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at present the thought delights me, and where even probable truth will hardly gain my mind is filled with pleasing hopes. Do assent. The hearer, enlightened by a long not then deprive us, my lords, of a man acquaintance, and warm in his affections, whom modesty, a graceful manner, engag- may quickly pronounce every thing uning behaviour, and the affections of his favourably expressed, in respect to what he friends, so strongly recommended; the wishes and what he knows; whilst the greatness of whose genius may be estimated stranger pronounceth all exaggerated, from this, that he is courted by the most through envy of those deeds which he is eminent men of Rome; and whose plea is conscious are above his own achievement. such, that it bas the law in its favour, the For the praises bestowed on others are authority of a municipal town, the testi- then only to be endured, when men imamony of Lucullus, and the register of Me- gine they can do those feats they hear to tellus. This being the case, we beg of have been done; they envy what they you, my lords, since in matters of such cannot equal, and immediately pronounce importance, not only the intercession of it false. Yet, as this solemnity has rei men, but of gods, is necessary, that the ceived its sanction from the authority of man, who has always celebrated your vir- our ancestors, it is my duty also to obey tues, those of your generals, and the victo- the law, and to endeavour to procure, so ries of the Roman people; who declares far as I am able, the good will and approthat he will raise eternal monuments to bation of all my audience. your praise and mine for our conduct in I shall therefore begin first with our fore. our late domestic dangers; and who is of fathers, since both justice and decency rethe number of those that have ever been quire we should, on this occasion, bestow accounted and pronounced divine, may be on them an honourable remembrance. In so protected by you, as to have greater this our country they kept themselves alreason to applaud your generosity than to ways firmly settled; and, through their complain of your rigour. What I have valour, handed it down free to every since said, my lords, concerning this cause, with succeeding generation.-Worthy, indeed, my usual brevity and simplicity, is, I am of praise are they, and yet more worthy confident, approved by all: what I have are our immediate fathers; since, enlargadvanced upon poetry in general, and the ing their own inheritance into the extengenius of the defendant, contrary to the sive empire which we now possess, they usage of the forum and the bar, will, I bequeathed that, their work of toil, to us hope, be taken in good part by you; by their sons.
Yet even these successes, him who presides upon the bench, I am ourselves, here present, we who are yet in convinced it will.
the strength and vigour of our days, have Whitworth's Cicero. Dobly improved, and have made such pro
visions for this our Athens, that now it is $ 4. The Oration which wus spoken by all-sufficient in itself to answer every exi
Pericles, at the public Funeral of those ATHENIANs, who had been first here to recite those martial exploits by
gence of war and of peace. I mean not killed in the PELOPONNESIAN War.
which these ends were accomplished, or Many of those who have spoken before the resolute defences we ourselves and our me on occasions of this kind, have com- forefathers have made against the formimended the author of that law which we dable invasions of Barbarians and Greeks. are now obeying, for having instituted an Your own knowledge of these will excuse oration to the honour of those who sacri- the long detail. But by what methods fice their lives in fighting for their coun- we have rose to this height of glory and try. For my part, I think it sufficient power; by what polity, and by what confor men who have approved their virtue duct, we are thus aggrandized; I shall first in action, by action to be honoured for it endeavour to shew, and then proceed to -by such as you see the public gratitude the praise of the deceased. These, in now performing about this funeral; and opinion, can be no impertinent topics on that the virtues of many ought not to be this occasion; the discussion of them must endangered by the management of any be beneficial to this numerous company one person, when their credit must preca- of Athenians and of strangers. riously depend on this oration,
which may We are happy in a form of government be good, and may be bad. Dillicult in- which cannot envy the laws of our neighdeed it is, judiciously to handle a subject, bours; for it hath served as a model to
others, but is originally at Athens. And monians never invade our territories, this our form, as committed not to the barely with their own, but with the united few, but to the whole body of the people, strength of all their confederates. But is called a democracy. How different so. when we invade the dominions of our ever in a private capacity, we all enjoy the neighbours, for the most part we conquer same general equality our laws are fitted without difficulty, in an enemy's country, to preserve; and superior honours, just as those who fight in desence of their own we excel. The public administration is habitations. The strength of our whole not confined to a particular family, but is force, no enemy hath ever yet experienced, attainable only by merit. Poverty is not because it is divided by our naval expedian hindrance, since whoever is able to tions, or engaged in the different quarters serve his country meets with no obstacle of our service by land. But if any where to preferment from his first obscurity. The they engage and defeat a small party of offices of the state we go through without our forces, they boastingly give it out a obstructions from one another; and live total defeat; and if they are beat, they together in the mutual endearments of were certainly overpowered by our united private life without suspicions; not angry strength. What though from a state of with a neighbour for following the bent of inactivity, rather than laborious exercise, his own humour, nor putting on that or with a natural, rather than an accountenance of discontent, which pains, quired valour, we learn to encounter though it cannot punish; so that in pri- danger; this good at least we receive from vate life we converse together without it, that we never droop under the apprehendiffidence or damage, whilst we dare not, sion of possible misfortunes, and when on any account, offend against the public, we hazard the danger, are found no less through the reverence we bear to the ma- courageous than those who are contigistrates and the laws, chiefly to those nually inured to it.
