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speaking often, I have acquired any merit plause in the other cities of Asia, and all as a speaker; if I have derived any know- over Greece, that though they expected ledge from the study of the liberal arts, more than fame had promised concerning which have ever been my delight, A. Li- him, even these expectations were exceedcinius may justly claim the fruit of all. ed, and their admiration of him greatly For looking back upon past scenes, and increased. Italy was, at that time, full of calling to remembrance the earliest part the arts and sciences of Greece, which of my life, I find it was he who prompted were then cultivated with more care me first to engage in a course of study, among the Latins than now they are, and directed me in it. If my tongue, and were not even neglected at Rome, then formed and animated by him, has the public tranquillity being favourable ever been the means of saving any, I am to them. Accordingly, the inhabitants certainly bound by all the ties of gratitude of Tarentum, Rhegium, and Naples, to employ it in the defence of him, who made him free of their respective cities, has taught it to assist and defend others. and conferred other bonours upon him; And though his genius and course of study and all th who had any taste, reckoned are very different from mine, let no one be him worthy of their acquaintance and surprised at what I advance: for I have friendship.' Being thus known by fame not bestowed the whole of my time on the to those who were strangers to his person, study of eloquence, and besides, all the he came to Rome in the consulship of liberal arts are nearly allied to each other, Marius and Catulus; the first of whom and have, as it were, one common bond had, by his glorious deeds, furnished out of union.

a noble subject for a poet; and the other, But lest it should appear stratge, that, besides his memorable actions, was both in a legal proceeding, and a public cause, a judge and a lover of poetry. Though before an excellent prætor, the most im- he had not yet reached his seventeenth partial judges, and so crowded an assem- year, yet no sooner was he arrived than bly, I lay aside the usual style of trials, the Luculli took him into their family; and introduce one very different from that which as it was the first that received of the bar; I must beg to be indulged in him in his youth, so it afforded him freethis liberty, which, I hope, will not be dom of access even in old age; nor was disagreeable to you, and which seems in- this owing to his great genius and learndeed to be due to the defendant: that ing alone, but likewise to his amiable whilst I am plending for an excellent poet, temper and virtuous disposition. At that and a man of great erudition, before so time, too, Q. Metellus Numidicus, and learned an audience, such distinguished his son Pius, were delighted with his conpatrons of the liberal arts, and so emi- versation; M. Æmilius was one of his nent a prætor, you would allow me to hearers; Q. Catulus, both the elder and enlarge with some freedom on learning younger, honoured him with their inti. and liberal studies; and to employ an al- macy; L. Crassus courted him; and most unprecedented language for one, being united by the greatest familiarity to who, by reason of a studious and un- the Luculli, Drusus, the Octavii, Cato, active life, has been little conversant in and the whole Hortensian family; it was dangers and public trials. If this, my no small honour to him to receive marks lords, is granted me, I shall not only of the highest regard, not only from those prove that A. Licinius ought not, as he is who were really desirous of hearing him, a citizen, to be deprived of his privileges, and of being instructed by him, but even but that, if he were not, he ought to be from those who affected to be so. admitted.

A considerable time after, he went with For no sooner had Archias got beyond L. Lucullus into Sicily, and leaving that the years of childhood, and applied him- province in company with the same Luself to poetry, after finishing those studies cullus, came to Heraclea, which being by which the minds of youth are usually joined with Rome by the closest bonds of formed to a taste for polite learning, than alliance, he was desirous of being made his genius shewed itself superior to any at free of it; and obtained his request, both Antioch, the place where he was born, of on account of his own merit, and the ina noble family; once indeed a rich and terest and authority of Lucullus. Stran. renowned city, but still famous for libe- gers were admitted to the freedom of ral arts, and fertile in learned men. He Rome, according to the law of Silvanus was afterwards received with such ap- and Carbo, upon the following conditions:

if they were enrolled by free cilies; if they and as this is the case, why should you had a dwelling in Italy, when the law passe doubt of his being a citizen of Rome, ed; and if they declared their enrolment especially as he was enrolled likewise in before the prælor wilhin the space of sixty other free cities ? For when Greece bedays. Agreeable to this law, Archias, stowed the freedom of its cities, without who had resided at Rome for many the recommendation of merit, upon peryears, made his declaration before the sons of little consideration, and those who prætor Q. Metellus, who was his intihad either no employment at all, or very mate friend. If the right of citizenship mean ones, is it to be imagined that the and the law is all I have to prove, I inhabitants of Rhegium, Locris, Naples, have done; the cause is ended. For or Tarentum, would deny to a man so which of these things, Gracchus, can you highly celebrated for his genius what they deny? Will you say that he was not conferred even upon comedians ? When made a citizen of Heraclea, at that time others, not only after Silvanus's law, but Wby, here is Lucullus, a man of the great. even after the Papian law, shall have found est credit, honour, and integrity, who means to creep into the registers of the affirms it; and that not as a thing he be- municipal cities, shall he be rejected, who, lieves, but as what he knows; not as because he was always desirous of passiog what he heard of, but as what he saw; not for an Heraclean, never availed himself as what he was present at, but as what of his being enrolled in other cities ? But he transacted. Here are likewise deputies you desire to see the enrolment of our from Heraclea, who affirm the same; estate ; as if it were not well known, that men of the greatest quality come hither under the last censorship the defendant on purpose to give public testimony in was with the army commanded by that this cause.

