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fatal divisions ; generously break this thers? What fidelity can be expected cursed enchantment, which keeps you among strangers, if it is wanting among buried in a scandalous inaction. Open relations? The kingdom I leave you is in your eyes, and consider the management good condition, if you govern it properly; of those ambitious men, who to make if otherwise, it is weak. For by agreethemselves powerful in their party,-study ment a small state increases: by division a nothing but how they may foment divi- great one falls into ruin. It will lie

upon sions in the commonwealth.- If you can you, Jugurtha, who are come to riper but summon up your former courage, if years than your brothers, to provide that you will now march out of Rome with no misconduct produce any bad effect. your consuls, there is no punishment you And, if any difference should arise between can inflict which I will not submit to, if I you and your brothers (which may the do not in a few days drive those pillagers gods avert!) the public will charge you, out of our territory. This terror of war, however innocent you may be, as the agwith which you seem so grievously struck, gressor, because your years and abilities shall quickly be removed from Rome tó give you the superiority. But I firmly their own cities.

Hooke. persuade myself, that you will treat them § 14. Micipsa to JUGURTHA.

with kindness, and that they will honour

and esteem you, as your distinguished You know, Jugartha, that I received virtue deserves.

Sallusto you under my protection in your early youth, when left a helpless and hopeless $ 15. Speech of Publius Scipio.to the orphan. I advanced you to higli honours ROMAN Army before the Baltle of the in my kingdom, in the full assurance that Ticin. you would prove grateful for my kindness to you; and that, if I came to have chil- Were you, soldiers, the same army dren of my own, you would study to repay which I had with me in Gaul, I might to them what you owed to me. Hitherto well forbear saying any thing to you at I have had no reason to repent of my fa- this time: for what occasion could there vours to you. For, to omit all former in- be to use exhortation to a cavalry that stances of your extraordinary merit, your had so signally vanquished the squadrons late behaviour in the Numantian war has of the enemy upon the Rhone; or to lereflected upon me, and my kingdom, a gions, by whom that same enemy, flying new and distinguished glory. You have, before them to avoid a battle, did in effect

a by your valour, rendered the Roman com- confess themselves conquered? But, as monwealth, which before was well affected these troops, having been enrolled for to our interest

, much more friendly. In Spain, are there with my brother Cneius, Spain, you have raised the honour of my making war under my auspices (as was the name and crown. And you have sur- will of the senate and people of Rome) I, mounted what is justly reckoned one of the that you might have a consul for your greatest difficulties; having, by your me. captain, against Handihal and the Cartharit, silenced envy. My dissolution seems ginians, have freely offered myself for this now to be fast approaching. I therefore war. You, then, have a new general; beseech and conjure you, my dear Jugur- and I a new army. On this account, a tha! by this right hand; by the remem

few words from me to you will be neither brance of my past kindness to you ; by the improper nor unseasonable. honour of my kingdom; and by the ma- That you may not be unapprized of what jesty of the gods ; be kind to my two sons, sort of enemies you are going to encounter, whom


favour to you has made your or of what is to be feared from them, they brothers; and do not think of forming a are the very same whom, in a former war,

the connexion with any stranger, to the pre- you vanquished both by land and sea; judice of your relations. It is not by arms, same from whom you took Sicily and por by treasures, that a kingdom is secured, Sardinia, and who have been these twenty but by well affected subjects and allies. years your tributaries. You will not, I And it is by faithful and important ser- presunie, march against these men, with vices, that friendship (which neither gold only that courage with which you are wont will purchase, nor arms extort) is secured. to face other enemies; but with a certain But what friendship is more perfect, than anger and indignation, such as you would that which ought to obtain betweca bro. feel if you saw your slaves on a sudden rise up in arms against you. Conquered and the earth, within these twenty years, bas enslaved, it is not boldness, but necessity brought forth a new kind of Carthagithat urges them to battle, unless you can nians; or whether they be the same sort of believe that those who avoided fighting men who fought at the Ægates, and when their army was entire, bave ac- whom, at Eryx, you suffered to redeem quired better hope by the loss of two- themselves at eighteen denarii per head; thirds of their horse and foot in the pas- whether this Hannibal, for labours and sage of the Alps.

