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lent ? If you disown the charge, I will myself with guarding against your many prove it: for I see some in this very as- plots, not by a public guard, but by my sembly, who were of your confederacy. private vigilance. When, at the last elecImmortal gods ! what country do we in- tion of consuls, you had resolved to assashabit? what city do we belong to? what sinate me, and your competitors in the government do we live under ? Here, here, field of Mars, I defeated your wicked purconscript fathers, within these walls, and pose by the aid of my friends, without in this assembly, the most awful and vene- disturbing the public peace. In a word, rable upon earth, there are men who me- as often as you attempted my life, I singditate my ruin and yours, the destruction ly opposed your fury; though I well of this city, and consequently of the world saw, that my death would necessarily be itself. Myself
, your consul, behold these attended with many signal calamities to men, and ask their opinions on public the state. But now you openly strike a affairs; and instead of dooming them to the very being of the republic. The temimmediate execution, do not so much as ples of the immortal gods, the mansions of wound them with my tongue. You went Rome, the lives of her citizens, and all the then that night, Cataline, to the house of provinces of Italy, are doomed to slaughter Lecca; you cantoned out all Italy; you and devastation. Since, therefore, 1 dare appointed the place to which every one not pursue that course, which is most was to repair; you singled out those who agreeable to ancient discipline, and the were to be lefi at Rome, and those who genius of the commonwealth, I will folwere to accompany you in person; you low another, less severe indeed as to the marked out the parts of the city destined criminal, but more useful in its conseto conflagration; you declared your pur- quences to the public. For should I orpose of leaving it soon, and said you only der you to be immediately put to death, waited a little to see me taken off. Two the commonwealth would still harbour in Roman knights undertook to ease you of its bosom the other conspirators: but by that care, and assassinate me the same driving you from the city, I shall clear night in bed before day-break. Scarce Rome at once of the whole baneful tribe was your assembly dismissed, when I was of thy accomplices. How, Cataline! Do informed of all this: I ordered an addi- you hesitate io do at my command, wbat tional guard to attend, to secure my house you was so lately about to do of your from assault; I refused admittance to those own accord ? The consul orders a public whom you sent to compliment me in the enemy to depart the city. You ask whemorning; and declared to many worthy ther this be a real banishment? I say not persons beforehand who they were, and expressly so : but was I to advise in the at what time I expected them.
case, it is the best course you can take. Since then, Cataline, such is the state of For what is there, Cataline, that can your affairs, finish what you have begun; now give you pleasure in this city? wherequit the city; the gates are open; no. in, if we except the profligate crew of your body opposes your retreat. The troops accomplices, ihere is not a man but dreads in Manlius's camp long to put themselves and abhors you ? Is there a domestic stain under your command. Carry with you all from which your character is exempted? your confederates ; if not all, at least as Have you not rendered yourself insamous inany as possible. Purge the city. It by every vice that can brand private life? will take greatly from my fears, to be di- What scenes of lust have not your eyes vided from you by a wall. You cannot beheld ? What guilt has not stained your pretend to stay any longer with us : I will hands? What pollution has not defiled not bear, will not suffer, will not allow of your whole body? What youth, entangled it. Great thanks are due to the immortal by thee in the allurements of debauchery, gods, and chiefly to thee, Jupiter Stator, hast thou not prompted by arms to deeds the ancient protector of this city, for hav- of violence, or seduced by incentives into ing already so often preserved us from the snares of sensuality? And lately, when this dangerous, this destructive, this pesti- by procuring the death of your former lent scourge of his country. The supreme wife, you had made room in your house safety of the commonwealth ought not to for another, did you not add to the enorbe again and again exposed to danger for mity of that crime, by a new and unparalthe sake of a single man.
