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« here thou canst little more than pile perpetual call upon them to propagato “ error upon error; there thou shalt build their kind; the latter to preserve them“ truth upon truth. Wait, therefore, for selves. “the glorious vision; and in the inean It is astonishing to consider the differ“ time emulate the Eagle. Much is in ent degrees of care that descend from the

thy power; and, therefore, much is parent of the young, so far as is abso

expected of thee. Though the Al- lutely necessary for the leaving a pos"MIGHTY only can give virtue, yet, as a terity. Some creatures cast their eggs as

prince, thou mayest stimulate those to chance directs them, and think of them “ beneficence, who act from no higher no farther, as insects, and several kind of “ motive than immediate interest; thou fish; others, of a nicer frame, find out “canst not produce the principle, but proper beds to deposit them in, and there

mayest enforce the practice. The re- leave them, as the serpent, the crocodile, “ lief of the poor is equal, whether they and ostrich; others hatch their eggs, and “ receive it from ostentation, or charity; tend the birth, until it is able to shift for “ and the effect of example is the same, itself. “ whether it be intended to obtain the What can we call the principle which “ favour of God or man. Let thy vir- directs every different kind of bird lo ob“ tue be thus diffused; and if thou be- serve a particular plan in the structure of “ lievest with reverence, thou shalt be its nest, and directs all of the same spe“ accepted above. Farewell. May the cies to work after the same model ?' It “ smile of Him who resides in the Hea- cannot be imitation ; for though you “ ven of Heavens be upon thee! and hatch a crow under a hen, and never let “ against thy name, in the volume of His it see any of the works of its own kind, “ will, may Happiness be written!" the nest it makes shall be the same, to the

The king, whose doubts, like those of laying of a stick, with all the nests of Mirza, were now removed, looked up the same species. It cannot be reason ; with a smile that communicated the joy for were animals endued with it to as of his mind. He dismissed the prince great a degree as man, their buildings to his government; and commanded would be as different as ours, according these events to be recorded, to the end to the different conveniencies that they that posterity may know “ that no life is would propose to themselves. “pleasing to God, but that which is useful Is it not remarkable, that the same tem“ to Mankind.”

Adventurer. per of weather which raises this general $ 25. Providence proved from Animal with leaves, and the fields with grass,

warmth in animals, should cover the trees Instinct.

for their security and concealment, and I must confess I am infinitely delighted produce such infinite swarms of with those speculations of nature which for the support and sustenance of their are to be made in a country life ; and as respective broods ? my reading has very much lain among Is it not wonderful, that the love of the books of natural history, I cannot forbear parent should be so violent while it lasts, recollecting, upon this occasion, the se- and that it should last no longer than is veral remarks which I have met with in necessary for the preservation of the authors, and comparing them with what young? falls under my own observation ; the ar- The violence of this natural love is exguments for Providence, drawn from the emplified by a very barbarous experiment; natural history of animals, being, in my which I shall quote at length, as I find it opinion, demonstrative.

in an excellent author, and hope my - The make of every kind of animal is readers will pardon the mentioning such different from that of every other kind; an instance of cruelty, because there is noand yet there is not the least turn in the thing can so effectually shew the strength muscles or twist in the fibres of any one, of that principle in animals of which I which does not render them more proper am here speaking. “ A person, who for that particular animal's way of life," was well skilled in dissections, opened than any other cast or texture of them a bitch, and as she lay in the most exwould have been.

quisite torture, offered her one of her The most violent appetites in all crea- puppies, which she immediately fell a tures are lust and hunger : the first is a licking; and for the time seemed ingen

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*sible of her pain: on the removal she care does she take in turning them fre

kept her eye fixed on it, and began a quently, that all parts may partake of
“ wailing sort of cry, which seemed rather the vital warmth! When she leaves

