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this!-that you should content yourself certainly. If, to the conditions before with our cession of Spain, Sicily, Sardi- agreed upon, you had added some new nia, and all the islands between Italy and articles to our advantage, there would Africa. A peace on these conditions have been matter of reference to the Rowill, in my opinion, not only secure the man people; but when, instead of adding, future tranquillity of Carthage, but be you retrench, there is no room for delisufficiently glorious for you, and for the beration. The Carthaginians therefore Roman name. And do not tell me, that must submit to us at discretion, or must some of our citizens dealt fraudulently vanquish us in battle.
Hooke. with you in the late treaty-it is I, Han
§ 8 nibal, that now ask a peace: I ask' it, be $ 8. Submission; Complaint ; Intreatcause I think it expedient for my country;
ing— The Speech of Seneca, the Philo
sopher, to Nero, complaining of the and, thinking it expedient, I will inviolably maintain it.
envy of his Enemies, and requesting the Emperor to reduce him back to his
former narrow circumstances, that he § 7. Scipio's Answer.
might no longer be an object of their I knew very well, Hannibal, that it was malignity. the hope of your return which embold- May it please the imperial majesty of ened the Carthaginians to break the truce Cæsar, favourably to accept the humble with us, and to lay aside all thoughts of a submissions and grateful acknowledgments peace, when it was just upon the point of of the weak though faithful guide of his being concluded; and your present pro- youth. posal is a proof of it. You retrench from
It is now a great many years since I their concessions every thing but what we first had the honour of attending your are, and have been long possessed of. imperial majesty as preceptor. And your But as it is your care that your fellow. bounty has
labours with such citizens should have the obligation to affluence, as has drawn upon me, what I you, of being eased from a great part of had reason to expect, the envy of their burden, so it ought to be mine that those persons, who are always ready to they draw no advantage from their perfi- prescribe to their prince where to bestow, diousnesz. Nobody is more sensible than and where to withhold his favours. It is I am of the weakness of man, and the well known, that your illustrious ancestor, power of fortune, and that whatever we Augustus, bestowed on his deserving faenterprsie is subject to a thousand vourites, Agrippa and Mæcenas, honours chances. If, before the Romans passed and emoluments, suitable to the dignity into Africa, you had of your own accord of the benefactor, and to the services of quitted Italy, and made the offers you the receivers: nor has his conduct been now make, I believe they would not have blamed. My employment about your imbeen rejected. But as you have been perial majesty has, indeed, been purely do forced out of Italy, and we are masters mestic: I have neither headed your are here of the open country, the situation of mies, nor assisted at your councils. But things is much altered. And, what is you know, Sir, (though there are some chiefly to be considered, the Carthagini- who do not seem to attend to it) that a ans, by the late treaty, which we entered prince may be served in different ways, into at their request, were, over and above some more, others less conspicuous; and what you offer, 10 have restored to us that the latter may be to him as valuable our prisoners without ransom, delivered as the former. up their ships of war, paid us five thou. “ But what !” say my enemies, “ shall sand talents, and to have given hostages" a private person, of equestrian rank, for the performance of all. The senate “ and a provincial by birth, be advanced accepted these conditions, but Carthage “ to an equality with ihe patricians ? Shall
? failed on her part; Carthage deceived an upstart, of no name nor family, rank
What then is to be done? Are the “ with those who can, by the statues which Carthaginians to be released from the “make the ornament of their palaces, most important articles of the treaty, a3 “ reckon backward a line of ancestors, a reward of their breach of faith? No, long enough to tire out the fasti* ? Sball
* The fasti, or calendars, or, if you please, almanacs, of the ancients, had, as our almanacs, tables of kings, consuls, &c.
« a philosopher who has written for others pect, and clad in iron. The irresistible “precepts of moderation, and contempt phalanx is a body of men who, in the “ of all that is external, himself live in field of battle, fear no onset, being prac“affluence and luxury? Shall he purchase tised to hold together, man to man, shield .“ estates and lay out money at interest? to shield, and spear to spear; so that a “ Shall he build palaces, plant gardens, brazen wall might as soon be broke “ and adorn a country at his own expense, through. In advancing, in wheeling to “ and for his own pleasure ?”