While I was
leled measure of guilt? But I pass over only consul elect, Cataline, I contented this, and choose to let it remain in silence,
that the memory of so monstrous a piece by the silent detestation of all present ! of wickedness, or at least of its having Were not the benches where you sit forbeen committed with impunity, may not saken, as soon as you was observed to apdescend to posterity. I pass over too the proach them ? Did not all the consular seentire ruin of your fortunes, which you are dators, whose destruction you have so often sensible must befal you the very next plotted, quit immediately the part of the month : and shall proceed to the mention house where you thought proper to place of such particulars as regard not the in- yourself? How are you able to bear all famy of your private character, nor the this treatment? For my own part, were distresses and turpitude of your domestic my slaves to discover such a dread of me, life : but such as concern the very being as your fellow-citizens
express of you, I of the republic, and the lives and safety of should think it necessary to abandon my us all. Can the light of life, or the air own house: and do you hesitate about you breathe, be grateful to you, Cataline; leaving the city? Was I even wrongfully when you are conscious there is not a man suspected, and thereby rendered obnoxhere present but knows, that on the last of ious to my countrymen, I would sooner December, in the consulship of Lepidus withdraw myself from public view, than be and Tullus, you appeared in the Comic beheld with looks full of reproach and intium with a dagger? That you had got dignation. And do you, whose conscience together a band of ruffians, to assassinate tells you that you are the object of an unithe consuls, and the most considerable versal, a just, and a long merited hatred, men in Rome? and that this execrable delay a moment to escape from the looks and frantic design was defeated, not by and presence of a people, whose eyes and any awe or remorse in you, but by the geuses can no longer endure you among prevailing good fortune of the people of them ? Should your parents dread and Rome. But I pass over those things, as hate you, and be obstinate to all your enbeing already well known: there are deavours to appease them, you would others of a later date. How many at- doubtless withdraw somewhere from their tempts have you made upon my life, since sight. But now your country, the comI was nominated consul, and since I en- mon parent of us all, hates and dreads you, tered upon the actual execution of that and has long regarded you as a parricide, office? How many thrusts of thine, so intent upon the design of destroying her. · well aimed that they seemed unavoidable,. And will you neither respect her authority, have I parried by an artful evasion; and, submit to her advice, nor stand in awe of as they term it, a gentle deflection of body? her power? Thus does she reason with you, You attempt, you contrive, you set on Cataline; and thus does she, in some meafoot nothing of which I have not timely sure, address you by her silence : not an information. Yet you cease not to con- enormity has happened these many years, cert, and enterprise. How often has that but has had thee for its author : not a dagger been wrested out of thy hands ? crime has been perpetrated without thee: How often, by some accident, has it drop- the murder of so many of our citizens, the ped before the moment of execution ? yet oppression and plunder of our allies, has you cannot resolve to lay it aside. How, through thee alone escaped punishment, or with what rites you have consecrated and been exercised with unrestrained vioit, is hard to say, that you think yourself lence: thou hast found means not only thus obliged to lodge it in the bosom of a to trample upon law and justice, but even consul.
to subvert and destroy them. Though this What are we to think of your present past behaviour of thine was beyond all pasituation and conduct? For I will now tience, yet have I borne with it as I could. address you, not with the detestation your But now, to be in continual apprehension actions deserve, but with a compassion to from thee alone; on every alarm to tremble which you have no just claim. You came at the name of Cataline; to see no designs some time ago into the Senate. Did a sin- formed against me that speak not thee for gle person of this numerous assembly, not their author, is altogether insupportable. excepting your most intimate relations and Be gone, then, and rid me of my present friends, deign to salute you? If there terror ; that, if just, I may avoid ruin;
I be no instance of this kind in the memory if groundless, I may at length cease to fear. of man, do you expect that I should em- Should your country, as I said, address bitter with reproaches, a doom' confirmed you in these terms, ought she not to find obedience, even supposing her unable to avenues of the senate; whose numbers you compel you to such a step? But did you might have seen, whose sentiments you not even offer to become a prisoner? Did might have known, whose voices a little you not say, that, to avoid suspicion, you while ago you might have heard ; and would submit to be confined in the house whose swords and hands I have for some of M. Lepidus? When he declined re- time with difficulty restrained from your ceiving you, you had the assurance to come person: yet all these will I easily engage to me, and request you might be secured to attend you to the very gates, if