to proceed from the loss of her young them, to provide for her necessary sus-

,than the sense of herown torments. tenance, how punctually does she return
But notwithstanding this natural love before they have time to cool, and be-
in brutes is much more violent and intense come incapable of producing an animal!
than in rational creatures, Providence has In the summer you see her giving herself
taken care that it should be no longer greater freedoms, and quitting her care
troublesome to the parent than it is useful for above two hours together; but in
to the young; for so soon as the wants of winter, when the rigour of the season
the latter cease, the mother withdraws her would chill the principles of life, and
fondness, and leaves them to provide for destroy the young one, she grows more
themselves; and, what is a very remark- assiduous in her attendance, and stays
able circumstance in this part of instinct, away but half the time. When the
we find that the love of the parent may birth approaches, with how much nicety
be lengthened out beyond its usual time, and attention does she help the chick to
if the preservation of the species requires break its prison ! Not to take notice
it; as we may see in birds that drive away of her covering it from the injuries of
their young as soon as they are able to the weather, providing it proper nou-
get their livelihood, but continue to feed rishment, and teaching it to help itself;
them if they are tied to the nest, or con- not to mention her forsaking the nest, if,
fined within a cage, or by any other after the usual time of reckoning, the
means appear to be out of a condition young one does not make its appearance.
of supplying their own necessities. A chemical operation could not be fol-

This natural love is not observed in lowed with greater art or diligence,
animals to ascend from the young to the than is seen in the hatching of a chick;
parent, which is not at all necessary for though there are many other birds that
the continuance of the species : nor shew an infinitely greater sagacity in all
indeed in reasonable creatures does it the forementioned particulars.
rise in any proportion, as it spreads But at the same time the hen, that has
itself downwards; for in all family all this seeming ingenuity (which is in-
affection, we find protection granted, deed absolutely necessary for the propa-
and favours bestowed, are greater motives gation of the species), considered in
to love and tenderness, than safety, other respects, is without the least
benefits, or life received.

glimmerings of thought or
One would wonder to hear sceptical sense. She mistakes a piece of chalk
men disputing for the reason of animals, for an egg, and sits upon it in the same
and telling us it is only our pride and manner : she is insensible of any in-
prejudices that will not allow them the crease or diminution in the number of
use of that faculty.

those she lays: she does not distinguish
Reason shews itself in all occurrences between her own and those of another
of life; whereas the brute makes no species; and when the birth appears of
discovery of such a talent, but what im- never so different a bird, will cherish it
mediately regards his own preservation, for her own. In all these circumstances,
or the continuance of his species. Ani- which do not carry an immediate regard
mals in their generation are wiser than to the subsistence of herself or her species,
the sons of men; but their wisdom is she is a very idiot.
confined to a few particulars, and lies There is not, in my opinion, any thing
in a very narrow compass. Take a more mysterious in nature, than this
brute out of his instinct, and you find instinct in animals, which thus rises
him wholly deprived of understanding.-- above reason, and falls infinitely short
To use an instance that comes often of it. It cannot be accounted for by
under observation :

any properties in matter, and at the same
With what caution does the hen pro. time, works after so odd a manner, that
vide herself a nest in places unfrequented, one cannot think it the faculty of an in-
and free from noise and disturbance! tellectual being. For my own part, I
When she has laid ber eggs in such a look upon it as upon the principle of
manner that she can cover them, what gravitation in bodies, which is not to be





explained by any known qualities in- care ?---Deceive not yourselves with herent in the bodies themselves, nor from such arrogant hopes. Whatever be any laws of mechanism, but, according your rank, Providence will not, for to the best notions of the greatest philo- your sake, reverse its established order. sophers, is an immediate impression from By listening to wise admonitions, and the first Mover, and the divine energy tempering the vivacity of youth with a acting in the creatures. Spectator. proper mixture of serious thought, you § 26. The Necessity of forming religious may ensure cheerfulness for the rest of Principles at an early Age.

your life; but by delivering yourselves

up at present to giddiness and levity, As soon as you are capable of re- you lay the foundation of lasting heaviflection, you must perceive that there is ness of heart.

Blair. a right and wrong in human actions. You see that those who are born with $ 27. The Acquisition of virtuous Dispo. the same advantages of fortune, are not

sitions and Habits a necessary Part of

Education, all equally prosperous in the course of life. While some of them, by wise and When


look forward to those steady conduct, attain distinction in the plans of life, which either your circumworld, and pass their days with comfort stances have suggested, or your friends and honour; others of the same rank, have proposed, you will not hesitate by mean and vicious behaviour, forfeit to acknowledge, that in order to pursue the advantages of their birth, involve them with advantage, some previous themselves in much misery, and end in discipline is requisite. Be assured, that being a disgrace to their friends, and a whatever is to be your profession, no burden on society. Early, then, you

education is more necessary to your may learn that it is not on the external success, than the acquirement of virtuous condition in which you find yourselves dispositions and habits. This is the placed, but on the part which you are universal preparation for every character, to act, that your welfare or unhappiness, and every station in life. Bad as the your honour or infamy, depend. Now, world is, respect is always paid to when beginning to act that part, what

virtue. In the usual course of human can be of greater moment than to affairs it will be found, that a plain unregulate your plan of conduct with the derstanding, joined with acknowledged most serious attention, before you have worth, contributes more to prosperity, yet committed any fatal or irretrievable than the brightest parts without probity errors ? If, instead of exerting reflection or honour. Whether science, or busifor this valuable purpose, you deliver ness, or public life, be your aim, virtue yourselves up, at so critical a time, to still enters, for a principal share, into sloth and pleasure ; if you refuse to listen all those great departments of society. to any counsellor but humour, or to at