In these respects, enacted for redress of the injured, and to our whole community deserves justly to those unwritten, a breach of which is be admired, and in many we have yet to allowed disgrace. Our laws have further mention. provided for the mind most frequent in- In our manner of living we show an termissions of care, by the appointment of elegance tempered with frugality, and we public recreations and sacrifices through- cultivate philosophy, without enervating out the year, elegantly performed with a the miod. We display our wealth in peculiar pomp, the daily delight of which the season of beneficence, and not in the is a charm that puts melancholy to flight. vanity of discourse. A confession of poThe grandeur of this our Athens causes verty is disgrace to no man; no effort the produce of the whole earth to be im- to avoid it, is disgrace indeed. There is ported here, by which we reap a familiar visibly, in the same persons, an attention enjoyment, not more of the delicacies of to their own private concerns, and those our own growth, than of those of other of the public; and in others, engaged in nations.
the labours of life, there is a competent In the affairs of war we excel those of skill in the affairs of government. For our enemies, who adhere to methods op. we are the only people who think him posite to our own; for we lay open Athens that does not meddle in state affairs-not to general resort, nor ever drive any indolent, but good for nothing. And yet stranger from us, whom either improve- we pass the soundest judgment, and are ment or curiosity hath brought amongst quick at catching the right apprehensions us, lest any enemy should hurt us by seeing of things, not thinking that words are what is never concealed; we place not so prejudicial to actions : but rather the not great a confidence in the preparatives and being duly prepared by previous debate, artifices of war as in the native warmth before we are obliged to proceed to exeof our souls impelling us to action. In cution. Herein consists our distinguishing point of education, the youth of some peo- excellence, that in the hour of action we ple are inured, by a course of laborious shew the greatest courage, and yet debate exercise, to support toil and hardship like beforehand the expediency of our meamen; but we, notwithstanding our easy sures. The courage of others is the result and elegant way of life, face all the dan- of ignorance; deliberation makes them gers of war as intrepidly as they. This cowards. And those undoubtedly must may be proved by facts, since the Lacede- bo owned to bave the greatest souls, who,
most acutely sensible of the miseries of bave more at stake than men whose public war and the sweets of peace, are not advantages are not so valuable; and to hence in the least deterred from facing illustrate by actual evidence, how great a danger.
commendation is due to them who are In acts of beneficence, farther, we dif- now my subjects, and the greatest part of fer from the many. We preserve friends, which they have already received. For not by receiving, but by conferring obli- the encomiums with which I have celegations. For he who does a kindness, brated the state, have been earned for it hath the advantage over him who, by the by the bravery of these, and of men like law of gratitude, becomes a debtor to his these. And such compliments might be benefactor. The person obliged is com- thought too high and exaggerated, if pelled to act the more insipid part, con- passed on any Grecians, but them alone, scious that a return of kindness is merely The fatal period to which these gallant a payment, and not ad obligation. And souls are now reduced, is the surest eviwe alone are splendidly beneficent to dence of their merit-an evidence begun others, not so much from interested mo- in their lives, and completed by their tives, as for the credit of pure liberality. deaths : for it is a debt of justice to pay I shall sum up what yet remains, by only superior honours to men, who have devoadding, that our Athens, ia general, is the ted their lives in fighting for their country, school of Greece : and that every single though inferior to others in every virtue Athenian among us is excellently formed, but that of valour. Their last service by his personal qualifications, for all the effacetb all former demeritsit extends various scenes of active life, acting with a to the public; their private demeanors most graceful demeanor, and a most ready reached only to a few. Yet not one of habit of dispatch.
these was at all induced to shrink from That I have not, on this occasion, made danger, through fondness of those delights use of
of words, but the truth of which the peaceful affluent life bestows; facts, that height to which, by such a con. not one was the less lavish of his life, duct, this state hath rose, is an undeniable through that flattering hope attendant proof. For we are now the only people upon want, that poverty at length might of the world, who are found by experience be exchanged for affluence. One passion to be greater than in report ; the only there was in their minds much stronger people who, repelling the attacks of an in- than these, the desire of vengeance on vading enemy, exempts their defeat from their enemies.