but at my house. When I likewise told you, consent to leave this city, which you have that I could never think myself safe in the so long devoted to destruction. same house, when I judged it even dan- But why do I talk, as if your resolution gerous to be in the same city with you, was to be shaken, or there was any room you applied to Q. Metellus the prætor. to hope you would reform! Can we exBeing repulsed here too, you went to the pect you will ever think of flight, or enexcellent M. Marcellus, your companion; tertain the design of going into banishwho, no doubt, you imagined would be ment? May the immortal gods inspire very watchful in confining you, very you with that resolution! Though I clearquick in discerning your secret practices, ly perceive, should my threats frighten and very resolute in bringing you to jus- you into exile, what a storm of envy will tice. How justly may we pronounce light upon my own head; if pot at prehim worthy of iron and a jail, whose sent, whilst the memory of thy crimes is own conscience condemos him to re- fresh, yet surely in future time. But I straint? If it be so then, Cataline, and little regard that thought, provided the you cannot submit to the thought of dying calamity falls on myself alone, and is not here, do you hesitate to retire to some attended with any danger to my country. other country, and commit to flight and Bút to feel the stings of remorse, to dread solitude a life, so often and so justly for- the rigour of the laws, to yield to the exifeited to thy country? But, say you, put gencies of the state, are things not to be the question to the senate (for so you af- expected from thee. Thou, O Cataline, fect to talk), and if it be their pleasure art none of those, whom shame reclaims that I go into banishment, I am ready to from dishonourable pursuits, fear from obey. I will put no such question ; it is danger, or reason from madness. Be gone contrary to my temper: yet will I give then, as I have already often said: and if you an opportunity of knowing the senti- you would swell the measure of popular ments of the sedate with regard to you. ódium against me, for being, as you give Leave the city, Cataline; deliver the re- out, your enemy, depart directly into bapublic from its fears; go, if you wait only nishment. By this step you will bring upon for that word, into banishment. 'Observe me an insupportable load of censure; now, Cataline; mark the silence and com- por shall I be able to sustain the weight of posure of the assembly. Does a single the public indignation, shouldst thou, by senator remonstrate, or so much as offer order of the consul, retire into exile. But to speak? Is it needful they should con- if you mean to advance my reputation and firm by their voice, what they so expressly glory, march off with your abandoned declare by their silence? But had I ad- crew of ruffians; repair to Manlius; rouse dressed myself in this manner to that ex- every desperate citizen to rebel; separate cellent youth P. Sextius, or to the brave yourself from the worthy; declare war M. Marcellus, the senate would ere now against your country; triumph in your imhave arisen up against me, and laid violent pious depredations; that it may appear hands upon their consul in this very you was not forced by me into a foreign temple; and justly too. But with regard treason, but voluntarily joined your assoto you, Cataline, their silence declares ciates. But why should I urge you to this their approbation, their acquiescence step, when I know you have already sent amounts to a decree, and by saying no- forward a body of armed men, to wait you thing they proclaim their consent. Nor is at the Forum Aurelium? When I know this true of the senators alone, whose you have concerted and fixed a day with authority you affect to prize, while you Manlius? When I know you have sent off make no account of their lives; but of these the silver eagle, that domestic shrine of brave and worthy Roman Knights, and your impietjes, which I doubt not will other illustrious citizens; who guard the bring ruin upon you and your accom
2 B 2
plices! Can you absent yourself longer who enlists all the slaves and ruined citizens from an idol to which you had recourse in he can find I will you suffer him, I say, to every bloody attempt ? And from whose escape ; and appear as one rather sent altars that impious right hand was fre- against the city, than driven from it? will quently transferred to the murder of your you not order him to be put in irons, to be countrymen?
dragged to execution, and to atone for his Thus will you at length repair, whither guilt by the most rigorous punishment ? your frantic and unbridled rage has long what restrains you on this occasion! is it been hurrying you Nor does this issue the custom of our ancestors ? But it is of thy plots give thee pain; but, on the well known in this commonwealth, that contrary, fills thee with inexpressible de even persons in a private station have light. Nature has formed you, inclina. often put pestilent citizens to death. Do tion trained you, and fate reserved you, the laws relating to the punishment of for this desperate enterprise. You never Roman citizens hold you in awe ? Certook delight either in peace or war, unless tainly traitors against their country can when they were flagitious or destructive. have no claim to the privileges of citizens. You have got together a band of ruffians Are you afraid of the reproaches of pose and profligates, not only utterly aban- terity! A noble proof, 'indeed, of your doned of fortune, but even without hope. gratitude to the Roman people, that you, With what pleasure will you enjoy youre a new man, who, without any recomself? how will you exult? how will you mendation from your ancestors, have triumph? when among so great a number been raised by them through all the de of your associates, you shall neither hear grees of honour, to sovereign dignity, nor see an honest man? To attain the en- should, for the sake of any danger to joyment of such a life, have you exercised yourself, neglect the care of the public yourself in all those toils, which are em- safety. But if censure be that whereof phatically styled yours: your lying on the you are afraid, think which is to be most ground, not only in pursuit of lewd amours, apprehended, the censure incurred for havbut of bold and hardy enterprises : your ing acted with firmness and courage, or treacherous watchfulness, not only to take that for having acted with sloth and pu. advantage of the husband's slumber, but to sillanimity. When Italy shall be laid Apoil the murdered citizen. Here may desolate with war, her cities plundered, you exert all that boasted patience of her dwellings on fire ; can you then bope hunger, cold, and want, by which, how- to escape the flames of public indignation? ever, you will shortly find yourself undone. To this most sacred voice of my counSo much have I gained by excluding you try, and to all those who blame me after from the consulship, that you can only at- the same manner, I shall make this short tack your country as an exile, not oppress reply : That if I had thought it the most her as a consul; and your impious treason advisable to put Cataline to death, I will be deemed the efforts, not of an eno- would not have allowed that gladiator the my, but of a robber.