It is connected with eminence, in every tend to any pursuit except that of amuse- liberal art; with reputation, in every ment; if you allow yourselves to float branch of fair and useful business; with loose and careless on the tide of life, distinction, in every public station. ready to receive any direction which the The vigour which it gives the mind, and current of fashion may chance to give the weight which it adds to character ; you; what can you expect to follow the generous

sentiments which it from such beginnings? While so many breathes; the undaunted spirit which around you are undergoing the sad it inspires, the ardour of religion which consequences of a like indiscretion, it quickens, the freedom which it profor what reason shall not these con- cures from pernicious and dishonourable sequences extend to you? Shall you avocations, are the foundations of all only attain success without that pre- that is high in fame or great in success paration, and escape dangers without among men. Whatever ornamental or that precaution, which is required of engaging endowments you now possess, others? Shall happiness grow up to virtue is a necessary requisite, in order you of its own accord, and solicit to their shining with proper lustre. your acceptance, when, to the rest of Feeble are the attractions of the fairest mankind, it is the fruit of long cultiva. form, if it be suspected that nothing tion, and the acquisition of labour and within corresponds to the pleasing ap.


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pearance without. Short are the triumphs 29. Piely to God the Foundation of of wit, when it is supposed to be the

good Morals. vehicle of malice. By whatever arts

What I shall first recommend is piety you may at first attract the attention, you to God. With this I begin, both as the can hold the esteem and secure the foundation of good morals, and as a dishearts of others only by amiable disposi- position particularly graceful and becomtions and the accomplishments of the

ing in youth. To be void of it, argues mind. These are the qualities whose

a cold heart, destitute of some of the influence will last, when the lustre of all best affections which belong to that age. that once sparkled and dazzled has Youth is the season of warm and genepassed away.


rous emotions. The heart should then § 28. The Happiness and Dignity of spontaneously rise into the admiration of

Manhood depend upon the Conduct of what is great; glow with the love of the youthful Age.

what is fair and excellent; and melt at Let not the season of youth be barren Where can any object be found so proper

the discovery of tenderness and goodness. of improvements, so essential to your felicity and honour. Your character is of the universe, and the Author of all

to kindle those affections, as the Father now of your own forming; your fate is in some measure put into your own

felicity! Unmoved by veneration, can hands. Your nature is as yet pliant you contemplate that grandeur and maand soit. Habits have not established jesty which his works every where distheir dominion. Prejudices have not play ? Untouched by gratitude, can you preoccupied your understanding. The this pleasing season of life, his benefi

view that profusion of good, which, in world has not had time to contract and

cent hand pours around you? Happy debase your affections. All your powers in the love and affection of those with are more vigorous, disembarrassed and whom you are connected, look up to free, than they will be at any future the Supreme Being, as the inspirer of all period. Whatever impulse you now that frienaship which has ever been give to your desires and passions, the shewn you by others ; himself your best direction is likely to continue. It will form the channel in wbich

and your first friend ; formerly, the suplife is to

your run; nay, it may determine an ever

porter of your infancy, and the guide of lasting issue. Consider then the em

your childhood: now the guardian of

your youth, and the hope of your comployment of this important period as the highest trust which shall ever being years. View religious homage as a

natural expression of gratitude to bim committed to you; as, in a great measure, decisive of your happiness, in time service of the God of your fathers; of

for all his goodness. Consider it as the and'in eternity. As in the succession him to whom your parents devoted you; of the seasons, each, by the invariable of him whom in former ages your anlaws of nature, affects the productions cestors honoured, and by whom they of what is next in course; so, in hu

are now rewarded and blessed in heaven. man life, every period of our age, according as it is well or ill spent, influ- bilities of soul, let religion be with you,

Connected with so many tender sensi

, ence. the happiness of that wbich is to follow. Virtuous youth gradually brings culation, but the warm and vigorous

not the cold and barren offspring of speforward accomplished and fourishing dictate of the heart.

