of November you confidently tine mischief against the state. Should I hoped to surprise Præneste by night, did order you, Cataline, to be instantly seized you not find that colony secured by my and put to death, I have reason to believe, order, and the guards, officers, and gargood men would rather reproach me with rison I had appointed? There is nothing slowness than cruelty. But at present cer- you either think, contrive, or attempt, but tain reasons restrain me from this step, what I both bear, see, and plainly underwhich indeed ought to have been taken stand. long ago. Thou shalt then suffer death, Call to mind only, in conjunction with when not a man is to be found, so wicked, me, the transactions of last night. You so desperate, so like thyself, as not to own will soon perceive, that I am much more it was done justly. As long as there is active in watching over the preservation one who dares to defend thee, thou shalt than you in plotting the destruction of the live; and lite so as thou now dost, sur- state. I say then, and say it openly, that
. I rounded by the numerous and powerful last night you went to the house of M. guards which I bave placed about thee, Lecca, in the street called the Gladiators: 80 'as not to suffer thee to stir a foot that you was met 'there by numbers of against the republic; whilst the eyes and your associates in guilt and madness. ears of many shall watch thee, as they Dare you deny this? Why are you si