Regarding this as the the blush of indignation, and to their tri- most. honourable prize of dangers, they butaries no discontent, as if subject to boldly rushed towards the mark, to seek men unworthy to command. That we revenge, and then to satisfy those secondeserve our power, we need no evidence dary passions. The uncertain event they to manifest; we have great and signal had already secured in hope; what their proofs of this, whicb entitle us to the ad- eyes shewed plainly must be done, they miration of the present and of future ages. trusted their own valour to accomplish, We want no Homer to be the herald of thinking it more glorious to defend themour praise; no poet to deck off a history selves, and die in the attempt, than to with the charms of verse, where the opi- yield and live. From the reproach of nion of exploits must suffer by a strict re- cowardice, indeed, they fled, but presented lation. Every sea hath been opened by their bodies to the shock of battle; when, our fleets, and every land been penetrated insensible of fear, but triumphing in hope, by our armies, which have every where in the doubtful charge they instantly drop; left behind them eternal monuments of our and thus discharged the duty which brave enmity and our friendship.
men owe to their country. In the just defence of such a state, these As for you, who now survive them, it victims of their own valour, scorning the is your business to pray for a better fateruin threatened to it, have valiantly fought but to think it your duty also to preserve and bravely died. And every one of the same spirit and warmth of courage those who survive is ready, I am per- against your enemies; not judging the suaded, to sacrifice life in such a cause. expediency of this from a mere harangue And for this reason bave I enlarged so -where any man, indulging a flow of much on national points, to give the words, may tell you, what you yourselves clearest proof, that in the present war we know as well as he, how many advantages
there are in fighting valiantly against your task to fix comfort in those breasts which 'enemies--but rather making the daily in- will have frequent remembrances, in seecreasing grandeur of this community the ing the happiness of others, of what they object of your thoughts, and growing once themselves enjoyed. And sorrow quite enamoured of it. And, when it flows not from the absence of those good really appears great to your apprehen- things we have never yet experienced, but sions, think again, that this grandeur was from the loss of those to which we have acquired by brave and valiant men; by been accustomed. They, who are not yet men who knew their duty, and in the by age exempted from issue, should be moments of action were sensible of shame; comforted in the hope of having more. who, whenever their attempts were unsuc- The children yet to be born will be a cessful, thought it dishonourable their private benefit to some, in causing them to country should stand in need of any thing forget such as no longer are, and will be their valour could do for it, and so made a double benefit to their country, in preit the most glorious present. Bestowing venting its desolation, and providing for thug their lives on the public, they have its security. For those persons cannot in every one received a praise that will never common justice be regarded as members decay, a sepulchre that will be most illus- of equal value to the public, who have trioug.-Not that in which their bones lie no children to expose to danger for its mouldering, but that in which their fame safety. But you, whose age is already far is preserved, to be on every occasion, advanced, compute the greater share of when honour is the employ of either word happiness your longer time hath afforded or act, eternally remembered. This whole for so much gain, persuaded in yourselves earth is the sepulchre of illustrious men; the remainder will be but short, and ennor is it the inscription on the columns in lighten that space by the glory gained by their native soil that alone shews their these. It is greatness of soul alone merit, but the memorial of them, better that never grows old : nor is it wealth than all inscriptions, in every foreign na- that delights in the latter stage of life, as tion, reposited more durably in universal some give ont, so much as honour. remembrance than on their own tomb. To you, the sons and brothers of the From this very moment, emulating these deceased, whatever number of you are noble patterns, placing your happiness in here, a field of hardy contention is opened. liberty, and liberty in valour, be prepared For him, who no longer is, every one is to encounter all the dangers of war. "For, ready to commend, so that to whatever to be lavish of life is not so noble in those height you push your deserts, you will whom misfortunes have reduced to misery scarce ever be thought to equal, but to be and despair, as in men who hazard the somewhat inferior, to these. Envy will loss of a comfortable subsistence, and the exert itself against a competitor whilst life enjoyment of all the blessings this world remains; but when death stops the comaffords, by an unsuccessful enterprise. petition, affection will applaud without Adversity, after a series of ease and af- restraint. fluence, sinks deeper into the heart of a If, after this, it be expected from me to man of spirit, than the stroke of death in- say any thing to you, who are now resensibly received in the vigour of life and duced to a state of widowhood, about fopublic hope.