Ibid. manhood; and such inanhood passes of itself, without uneasiness, into re- $ 30. Religion never to be treated with spectable and tranquil old age. But

Levity. when nature is turned out of its regular course, disorder takes place in the moral, Impress your minds with reverence for just as in the vegetable world. If the all that is sacred. Let no wantonness of spring put forth no blossoms, in summer youthful spirits, no compliance with the there will be no beauty, and in autumn intemperate mirth of others, ever betray no fruit: So, if youth be trifled away you into profane sallies. Besides the guilt without improvement, manhood will be which is thereby incurred, nothing gives a contemptible, and old age miserable. more odious appearance of petulance and

Ibid. presumption to youth, than the affecta

tion of treating religion with levity. rous suggestions of age. Too wise to Instead of being an evidence of superior learn, too impatient to deliberate, too understanding, it discovers a pert and shal- forward to be restrained, they plunge, low mind; which, vain of the first smate with precipitant indiscretion, into the terings of knowledge, presumes to make midst of all the dangers with which life light of what the rest of mankind revere. abounds.

Ibid. At the same time, you are not to imagine, that when exhorted to be religious, you

$ 32. Sincerity and Truth recommended. are called upon to become more formal It is necessary to recommend to you and solemn in your manners than others sincerity and truth. This is the basis of the same years ; or to erect yourselves of every virtue. That darkness of chainto supercilious reprovers of those around racter, where we can see no heart; you. The spirit of true religion breathes those foldings of art, through which no gentleness and affability. It gives a native native affection is allowed to penetrate, unaffected ease to the behaviour. It is present an object, unamiable in every social, kind, and cheerful; far removed season of life, but particularly odious in

, from that gloomy and illiberal supersti- youth. If, at an age when the heart is tion which clouds the brow, sharpens warm, when the emotions are strong, the temper, dejects the spirit, and teaches and when nature is expected to shew men to fit themselves for another world, herself free and open, you can already by neglecting the concerns of this. Let smile and deceive, what are we to look your religion, on the contrary, connect for, when you shall be longer backneyed preparation for Heaven with an honour in the ways of men ; when interest shall able discharge of the duties of active life. have completed the obduration of your Of such religion discover, on every pro- heart, and experience shall have imper occasion, that you are not ashamed; proved you in all the arts of guile? Disbut avoid making any unnecessary osten- simulation in youth is the forerunner of tation of it before the world. Blair. perfidy in old age. Its first appearance

is the fatal omen of growing depravity $ 31. Modesty and Docility to be joined and future shame. It degrades parts to Piety.

and learning; obscures the lustre of To piety join modesty and docility, every accomplishment; and sinks you reverence of your parents, and submis- into contempt with God and man.

As sion to those who are your superiors in you value, therefore, the approbation of knowledge, in station, and in years. De- Heaven, or the esteem of the world, cul. pendence and obedience belong to youth. tivate the love of truth. In all your proModesty is one of its chief ornaments; ceedings, be direct and consistent. 'Inand has ever been esteemed a presage of genuity and candour possess the most rising merit. When entering on the career powerful charm; they bespeak universal

? of life, it is your part, not to assume the favour, and carry an apology for almost reins as yet in your hands; but to com- every failing. The path of truth is a mit yourself to the guidance of the more plain and safe path: that of falsehood is experienced, and to become wise by the a perplexing maze. After the first dewisdom of those who have gone before parture from sincerity, it is not in your you. Of all the follies incident to youth, power to stop. One artifice unavoidthere are none which either deform its ably leads on to another; till, as the inpresent appearance, or blast the prospects tricacy of the labyrinth increases, you of its future prosperity, more than self- are left entangled in your own snare. conceit, presumption and obstinacy. By Deceit discovers a little mind, which checking its natural progress in improve. stops at temporary expedients, without ment, they fx it in long immaturity; and rising to comprehensive views of confrequently produce mischiefs which can duct. It betrays, at the same time, a never be repaired. Yet these are vices too dastardly spirit. It is the resource of commonly found among the young. Big one who wants courage to avow his dewith enterprise, and elated by hope, they signs, or to rest upon himself. Whereas, resolve to trust for success to none but openness of character displays that genethemselves. Full of their own abilities, rous boldness, which ought to distinguish they deride the admonitions which are youth. To set out in the world with give them by their friends, as the timo. no other principle than a crafty atten

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