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zard of your souls, and upon the solemnity ings, and the appalled and affrighted juror of your oaths. You are upon your oaths consults his own safety in the surrender of to say to the sister country, that the go- the victim: vernment of Ireland uses no such abomi- Et quæ sibi quisque timebat, nable justruments of destruction as infor

Unius in miseri exitium conversa tulere. mers. Let me ask you honestly, what do $40. The Character of Marius. you feel, when in my hearing, when in the The birth of Marius was obscure, face of this audience, you are called upon though some call it equestrian, and his to give a verdict that every man of us, and education wholly in camps; where he every man of you know by the testimony learnt the first rudiments of war, under of your own eyes to be utterly and abso- the greatest master of that the lutely false? I speak not now of the pub- younger Scipio, who destroyed Carthage; lic proclamation of informers with a pro- till by long service, distinguished valour, mise of secresy and of extravagant re- and a peculiar hardiness and patience of ward; I speak not of the fate of those discipline, he advanced himself gradúhorrid wretches who have been so often ally through all the steps of military hotransferred from the table to the dock, and nour, with the reputation of a brave and from the dock to the pillory; I speak of complete soldier. The obscurity of his what your own eyes have seen day after extraction, which depressed him with the day during the course of this commission nobility, made him the greater favourite from the box where you are now sitting; of the people; who, on all occasions of the number of horrid miscreants who danger, thought him the only man fit to avowed upon their oaths that they had be trusted with their lives and fortunes; come from the very seat of government- or to have the command of a difficult from the castle, where they had been and desperate war: and, in truth, he worked upon by the fear of death and the twice delivered them from the most despehopes of compensation, to give evidence rate, with which they had ever been threatagainst their fellows ; that the mild and ened by a foreign enemy. Scipio, from wholesome councils of this government, are the observation of his nartial talents, holden over these catacombs of living while he had yet but an inferior comdeath, where the wretch that is buried à mand in the army, gave a kind of propheman, lies till his heart bas time to fester tic testimony of his future glory; for and dissolve, and is then dug up a being asked by some of his officers, who witness.

were supping with him at Numantia, Is this fancy, or is it fact? Have you what general the republic would have, in not seen him, after his resurrection from case of any accident to himself? That that tomb, after having been dug out of man, replied he, pointing to Marius at the region of death and corruption, make the bottom of the table. In the field be his appearance upon the table, the living was cautious and provident; and while image of life and of death, and the su- he was watching the most favourable oppreme arbiter of both ? Have you not portunities of action, affected to take all marked, when he entered, how the stormy his measures from augurs and diviners ; wave of the muliitude retired at his

ap- nor ever gave battle, till by pretended proach? Have you not marked how the omens and divine admonitions he had inhuman heart bowed to the supremacy of spired his soldiers with a confidence of his power, in the undissembled homage victory; so that his enemies dreaded him of deferential horror? How his glance, as something more than mortal; and both like the lightning of heaven, seemed to friends and foes believed him to act alrive the body of the accused, and mark ways by a peculiar impulse and direction it for the grave, while his voice warned from the gods. His merit however was the devoted wretch of woe and death; a wholly military, void of every accomdeath which no innocence can escape, no plishment of learning, which he openly art elude, no force resist, no antidote pre- affected to despise ; so that Arpinum had vent:---there was an antidote---a juror's the singular felicity to produce the most oath---but even that adamantine chain, that glorious contemner, as well as the most bound the integrity of man to the throne illustrious improver, of the arts and eloof eternal justice, is solved and melted in quence of Rome". He made no figure, the breath that issues from the informer's there re, in the gown, nor had any other mouth; conscience swings from her moor- way of sustaining his authority in the city,

• Arpinum was also the pative city of Cicero.

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than by cherishing the natural jealousy greatest vigour and courage, suffering no between the senate and the people; that man to outdo him in any part of military by this declared enmity to the one he duty or labour, making himself equal and might always be at the head of the other; familiar even to the lowest of the soldiers, whose favour he managed, not with any and obliging them all by his good offices view to the public good, for he had no- and his money: so that he soon acquired thing in hiin of the statesman or the pa- the favour of his army, with the character triot, but to the advancement of his pri- of a brave and skilful commander; and vate interest and glory. In short he was lived to drive Marius himself, banished crafty, cruel, covelous, and perfidious; and proscribed, into that very province of a temper and talents greatly service- where he had been contemned by him at able abroad, but turbulent and dangerous first as his quæstor. He had a wonderat home; an impiacable enemy to the ful faculty of concealing his passions and nobles, ever seeking occasions to mortify purposes; and was so different from himthem, and ready to sacrifice the republic, self in different circumstances, that he which he had saved, to his ambition and seemed as it were to be two men in one: revenge. After a life spent in the perpe- no man was ever more mild and modetual toils of foreign or domestic wars, he rate before victory; none more bloody died at last in his bed, in a good old age, and cruel after it. In war, he practised and in his seventh consulship; an honour the same art, that he had seen so successthat no Roman before lim ever attained. ful to Marius, of raising a kind of enthu