right or left, in attacking, in every exerCæsar has given royally, as became cise of arms, they act as one man. They imperial magnificence. Seneca has re. answer the slightest sign from the comceived what his prince bestowed ; nor did mander, as if his soul animated the whole he ever ask: he is only guilty of—not army. Every soldier has a knowledge of refusing. Cæsar's rank places him above war sufficient for a general. And this disthe reach of in vidious malignity. Seneca cipline, by which the Macedonian army is not, nor can be, high enough to despise is become so formidable, was first estathe envious. As the overloaded soldier, blished, and has been all along kept up, or traveller, would be glad to be relieved by a fixed contempt of what your Maof his burden, so I, in this last stage of the jesty's troops are so vain of, I mean gold journey of life, now that I find myself un
and silver. The bare earth serves them for equal to the lightest cares, beg, that Cæsar beds. Whatever will satisfy nature, is would kindly ease me of the trouble of my their luxury. Their repose is always unwieldy wealth. I beseech him to restore shorter than the night. 'Your Majesty to the imperial treasury, from whence it may, therefore, judge, whether the 'Thescame, what is to me superfluous and cum- salian, Acarnanian, and Ætolian cavalry, brous. The time and the attention, which and the Macedonian phalanx—an army
I am now obliged to bestow upon my that has, in spite of all opposition, overvilla and my gardens, I shall be glad to
run half the world -are to be repelled by apply to the regulations of my mind. Ca. a multitude (however numerous) arme:1 sar is in the flower of life ; long may lie with slings, and stakes hardened at the be equal to the toils of government ! 'His points by fire. To be upon equal terins goodness will grant to his worn-out ser
with Alexander, your Majesty ought to vant leave to retire. It will not be de- have an army composed of the same sort rogatory from Cæsar's greatness to have of troops: and they are no where to be it said, that he bestowed favours on some, had, but in the same countries which prowho, so far from being intoxicated with duced those conquerors of the world. It them, shewed—that they could be liappy, is therefore my opinion, that, if your Mawhen (at their own request) divested of jesty were to apply the gold and silver, them.
Corn. Tacit. which now so superfluously adorn your $ 9.
men, to the purpose of hiring an army Speech of CHARIDEMUS an Athe- from Greece, to contend with Greeks, you Nian Exile at the Court of Darius, on being asked his Opinion of the warlike otherwise I see no reason to expect any
might have some chance for success; Preparations making by that Prince thing else, thạn that your army should be against Alexander.
defeated, as all the others have been who Perhaps your Majesty may not bear have encountered the irresistible Macedothe truth from the mouth of a Grecian, and nians.
Q. Curtius. an exile: and if I do not declare it now, I never will, perhaps I may never have $ 10. Calisthenes's Reproof of Cleanother opportunity.
on's Flutlery to AlexandER, on whom numerous army, drawn from various
he had proposed to confer Divinity by
Vote. nations, and which unpeoples the east, may seem formidable to the neighbouring If the king were present, Cleon, there countries. The gold, the purple, and the would be no need of my answering to splendour of arms, which strike the eyes of what you have just proposed; he would beholders, make a show which surpasses himself reprove you for endeavouring to the imagination of all who have not seen it. draw him into an imitation of foreigo abThe Macedonian army, with which your surdities, and bringing envy upon him by Majesty's forces are going to contend, is, such unmanly Nattery. As he is absent í pn the contrary, grim, and horrid of as- take upon me to tell you, in his name, that
no praise is lasting, but what is ra. bond-man! - If any, speak; for him have tional; and that you do what you can to I offended. Who's here so rude, that lessen his glory, instead of adding to it would not be a Roman?-If any, speak; Heroes have never, among us, been dej- for him have I offended. Who's here so fied, till after their death; and, whatever vile, that will not love his country?-1f may be your way of thinking, Cleon, for any, speak; for him have I offended. -- I my part I wish the king may not, for many pause for a reply.years to come, obtain that honour.
None?-Then none have I offended. You have mentioned, as precedents of I have done no more to Cæsar, than you what you propose, Hercules and Bacchus. should do to Brutus. The question of his Do you imagine, Cleon, tbat they were death is enrolled in the capitol ; his glory deified over a cup of wine; and are you not extenuated, wherein he was worthy ; and I qualified to make gods ? is the king, nor his offences inforced, for which he our sovereign, to receive his divinity from suffered death. you and me who are his subjects? First, Here comes his body mourned by Mark try your power, whether you can make a Antony; who, though he had no hand in king. It is, surely, easier to make a king his death, shall receive the benefit of his than a god; to give an earthly dominion, dying, a place in the commonwealth ; as than a throne in heaven. I only wish that which of you shall not ? With this I dethe gods may have heard, without offence, part – That, as I slew my best lover for the the arrogant proposal you have made of good of Rome, I have the same dagger adding one to their number; and that for myself, wben it shall please my counthey may still be so propitious to us, as to try to need my death. Shakspeare. grant the continuance of that success to our affairs with which they have hitherto
Caius Marius to the Romans, favoured us. For my part, I am not
shewing the Absurdity of their hesitating ashamed of my country; nor do I ap
to confer on him the Rank of General, prove of our adopting the rites of foreign
merely on account of his Extraction. nations, or learning from them how we ought to reverence our kings. To receive It is but too common, my countrymen, laws or rules of conduct from them, what to observe a material difference between is it but to confess ourselves inferior to the behaviour of those who stand candia them?