journeys, be, as he would be thought, the But you have heard, perhaps, that, rival of Hercules; or, whether be be, what though they are few in number, they are his father left him, a tributary, a vassal, a men of stout hearts and robust bodies; slave of the Roman people. Did not the heroes of such strength and vigour, as Do. consciousness of his wicked deed at Sathing is able to resist. --Mere effigies! nay, guptum torment him and make him des. shadows of men! wretches, emaciated perate, he would have some regard, if with hunger and benumbed with cold! not to his conquered country, yet surely bruised and bartered to pieces among the to his own family, to his father's memory, rocks and craggy cliffs! their weapons to the treaty written with Hamilcar's own broken, and their horses weak and foun- hand. We might have starved him in dered! Such are the cavalry, and such the Eryx ; we might have passed into Africa infantry, with which you are going to with our victorious fleet; and, in a few contend; not enemies, but the fragments days, have destroyed Carthage. At their of enemies. There is nothing which I humble supplication, we pardooed them ; more apprehend, than that it will be we released them, when they were closely thought Hannibal was vanquished by the shut up, without a possibility of escaping; Alps, before we had any conflict with him. we made peace with them, when they But, perhaps, it was fitting it should be were conquered. When they were disso; and that, with a people and a leader tressed by the African war, we considered who had violated leagues and covenants, them, we treated them, as a people under the gods themselves, without man's help, our protection. And what is the return should begin the war, and bring it to a they make us for all these favours ? near conclusion: and that we, who, next Under the conduct of a hair-brained to the gods, have been injured and of- young man, they come hither to overturn fended, should happily finish what they our state, and lay waste our country. I have begun.

could wish, indeed, that it were not so ; I need not be in any fear that you and that the war we are now engaged should suspect me of saying these things in concerned only our own glory, and merely to encourage you, while inwardly not our preservation. But the contest at I have different sentiments, What hin- present is not for the possession of Sicily dered me from going into Spain ? That and Sardinia, but of Italy itself: nor is was my province, where I should have there behind us another army, which, if had the less dreaded Asdrubal, not Han- we should not prove the conquerors, may nibal, to deal with. But hearing, as I make head against our victorious enepassed along the coast of Gaul, of this mies. There are no more Alps for them enemy's march, I landed my troops, sent to pass, which might give us leisure to the horse forward, and pitched my camp raise pew forces. No, soldiers; here you upon

the Rhone. A part of my cavalry must make your stand, as if you were encountered, and defeated that of the just now before the walls of Rome. Let enemy. My infantry not being able to every one reflect, that he is now to deovertake theirs, which fled before us, I re- fend, not his own person only, but bis turned to my fleet; and, with all the ex- wife, his children, his helpless infants. pedition I could use in so long a voyage by Yet, let not private considerations alone sea and land, am come to meet them at possess our minds; let us remember that the foot of the Alps. Was it, then, my in the eyes of the senate and the people of clination to avoid a contest with this tre- Rome are upon us; and that, as our Inendous Hannibal? and have I met with force and courage shall now prove, such him only by accident and unawares? or will be the fortune of that city, and of the am I come on purpose to challenge him to Roman empire.

Hooke, the coinbat! I would gladly try whether

$ 16. Speech of Hannibal to the CAR- you now to fight? With raw soldiers, an THAGINtan Army, on the same Occasion. undisciplined army, beaten, vanquished,

besieged by the Gauls the very last sumI know not, soldiers, whether you or mer; an army, unknown to their leader, your prisoners be encompassed by fortune and unacquainted with him. with the stricter bonds and necessities. Or shall I, who was born, I might alTwo seas enclose you on the right and most say, but certainly brought up, in the left; not a ship to fly to for escaping. Be. tent of my father, that most excellent fore you is the Po, a river broader and general ; shall I, the conqueror of Spain more rapid than the Rhone; behind you and Gaul; and not only of the Alpine are the Alps; over which, even when your nations, but, which is greater still, of the numbers were undiminished, you were Alps themselves; shall I compare myself hardly able to force a passage. Here then, with this half-year captain! a captain, besoldiers, you must either conquer or die, fore whom should one place the two arthe very first hour you meet the enemy.