use of one moment's life. For if, in former And now, conscript fathers, that I may days, our greatest men, and most illustrious obviate and remove a complaint, which citizens, instead of sullying, have done homy country might with some appearance nour to their memories, by the destruction of justice urge against me, attend diligently of Saturninus, the Gracchi, Flaccus, and to what I am about to say, and treasure many others; there is no ground to fear, it up in your minds and hearts. For that by killing this parricide, any envy should my country, which is to me much would lie upon me with posterity. Yet if dearer than life, should all Italy, should the greatest was sure to befal me, it was the whole state thus accost me, What are always my persuasion, that envy acquired you about, Marcus Tullius? Will you suf- by virtue was really glory, not envy. But fer a man to escape out of Rome, whom there are some of this very order, who do you have discovered to be a public enemy? not either see the dangers which hang whom you see ready to enter upon a war over us, or else dissemble what they see; against the state? whose arrival the con- who, by the softness of their votes, cherish spirators wait with impatience, that they Cataline's hopes, and add strength to the may put themselves under his conduct? conspiracy by not believing it; whose authe prime author of the treason ; the con- thority influences many, not only of the triver and manager of the revolt? the man wicked, but the weak; who, if I had punished this man as he deserved, would tected, exposed, crushed, and punished. not have failed to charge me with acting With these omens, Cataline,of all prosperi
, cruelly and tyrannically. Now I am per- ty to the republic, but of destruction to thysuaded, that when he is once gone into self, and all those who have joined themManlius's camp, whither he actually de- selves with thee in all kinds of parricide, signs to go, none can be so silly, as not to go thy way then to this impious and abosee that there is a plot; none so wicked, as minable war: whilst thou, Jupiter, whose not to acknowledge it: whereas by taking religion wasestablished with the foundation off him alone, though this pestilence would of this city, whom we truly call Stator, the be somewhat checked, it could not be sup- stay and prop of this empire, will drive this pressed : but when he has thrown himself man and his accomplices from thy altars into rebellion, and carried out his friends and temples, from the houses and walls along with him, and drawn together the of the city, from the lives and fortunes of profligate and desperate from all parts of us all; and wilt destroy with eternal punishThe empire, not only this ripened plague of ments, both living and dead, all the haters the republic, but the very root and seed of of good men, the enemies of their country, all our evils, will be extirpated with him the plunderers of Italy, now confederated at once.
in this detestable league and partnership It is now a long time, conscript fathers, of villany. Whitworth's Cicero. that we have trod amidst the dangers and machinations of this conspiracy; but I $3. Oration for the Poet Archias. know not how it comes to pass, the full
THB ARGUMENT. maturity of all those crimes, and of this long ripening rage and insolence, has now A. Licinius Archias was a native of An. broke out during the period of my consul
tioch, and a very celebrated poet. ship. Should be alone be removed from
He came to Rome when Cicero was this powerful band. of traitors, it may
about five years old, and was courted abate, perhaps, our fears and anxieties by men of the greatest eminence in for a while; but the danger will still re- it, on account of his learning, genius, maiu, and continue lurking in the veins and politeness. Among others, Luand vitals of the republic. For as men op
cullus was very fond of him, took pressed with a severe fit of illness, and la. him into his family, and gave him bouring under the raging heat of a fever, the liberty of opening a school in it, are often at first seemingly relieved by a
to which many of the young nobidraught of cold water, but afterwards find lity and gentry of Rome were sont the disease return upon thein with redou
for their education. In the consulbled fury; in like manner, this distemper
ship of M. Pupius Piso and M. Va. which bas seized the commonwealth,
derius Messala, one Gracchus, a pereased a little by the punishment of this
son of obscure birth, accused Ar. traitor, will from his surviving associates chias
upon the law, by which those soon assume new force. Wherefore, con- who were made free of any of the script fathers, let the wicked retire, let them confederated cities, and at the time separate themselves from the honest, let of passing the law dwelt in Italy, them rendezvous in one place. In fine, as were obliged to claim their privilege I have often said, let a wall be between before the prætor within sixty days. them and us: let them cease to lay snares
Cicero, in bis oration, endeavours to for the consul in his own house, to beset prove, that Archias was a Roman cithe tribunal of the city prætor, to invest
tizen in the sense of that law; but the senate-house with armed ruflians, and dwells chiefly on the praises of poeto prepare fire-balls and torches for burn- try in general, and the talents and ing the city: in short, let every man's sen- genius of the defendant, which he timents with regard to the public be in- displays with
great beauty, elegance, scribed on bis forehead. This I engage for and spirit. The oration was mado and promise, conscript fathers, that by the in the forty-sixth year of Cicero's diligence of the consuls, the weight of your age, and the six hundred and ninetyauthority, the courage and firmness of the second of Rome, Roman knights, and the unanimity of all the honest, Cataline being driven from the Ir, my lords, I have any abilities, and city, you shall behold all his treasons de- I am sensible they are but sraall; if, by