Q. Curtius. dates for places of power and trust, before
and after their obtaining them. They so$ 11. Brutus's Speech in Vindication of licit them in one manner, and execute them Cæsar's Murder.
in another. They set out with a great Romans, countrymen, and lovers !- appearance of activity, humility, and moHear me, for my cause; and be silent that deration; and they quickly fall into sloth, you may hear. Believe me, for mine ho- pride, and avarice. - It is, undoubtedly, nour; and have respect to mine honour, no easy matter to discharge, to the general that you may believe. Censure me, in satisfaction, the duty of a supreme comyour wisdom; and awake your senses, mander, in troublesome times. I am, I that you may the better judge.
hope, duly sensible of the importance of If there be any in this assembly, any the office I propose to take upon me for dear friend of Cæsar's, to him I say, that the service of my country. To carry on, Brutus's love to Cæsar was no less than with effect, an expensive war, and yet be his. If, then, that friend demand why frugal of the public money; to oblige Brutus rose against Cæsar? this is my an- those to serve, whom it may be delicate swer-Not that I loved Cæsar less, but to offend; to conduct, at the same time, a that I loved Rome more. Had you rather complicated variety of operations; to conCæsar were, and die all slaves ; than that cert measures at home, answerable to the Cæsar were dead, to live all freemen? As
state of things abroad; and to gain every Cæsar loved me, 1 weep for him; as he valuable end, in spite of opposition from was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was
the envious, the factious, and the disafvaliant, I honour him; but as he was am
fected to do all this, my countrymen, is bitious, I slew him. There are tears for
more difficult than is generally thought. his love, joy for his fortune, honour for
But besides the disadvantages which his valour, and death for his ambition. are common to me with all others in emiWho's here so base, that would be a
rent stations, my case is, in this respect,
peculiarly hard—that whereas a com. I have partly seen, and partly myself mander of Patrician rank, if he is guilty of achieved. What they know by reading, I a neglect or breach of duty, has his great know by action. They are pleased to slight connexions, the antiquity of his family, my mean birth; I despise their mean chathe important services of his ancestors, and racters. Want of birth and fortune is the the multitudes he has, by power, engaged objection against me; want of personal in his interest, to screen him from condign worth against them. But are not all men punishment, my whole safety depends upon of the same species? What can make a myself; which renders it the more indis- difference between one man and another, pensably necessary for me to take care that but the endowments of the mind ? For my my conduct be clear and unexceptionable. part, I shall always look upon the bravest Besides, I am well aware, my country,
man as the noblest man. Suppose ii were men, that the eye of the public is upon inquired of the fathers of such Patricians me; and that, though the impartial, who as Albinus and Bestia, whether, if they prefer the real advantage of the common- had their choice, they would desire sons of wealth to all other considerations, favour their character, or of mine ; what would my pretensions, the Patricians want no- they answer, but that they should wish the thing so much as an occasion against me. worthiest to be their sons? If the Patri. It is, therefore, my fixed resolution, to use cians have reason to despise me, let them my best endeavours, that you be not dis- likewise despise their ancestors; whose appointed in me, and that their indirect nobility was the fruit of their virtue. Do designs against me may be defeated. they envy the honours bestowed upon me?
I have, from my youth, been familiar let them envy, likewise, my labours, my with toils and with dangers. I was faith- abstinence, and the dangers I have underful to your interest, my countrymen, when gone for my country, by which I have I served you for no reward, but that of acquired them. But those worthless men honour. It is not my design to betray you, lead such a life of inactivity, as if they now that you have conferred upon me a despised any honours you can bestow, place of profit. You have committed 10 whilst they aspire to honours as if they my conduct the war against Jugurtha. had deserved them by the most industrious The Patricians are offended at this. But virtue. They lay claim to the rewards of where would be the wisdom of giving such activity, for their having enjoyed the plea . a command to one of their honourable sures of luxury; yet none can be niore body? a person of illustrious birth, of an- lavish than they are in praise of their ancient family, of innumerable statues, but cestors: and they imagine they honour of no experience! What service would themselves by celebrating their forefathers; his long line of dead ancestors, or his mul- whereas they do the very contrary: for, as titude of motionless statues, do his coun- much as their ancestors were distinguished try in the day of battle? What could such for their virtues, so much are they disa general do, but in his trepidation and in- graced by their vices. The glory of anexperience, have recourse to some inferior cestors casts a light, indeed, upon pos. commander, for direction in difficulties to terity ; but it only serves to shew what which he was not himself equal ? Thus the descendants are. It alike exhibits to your Patrician general would, in fact, have public view their degeneracy and their å general over him; so that the acting worth. I own, I cannot boast of the commander would still be a Plebeian. So deeds of my forefathers; but I hope I true is this, my countrymen, that I have may answer the cavils of the Patricians, myself known those who have been chosen by standing up in defence of what I have consuls, begin then to read the history of myself done. their own country, of which, till that time, Observe now, my countrymen, the inthey were totally ignorant; that is, they justice of the Patricians. They arrogate first obtained the employment, and then to themselves honours, on account of the bethought themselves of the qualifications exploits done by their forefathers; whilst necessary for the proper discharge of it. they will pot allow me the due praise, for