mies, without their ensigns, I am perBut the same fortune which bas thus suaded he would not know to which of laid you under the necessity of fighting, them he is consul. I esteem it no small has set before your eyes those rewards of advantage, soldiers, that there is not one victory, than which no men are ever wont among you, who has not often been an to wish for greater from the immortal eye-witness of my exploits in war; not gods. Should we, by our valour, recover one of whose valour I myself have not only Sicily and Sardinia, which were ra- 'been a spectator, so as to be able to name vished from our fathers, those would be the times and places of his noble achieve. no inconsiderable prizes. Yet, what are ments; that with soldiers, whom I have those ? The wealth of Rome; whatever a thousand times praised and rewarded, riches she has heaped together in the spoils and whose pupil I was before I became of nations; all these, with the masters of their general, I shall march against an them, will be yours. You have been long army of men strangers to one another. enough employed in driving the cattle On what side soever I turn my eyes, I upon the vast mountains of Lusitania and behold all full of courage and strength. Celtiberia ; you have hitherto 'met with A veteran infantry; a most gallant cavalno reward worthy of the labours and ry; you, my allies, most faithful and vadangers you have undergone. The time liant; you, Carthaginians, whom not only is now come, to reap the full recompence your country's cause, but the justest anof your toilsome marches over so many ger, impels to battle. The hope, the mountains, and rivers, and through só courage, of assailants, is always greater many nations, all of them in arms. This than of those who act upon the defenis the place wbich fortune has appointed sive. With hostile banners displayed, to be the limits of your labour; it is you are come down upon Italy; you here that you will finish your glorious bring the war. Grief, injuries, indigniwarfare, and receive an ample recom- ties, fire your minds, and spur you forpence of your completed service. For I ward to revenge.--First, they demanded would not have you imagine, that victory me; that I, your general, should be dewill be as difficult as the name of a Roman livered up to them : next, all of you who war is great and sounding. It has often had fought at the siege of Saguntum : happened, that a despised enemy has given and we were to be put to death by the a bloody battle ; and the most renowned extremest tortures. Proud and cruel nakings and nations have by a small force tion ! every thing must be yours, and at been overthrown. And if you but take your disposal! you are to prescribe to us away the glitter of the Roman name, with whom we shall make war, with wbat is there wherein they may stand in whom we shall make peace. competition with you? For, (to say no- to set us bounds; to shut us up within thing of your service in war, for twenty hills and rivers ; but you, you are not to years together, with so much valour and observe the limits which yourselves have success) from the very pillars of Hercules, fixed ! “ Pass not the Iberus." What from the ocean, from the utmost bounds next? “ Touch not the Saguntines. Saof the earth, through so many

warlike guntum is upon the Iberus, move not a tions of Spain and Gaul, are you not come step towards that city.” Is it a small hither victorious ? And with whom are matter then that you have deprived us of

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our ancient possession, Sicily and Sardi- so that the more you have, the more you via? you would bave Spain too. Well, desire. But have you forgot how long we shall yield Spain; and then-you will the conquest of the Bactrians detained pass into Africa. Will pass, did I say? you? while your were subduing them -- this very year they ordered one of their the Sogdians revolted. Your victories consuls into Africa, the other into Spain. serve to no other purpose than to find yon No, soldiers; there is nothing left for us, employment by producing new wars; for but what we can vindicate with our the business of every conquest is twofold, swords. Come on, then. Be men. The to win, and to preserve : and though you Romans may, with more safety, be cow may be the greatest of warriors, you ards; they have their own country be- must expect that the nations you conquer hind them, have places of refuge to fly to, will endeavour to shake off the yoke as and are secure from danger in the roads fast as possible: for what people choose thither; but for you, there is no middle to be under foreign domiuion? fortune between death and victory. Let If you will cross the Tanais, you may this be but well fixed in your minds; and travel over Scythia, and observe how exonce again, I say, you are conquerors. tensive a territory we inbabit.

But to Hooke.

conquer us, is quite another business: you

will find us, at one time, too nimble for § 17. The SCYTINIAN Ambassadors to

ALEXANDER, on his making Prepara- your pursuit; and at another time, when tions to allack their Country.

you think we are fled far enough from

you, you will have us surprise you in your If your person were as gigantic as your

camp: for the Scythians attack with no desires, the world would not contain you.

less vigour than they fly. It will thereYour right hand would touch the east, and

fore be your wisdom to keep with strict your left the west at the same time: you attention what you have gained ; catchgrasp at more than you are equal to.

ing at more, you may lose what you have. 'rom Europe you reach Asia; from Asia We have a proverbial saying in Scythia, you lay hold on Europe. And if you That Fortune has no feet, and is furnished should

conquer all mankind, you seem only with hands to distribute her capridisposed to wage war with woods and

cious favours, and with fins to elude the snows, with rivers and wild beasts, and to

grasp of those to whom she has been bounattempt to subdue nature.

But have you

tiful.—You give yourself out to be a god, considered the usual course of things ? the son of Jupiter Ammon: it suits the have you reflected, that great trees are character of a god to bestow favours on many years in growing to their height, · mortals, not to deprive them of what they and are cut down in an hour ? It is fool- have.

But if you are no god, reflect on ish to think of the fruit only, without con- the precarious condition of humanity. sidering the height you have to climb to You will thus shew more wisdom, than by come at it. Take care lest, while you dwelling on those subjects which have strive to reach the top, you fall 10 the puffed up your pride and made you forget ground with the branches you have laid yourself. hold on.