But here you'll desire to see renowned general, L. Lucullus ; that unthe public register of Heraclea, which

we der the censorship immediately preceding, all know was burnt in the Italian war, he was with the same Lucullus then quæs. together with the office wherein it was tor in Asia; and that, when Julius and kept. Now, is it not ridiculous to say Crassus were censors, there was no enrolnothing to the evidences which we have, ment made ? But, as an enrolment in the and to desire those which we cannot censor's books does not confirm the right have; to be silent as to the testimony of of citizenship, and only shews that the permen, and to demand the testimony of re- son enrolled assumed the character of a gisters; to pay no regard to what is af- citizen, I must tell you that Archias made firmed by a person of great dignity, nor A will according to our laws, succeeded to to the oath and integrity of a free eity of the estates of Roman citizens, and was the strictest honour, evidences which are recommended to the treasury by L. Luincapable of being corrupted, and to re- cullus, both when prætor and consul, as quire those of registers which you allow one who deserved well of the state, at the to be frequently vitiated. But he did very time when you allege that, by his not reside at Rome; what, he, who for 80 own confession, he had no right to the many years before Silvanus's law made freedom of Rome. Rome the seat of all his hopes and for- Find out whatever arguments you can, tune? But he did not declare; so far is Archias will never be convicted for his this from being true, that his declaration own conduct, nor that of his friends. But is to be seen in that register, which by you'll no doubt ask the reason, Gracchus, that very act, and its being in the custody of my being so bighly delighted with this of the college of prætors, is the only au- mani, Why, it is because he furnishes me thentic one.

with what relieves my mind, and charms For the negligence of Appius, the cor- my ears, after the fatigue and noise of the ruption of Gabinius before his condemna- forum. Do you imagine that I could postion, and his disgrace after, having de- sibly plead every day on such a variety of stroyed the credit of public records ; Me. subjects, if my mind was not cultivated tellus, a man of the greatest honour and with science; or that it could bear being modesty, was so very exact, that he came stretched to such a degree, if it were not before Lentulus the prætor and the other sometimes unbent by the amusements of judges, and declared ihat he was uneasy at learning? I am fond of these studies, I the erasure of a single name. The name own: let those be ashamed who have buof A. Licinius therefore is still to be seen : ried themselves in learning so as to be of no use to society, nor able to produce any an excellent natural disposition the emthing to public view; but why should I bellishments of learning are added, there be asbamed, who for so many years, my results from this union something great lords, have never been prevented by in- and extraordinary. Such was that divine dolence, seduced by pleasure, por diverted man Africanus, whom our fathers saw; by sleep, from doing good offices to others? such were C. Lælius and L. Furius, perWho then can censure me, or in justice,besons of the greatest temperance and moangry with me, if those hours which others deration; such was old Cato, a man of employ in business, in pleasures, in cele- great bravery, and, for the times, of brating public solemnities, in refreshing great learning; who, surely, would never the body and unbending the mind; if the have applied to the study of learning, had time which is spent by some in midnight they thought it of no service towards the banquetings, in diversions, and in gaming, acquisition and improvement of virtue. I employ in reviewing these studies? And But were pleasure only to be derived from this application is the more excusable, as learning, without the advantages we have I derive no small advantages from it in mentioned, you must still, I imagine, almy profession, in which, whatever abilities low it to be a very liberal and polite I possess, they have always been employed amusement. For other studies are not when the dangers of my friends called for suited to every time, to every age, and to their assistance. If they should appear to every place; but these give strength in any to be but small, there are still other youth, and joy in old age; adorn prospeadvantages of a much higher nature, and rity, and are the support and consolation I am very sensible whence I derive them. of adversity; at home they are delightful, For had I not been convinced from my and abroad they are easy; at night they youth,by much instruction and much study, are company to us; when we travel that nothing is greatly desirable in life but they attend us; and, in our rural retireglory and virtue, and that, in the pursuit ment, they do not forsake us. Though of these, all bodily tortures, and the perils we ourselves were incapable of them, of death and exile, are to be slighted and and had no relish for their charms, still despised, never should I have exposed my. we should admire them when we see them self to so many and so great conflicts for in others. your preservation, nor to the daily rage Was there any of us so void of taste, and violence of the most worthless of men. and of so unfeeling a temper, as not to be But on this head books are full, the voice affected lately with the death of Roscius ? of the wise is full, antiquity is full; all For though he died in an advanced age, which, were it not for the lamp of learn- yet such was the excellence and inimitable ing, would be involved in thick obscurity. beauty of his art, that we thought him How many pictures of the bravest of men worthy of living for ever. have the Greek and Latin writers left us, so great a favourite with us all on account not only to contemplate, but likewise to of the graceful motions of his body; and imitate? These illustrious models I always shall we be insensible to the surprising set before me in the government of the energy of the mind, and the sprightly salstate, and formed my conduct by contem- lies of genius? How often have I seen plating their virtues.