I submit to your judgment, Romans, on performing the very same sort of actions which side the advantage lies, when a in my own person. He has no statues, comparison is made between Patrician they cry, of his family. He can trace do haughtiness and Plebeian experience. The vene
venerable line of ancestors. What then? very actions, which they have only read, Is it matter of more praise to disgrace
one's illustrious ancestors, than to become eternal disputes between the senate and illustrious by one's own good behaviour ? the people are the sole cause of our misWhat if I can shew no statues of my fa- fortunes. While we will set no bounds mily? I can shew the sandards, the ar- to our dominion, nor you to your liberty ; mour, and the trappings, which I have while you impatiently endure Patrician myself taken from the vanquished: I can magistrates, and we Plebeian; our eneshew the scars of those wounds which I mies take heart, grow elated, and prehave received by facing the enemies of my sumptuosis. In the name of the immortal country. These are my statues. These gods, what is it, Romans, you would have? are the honours I boast of. Not left me You desired Tribunes; for the sake of by inheritance, as theirs : but earned by peace, we granted them. You were eager toil, by abstinence, by valour; amidst to have Decemvirs; we consented to their clouds of dust, and seas of blood : scenes creation. You grew weary of these Deof action, where those effeminate Patri- cemvirs; we obliged them to abdicate. cians, who endeavour by indirect means to Your hatred pursued them when reduced depreciate me in your esteem, have never to private men; and we suffered you to dared to shew their faces. Sallust. put to death, or banish, Patricians of the $ 13. Speech of TITUS Quinctius to the first rank in the republic. You insisted Romans, when the Æqui and Volsci, upon the restoration of the Tribuneship;
we yielded : we quietly saw Consuls of taking advantage of their intestine com
You have the motions, ravaged their Country to the your own faction elected.
protection of your Tribunes, and the prigates of Rome.
vilege of appeal; the Patricians are subThough I am not conscious, O Romans, jected to the decrees of the Commons. of any crime by me committed, it is yet Under pretence of equal and impartial with the utmost shame and confusion that laws, you have invaded our rights; and I appear in your assembly. You have seon we have suffered it, and we still suffer it. it-- posterity will know it!-in the fourth When shall we see an end of discord ? consulship of Titus Quinctius, the Æqui When shall we have one interest, and and Volsci (scarce a match for the Hernici one cominon country? Victorious and alone) came in arms to the very gates of triumphant, you shew less temper than Rome, and went away again unchastised ! we under defeat. When you are to conThe course of our manners, indeed, and tend with us, you can seize the Aventine the state of our affairs, have long been hill, you can possess yourselves of the such, that I had no reason to presage much Mons Sacer. good, but, could I have imagined that so The enemy is at our gates, the Æsquigreat an ignominy would have befallen me line is near being taken, and nobody stirs this year, I would, by banishment or death to hinder it. But against us you are va(if all other means had failed) have avoided liant, against us you can arm with dilithe station I am now in. What! Inight gence. Come on then, besiege the senatoRome then have been taken, if those men house, make a camp of the forum, fill the who were at our gates had not wanted jails with our chief nobles; and when you courage for the attempt ?- Rome taken, have achieved these glorious exploits, whilst I was consul! - Of honours I had then, at last, sally out at the Æsquiline sufficient-of life enough-more than gate, with the same fierce spirits, against enough–I should have died in my third the enemy. Does your resolution fail consulate.
you for this ? Go then, and behold from But who are they that our dastardly our walls your lands ravaged, your houses enemies thus despise ?-the consuls, or plundered and in flames, the whole counyou, Romans? If we are in fault, depose iry laid waste with fire and sword. Have us, or punish us yet more severely. If you any thing here to repair these dayou are to blame-may neither gods nor mages ? Will the Tribunes make up your men punish your faults! only may you losses to you? They will give you words repent! No, 'Romans, the confidence of as many as you please ; bring impeachour enemies is not owing to their courage, ments in abundance against the prime men or to their belief of your cowardice: they in the state; heap laws upon laws; assemhave been too often vanquished, not to blies you shall have without end: but will know both themselves and you. Discord, any of you return the richer from those discord, is the ruip of this city! The assemblies? Extinguish, O Romans, these