You see how little you are likely to gain Besides, what have you to do with the by attempting the conquest of Scythia. Scythians, or the Scythians with you? On the other hand, you may, if you We have never invaded Macedon ; why please, have in us a valuable alliance. should you attack Scythia ? You pretend We command the borders of both Europe to be the punisher of robbers; and are and Asia. There is nothing between us yourself the general robber of mankind. and Bactria but the river Tanais; and our You have taken Lydia ; you have seized territory extends to Thrace, which, as we Syria; you are master of Persia ; you have heard, borders on Macedon. If you have subdued the Bactrians, and attacked decline attacking us in a hostile manner India ; all this will not satisfy you, unless you may have our friendship. Nations you lay your greedy and insatiable hands which have never been at war are on an upon our focks and our herds. How im- equal footing; but it is in vain that confiprudent is your conduct ! you grasp at dence is reposed in a conquered people: riches, the possession of which only in- there can be no sincere friendship between creases your avarice. You increase your the oppressors and the oppressed; even kunger, by what should produce satiety; in peace, the latter think themselvos en

titled to the rights of war against the provided with men, arms, and all things former. We will, if you think good, enter necessary. There is nothing wanting to into a treaty with you, according to our secure the success, if our own courage manner, which is not by signing, sealing, does not fail us. And shall those war. and taking the gods to witness, as is the riors who have ever been so brave when Grecian custom ; but by doing actual ser- foreign enemies were to be subdued, or vices. The Scythians are not used to pro- when conquests were to be made to gratify mise, but perform without promising. the ambition and avarice of Tarquin, be And they think an appeal to the gods su- then only cowards, when they are to deperfluous; for that those who have no re- liver themselves from slavery ? gard for the esteem of men will not he- Some of you are perhaps intimidated sitate to offend the gods by perjury.-You by the army which 'Tarquin now commay therefore consider with yourself, mands; the soldiers, you imagine, will whether you had better have a people of take the part of their general. Banish such a character, and so situated as to such a groundless fear: the love of liberty

a have it in their power either to serve you is natural to all men. Your fellow citior to annoy you, according as you treat zens in the camp feel the weight of opthem, for allies or for enemies.

pression with as quick a sense as you that Q. Curlius. are in Rome; they will as eagerly seize

the occasion of throwing off the yoke. § 18. JUNIUS BRUTUS over the dead Body of Lucretia, who had stubbed them who, through baseness of spirit, or a

But let us grant there may be some among herself in consequence of the Rape of bad education, will be disposed to favour TAKQUIN.

the tyrant; the number of these can be Yes, noble lady, I swear by this blood but small, and we have means sufficient which was once so pure, and which no- in our hands to reduce them to reason, thing but royal villany could have pol. They have left us hostages more dear to luted, that I will pursue Lucius Tarqui- them than life; their wives, their children, nius the Proud, his wicked wise, and their fathers, their mothers, are here in their children, with fire and sword; nor the city. Courage, Romans, the gods are will I suffer any of that family, or of any for us; those gods, whose temples and other whatsoever, to be king in Rome. altars the impious Tarquin has profaned

Ye gods, I call you to wiiness this my by sacrifices, and libations made with oath!

polluted hands, polluted with blood, and There, Romans, turn your eyes to that with numberless unexpiated crimes comsad spectacle !--- the daughter of Lucre- mitted against his subjects. tius, Collatinus's wife---she died by her Yegods, who protected our forefathers! own hand! See there a noble lady, whom ye genii, who watch for the preservation the lust of a Tarquin reduced to the ne- and glory of Rome! do you inspire us cessity of being her own executioner, to with courage and unanimity in this gloattest her innocence. Hospitably enter- rious cause, and we will to our last breath tained by her as a kinsman of her hus- defend your worship from all profanation, band, Sextus the perfidious guest became

Livy. her brutal ravisher. The chaste, the generous Lucretia could not survive the in. $ 19. Speech of ADHERBAL to the Rosult. Glorious woman! but once only

Man Senate, imploring their Assisttreated as a slave, she thought life no

ance against JUGURTHA. longer to be endured. Lucretia, a wo- Fathers ! man, disdained a life that depended on a It is known to you that king Micipsa, tyrant's will; and shall we shall men, my father, on his death-bed, left in charge with such an example before our eyes, to Jugurtha, his adopted son, conjunctly and after five-and-twenty years of ignomi- with my unfortunate brother Hiempsal nious servitude, shall we, through a fear and myself, the children of his own body, of dying, defer one single instant to assert the administration of the kingdom of Nuour liberty? No, Romans; now is the midia, directing us to consider the senate time; the favourable moment we have so and people of Rome as proprietors of it. long waited for is come. Tarquin is not He charged us to use our best endeavours at Rome; the Patricians are at the head to be serviceable to the Roman commonof the enterprise : the city is abundantly wealth, in peace and war; assuring us,



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