this Archias, my lords, (for I will presume But were those great men, it will be on your goodness, as you are pleased to asked, who are celebrated in history, dis, favour me with so much attention in this tinguished for ubat kind of learning which unusual manner of pleading) how often, I you extol so highly? It were difficult, in- say, have I seen him, without using his deed, to prove this of them all; but what pen, and without any labour of study, I shall answer is, however, very certain. make a great number of excellent verses I own, then, that there have been many on occasional subjects ? How often, when men of excellent dispositions and distin. a subject was resumed, have I heard him guished virtue, who, without learning, and give it a different turn of thought and exby the almost divine force of nature her- pression, wbilst those compositions which self, have been wise and moderate; nay, he finished with care and exactness were farther, that nature without learning is of as highly approved as the most celebrated greater efficacy towards the attainment of writers of antiquity. And shall not I glory and virtue, than learning without love this man? Shall I not admire him? nature; but then, I affirm, that when to Shall I not defend him to the utmost of


my power? For men of the greatest emi- adds lustre to the Roman name. For, nence and learning have taught us, that under Lucullus, the Roman people peneother branches of science require educa. trated into Pontus, impregnable till then tion, art, and precept; but that a poet is by means of its situation and the arms formed by the plastic hand of nature her- of its monarchs; under him, the Romans, self, is quickened by the native fire of with no very considerable force, routed genius, and animated as it were by a kind the numberless troops of the Armenians ; of divine enthusiasm. It is with justice, under bis conduct too, Rome had the glory therefore, that our Ennius bestows upon of delivering Cyzicum, the city of our poets the epithet of venerable, because faithful allies, from the rage of a monarch, they seem to have some peculiar gifts of and rescuing it from the devouring jaws the gods to recommend them to us. Let of a mighty war. The praises of our fleet the name of poet then, which the most shall ever be recorded and celebrated, for barbarous nations bave never profaned, the wonders performed at Tenedos, where be revered by you, my lords, who are so the enemy's ships were sunk, and their great admirers of polite learning. Rocks commanders slain: such are our trophies, and deserts re-echo sounds; savage beasts uch our monuments, such our triumphs. Are often soothed by music, and listen to Those, therefore, whose genius describes its charms; and shall we, with all the ad- these exploits, celebrate likewise the vantages of the best education, be unaf- praises of the Roman name. Our Ennius fected with the voice of poetry? The Ca. was greatly beloved by the elder Africalophonians give out that Homer is their nus, and accordingly be is thought to countryman, the Chians declare that he have a marble statue amongst the monuis theirs, the Salaminians lay

claim to ments of the Scipios. But those praises him, the people of Smyrna affirm that are not appropriated to the immediate Smyrna gave him breath, and have ac- subjects of them; the whole Roman cordingly dedicated a temple to bim in people have a share in them. Cato, the antheir city: besides these, many other na. cestor of the judge here present, is highly tions contend warmly for this honour. celebrated for his virtues, and from this

Do they then lay claim to a stranger the Romans themselves derive great hoeven after his death, on account of his nour: in a word, the Maximi, the Marbeing a poet; and shall we reject this live celli, the Fulvii, cannot be praised withing poet, who is a Roman both by inclina- out praising every Roman. tion and the laws of Rome; especially as Did our ancestors then confer the freehe has employed the utmost efforts of his dom of Rome on him who sung the praises genius to celebrate the glory and grandeur of her heroes, on a native of Rudiæ; and of the Roman people ? For, in his youth, shall we thrust this Heraclean out of Rome, he sung the triumphs of C. Marius over who has been courted by many cities, the Cimbri, and even pleased that great and whom our laws have made a Roman? general, who had but little relish for the For if any one imagines that less glory charms of poetry. Nor is there any per- is derived from the Greek, than from the Bon so great an enemy to the Muses, as Latin poet, he is greatly mistaken; the not readily to allow the poet to blazon bis Greek language is understood in almost fame, and consecrate his actions to im- every nation, whereas the Latin is conmortality. Themistocles, that celebrated fined to Latin territories, territories exAthenian, upon being asked what music, tremely narrow. If our exploits, there. or whose voice was most agreeable to him, fore, have reached the utmost limits of is reported to have answered, that man's the earth, we ought to be desirous that who could best celebrate his virtues. The our glory and fame shall extend as far as same Marius too had a very high regard our arms; for as these operate powerfully for L. Plotius, whose genius, he thought, on the people whose actions are recorded ; was capable of doing justice to his actions. 80 to those who expose their lives for the But Archias bas described the whole sake of glory, they are the grand moMithridatic war; a war of such danger tives to toils and dangers. How many and importance, and so very memorable persons is Alexander the Great reported for the great variety of its events both by to have carried along with him, to write sea and land. Nor does his poem reflect his history! And yet, when he stood by the bonour only on L. Lucullus, that very tomb of Achilles at Sigæum, “ Happy brave and renowned man, but likewise youth," he cried, " who could find a Ho