male virtue, I sball express it all in one For this reason, the parents of those short admonition :-It is your greatest who are now gone, whoever of them may glory not to be deficient in the virtue pebe attending here, I do not bewail;- ) culiar to your sex, and to give the men as shall rather comfort. It is well known little handle as possible to talk of your to what unhappy accidents they were behaviour, whether well or ill. liable from the moment of their birth; I have now discharged the province aland that happiness belongs to men who lotted me by the laws, and said what I have reached the most glorious period of thought most pertinent to this assembly. life, as these now have who are to you the Our departed friends have by facts been source of sorrow; those, whose life hath already honoured. Their children, from received its ample measure, happy in its this day till they arrive at manhood, shall continuance, and equally happy in its be educated at the public expense of the conclusion. I know it in truth a difficult state*, which hath appointed so beneficial
* The law was that they should be instructed at the public expense, and when come to age, presented with a complete suit of armour, and honoured with the first seats in all public places.
a meed for these, and all future relics of $ 6. HANNIBAL to Scipio AFRICANUS, the public contests. For wherever the at their Interview preceding the Battle greatest rewards are proposed for virtue, of Zama. there the best of patriots are ever to be found.—Now, let every one respectively Since fate has so ordained it, that I, indulge the decent grief for his departed who began the war, and who have been friends, and then retire. Thucydides. so often on the point of ending it by a
complete conquest, should now come of 9 5. Romulus to the People of Rome, my own motion to ask a peace; I am after building the City.
glad that it is of you, Scipio, I have the If all the strength of cities lay in the fortune to ask it. Nor will this be among height of their ramparts, or the depth of the least of your glories, that Hannibal, their ditches, we should have great reason
victorious over so many to be in fear for that which we have now submitted at last to you. built. But are there in reality any walls
I could wish, that our fathers and we too high to be scaled by a valiant enemy? had confined our ambition within the and of what use are ramparts in intestine limits which nature seems to have predivisions ? They may serve for a defence scribed to it; the shores of Africa and against sudden incursions from abroad; the shores of Italy. The gods did not but it is by courage and prudence chiefly, give us that mind. On both sides we that the invasions of foreign enemies are
have been so eager after foreign possesrepelled; and by unanimity, sobriety, and sions, as to put our own to the hazard of justice, that domestic seditions are pre- war. Rome and Carthage have had, each vented. Cities fortified by the strongest
in ber turn, the enemy at her gates.
But bulwarks have been often seen to yield to since errors past may be more easily force from without, or to tumults from blamed than corrected, let it now be the within. An exact military discipline, and work of you and me to put an end, if a steady observance of civil poliiy, are the possible, to the obstinate contention. For surest barriers against these evils. my own part, my years and the experience
But there is still another point of great I have had of the instability of fortune, importance to be considered. The pros. inclines me to leave nothing to her deterperity of some rising colonies, and the mination, which reason can decide. But speedy ruin of others, have in a great much I fear, Scipio, that your youth, measure been owing to their form of go- your want of the like experience, your vernment. Were there but one manner of uninterrupted success, may render you ruling states and cities that could make averse from the thoughts of peace. He them happy, the choice would not be whom fortune has never failed, rarely difficult; but I have learnt, that of the va- reflects upon her inconstancy. Yet, withrious forms of government among the out recurring to former examples, my Greeks and Barbarians, there are three owo may perhaps suffice to teach you mowhich are highly extolled by those who deration. I am that same Hannibal, yvho have experienced them; and yet, that no after my victory at Cannæ, became master one of these is in all respects perfect, but of the greatest part of your country, and each of them has some indate and incu- deliberated with myself what fate I should rable defect. Choose you, then, in what decree to Italy and Rome. And nowmanner this city shall be governed. Shall see the change! Here, in Africa, I am it be by one man ? shall it be by a select come to treat with a Roman, for my own number of the wisest among us? or shall preservation and my country's. Such the legislative power be in the people are the sports of fortune! Is she then to As for me, I shall submit to whatever be trusted because she smiles ? An adform of administration you shall please vantageous peace is preferable to the to establish. As I think myself not un- hope of victory. The one is in your own worthy to command, so neither am I un- power, the other at the pleasure of the willing to obey. Your having chosen me gods. Should you prove victorious, it to be the leader of this colony, and your would add little to your own glory, or calling the city after my name, are honours the glory of your country; if vanquished, sufficient to content me ;
honours of you lose in one hour all the honour and which, living or dead, I never can be de- reputation you have been so many years prived.
Hooke. acquiring. But what is my aim in all