mer to blazon thy fame!” And what he hands, have reverenced the shrines of the said was true; for had it not been for the Muses and the name of poets, surely maIliad, his ashes and fame had been buried gistrates in their robes, and in times of in the same tomb. Did not Pompey the peace, ought not to be averse to honourGreat, whose virtues were equal to his ing the one, or protecting the other. And fortune, confer the freedom of Rome, in to engage you the more readily to this, the presence of a military assembly, upon my lords, I will lay open the very sentiTheophanes of Mitylene, who sung his ments of my heart before you, and freely triumphs? And these Romans of ours, confess my passion for glory, which, though men brave indeed, but unpolished and too keen, perhaps, is however virtuous. mere soldiers, moved with the charms of For what I did in conjunction with you glory, gave shouts of applause, as if they during my consulship, for the safety of this had 'shared in the honour of their leader. city and empire, for the lives of my felIs it to be supposed then, that Archias, if low-citizens, and for the interests of the our laws had not made him a citizen of state, Archias intends to celebrate in verse, Rome, could not have obtained his free and has actually begun his poem. Upon dom from some general ? Would Sylla, reading what he has wrote, it appeared who conferred the rights of citizenship on to me so sublime, and gave me so much Gauls and Spaniards, have refused the pleasure, that I encouraged him to go on suit of Archias? That Sylla, whom we saw with it. For virtue desires no other rein an assembly, when a bad poet, of ob- ward for her toils and dangers, but praise scure birth, presented him a petition upon and glory: take but this away, my lords, the merit of having written an epigram in and what is there left in this short, this

, his praise of unequal hobbling verses, order scanty career of human life, that can him to be instantly rewarded out of an tempt us to engage in so many and so estate he was selling at the time, on con- great labours? Surely, if the mind had no dition he should write no more verses. thought of futurity, if she confined all her Would he, who even thought the industry views within those limits which bound of a bad poet worthy of some reward, not our present existence, she would neither have been fond of the genius, the spirit, and waste her strength in so great toils, nor eloquence of Archias ?

Could our poet,

harass herself with so many cares and neither by his own interest, nor that of the watchings, nor struggle so osten for life Luculli, have obtained from his intimate itself; but there is a certain principle in friend Q. Metellus Pius the freedom of the breast of every good man, which both Rome, which he bestowed so frequently day and night quickens him to the pursuit upon others ? Especially as Metellus was of glory, and puts him in mind that his so very

desirous of having his actions cele- fame is not to be measured by the extent brated, that he was even somewhat of his present life, but that it runs parallel pleased with the dull and barbarous verses with the line of posterity. of the poets born at Corduba.

Can we, who are engaged in the affairs Nor ought we to dissemble this truth, of the state, and in so many toils and danwhich cannot be concealed, but declare it gers, think so meanly as to imagine that, openly: we are all influenced by the love after a life of uninterrupted care and trouof praise, and the greatest minds have the ble, nothing shall remain of us after death? greatest passion for glory. The philoso- If many of the greatest men have been phers themselves prefix their names to careful to leave their statues and pictures, those books which they write upon the these representations not of their minds contempt of glory; by which they shew but of their bodies ; ought not we to be that they are desirous of praise and fame, much more desirous of leaving the porwhile they affect to despise them. Deci- traits of our enterprises and virtues drawn mus Brutus, that great commander and and finished by the most eminent artists? excellent man, adorned the monuments of As for me, I have always imagined, whilst his family and the gates of his temples, I was engaged in doing whatever I have with the verses of his intimate friend At- done, that I was spreading my actions tius; and Fulvius, who made war with the over the whole earth, and that they would Ætolians attended by Ennius, did not scru- be held in eternal remembrance. But ple to consecrate the spoils of Mars to the whether I shall lose my consciousness of Muses. In that city, therefore, where ge- this at death, or whether, as the wisest

Jo nerals, with their arms almost in their men have thought, I shall retain it after;


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