Middleton. siasm and contempt of danger in his army, § 41. The Character of Sylla. by the forgery of auspices and divine adSylla died after he had laid down the monitions ; for which end, he carried aldictatorship, and restored liberty to the ways about with him a little statue of. republic, and, with an uncommon great- Apollo, taken from the temple of Delness of mind, lived many months as a phi; and whenever he had resolved to private senator, and with perfect security, give battle, used to embrace it in sight of in that city where he had exercised the the soldiers, and beg the speedy confirmmost bloody tyranny: but nothing was ation of its promises to him. From thought to be greater in his character, an uninterrupted course of success and than that, during the three years in which prosperity, he assumed a surname, unthe Marians were masters of Italy, he known before to the Romans, of Felix, neither dissembled his resolution of pur- or the Fortunate; and would have been suing them by arms, nor neglected the fortunate indeed, says Velleius, if his war which he had upon his lands; but life had ended with his victories. Pliny thought it his duty, first to chastise'a for calls it a wicked title, drawn from the reign enemy, before he took his revenge blood and oppression of his country; for upon citizens. His family was noble and which posterity would think him more patrician, which yet, through the indo- unfortunate, even than those whom ha lency of his ancestors, had made no figure had put to death. He had one felicity, in the republic for many generations, and however, peculiar to himself, of being was almost sunk into obscurity, till he the only man in history, in whom the produced it again into light, by aspiring odium of the most barbarous cruelties to the honours of the state.

was extinguished by the glory of his great lover and patron of polite letters, having acts. Cicero, though he had a good been carefully instituted himself in all the opinion of his cause, yet detested the learning of Greece and Rome; but from inhumanity of his victory, and never a peculiar gaiety of temper, and fondness speaks of him with respect, nor of his for the company of mimics and players, government but as a proper tyranny; was drawn, when young, into a life of calling him “a master of three most pesluxury and pleasure; so that when he was “tilent vices, luxury, avarice, cruelly.” sent quæstor to Marius in the Jugurthine He was the first of his family whose dead war, Marius complained, that in so rough body was burnt; for, having ordered Maand desperate a service chance had given

rius's remains to be taken out of his him so soft and delicate a quæstor. °But grave and thrown into the river Anio, he whether roused by the example, or stung was apprehensive of the same insult upon by the reproach of his general, he be- his own, if left to the usual way of buhaved himself in that charge with the rial. A little before his death, he made

He was a

his own epitaph, the sum of which was, his sentiments jast ; his voice sweet ; bis " that no man had ever gone beyond him, action noble, and full of dignity. But his “in doing good to his friends, or hurt talents were better formed for arms than “ to his enemies.”

Middleton. the gown; for, though in both he ob$42. The Character of Pompey. served the same discipline, a perpetual Pompey had early acquired the sure modesty, temperance, and gravity of outname of the Great, by that sort of merit ward behaviour; yet in the licence of which, from the constitution of the re- camps the example was more rare and public, necessarily made him great; a striking. His person was extremely fame and success in war, superior to what graceful, and imprinting respect; yet Rome had ever known in the most cele- with an air of reserved haughtiness, brated of her generals. He had tri- which became the general better than the umphed, at three several times, over the citizen. His parts were plausible, rather three different parts of the known world; than great; specious, rather than peneEurope, Asia, Africa : and by his victo. trating; and his views of politics but narries had almost doubled the extent, as row; for his chief instrument of governwell as the revenues of the Roman domi- ing was dissimulation ; yet he had not nion; for, as he declared to the people on always the art to conceal his real sentihis return from the Mithridatic war, he ments. As he was a better soldier than had found the lesser Asia the boundary, a statesman, so what he gained in the but left it the middle, of their empire. He camp he usually lost in the city; and was about, six years older than Cæsar; though adored when abroad, was often and while Cæsar, immersed in pleasures, affronted and mortified at home, till the oppressed with debts, and suspected by imprudent opposition of the senate drove all' honest men, was hardly able to shew him to that alliance with Crassus and his head, Pompey was flourishing in the Cæsar, which proved fatal both to himheight of power and glory; and, by the self and the republic. He took in these consent of all parties, placed at the head two, not as the partners, but the ministers of the republic. This was the post that rather of his power; that by giving them his ambition seemed to aiin at, to be the some share with him, he might make his first man in Rome; the leader, not the own authority uncontrollable; he had no tyrant of his country; for he more than reason to apprehend that they could ever once had it in his power to have made prove his rivals; since neither of them himself the master of it without any risk, had any credit or character of that kind, if his virtue, or his phlegm at least, had which alone could raise them above the not restrained him : but he lived in a per- laws; a superior fame and experience in petual expectation of receiving from the war, with the militia of the empire at gift of the people, what he did not care their devotion; all this was purely his to seize by force; and, by fomenting the own; till, by cherishing Cæsar, and disorders of the city, hoped to drive throwing into his hands the only thing them to the necessity of creating him dic. which he wanted, arms, and military comtator. It is an observation of all the his- mand, he made him at last too strong torians, that while Cæsar made no differ- for himself, and never began to fear him ence of power, whether it was conferred till it was too late. Cicero warmly disor usurped, whether over those who loved, suaded both his union and his breach or those who feared him; Pompey with Cæsar; and after the rupture, as seemed to value none but what was of. warmly still, the thought of giving him fered; nor to have any desire to govern, battle: if any of these counsels had been but with the good-will of the governed. followed, Pompey had preserved his life What leisure he found from his wars, he and honour, and the republic its liberty. employed in the study of polite letters, But he was urged to his fate by a natural and especially of eloquence, in which he superstition, and attention to those vain would have acquired great fame, if his auguries, with which he was flattered by genius had not drawn him to the more all the Haruspices : he had seen the same dazzling glory of arms : yet he pleaded temper in Marius and Sylla, and observed several causes with applause, in ihe de- the happy effects of it: but they assumed fence of his friends and clients; and it only out of policy, he out of principle: some of them in conjunction with Cicero. they used it to animate their soldiers, His language was copious and elevated; when they had found a probable oppor

tunity of fighting: but be, against all less in action; and executing what he prudence and probability, was encouraged had resolved with an amazing celerity: by it to fight to his own ruin. He saw his generous beyond measure to his friends ; inistakes at last, when it was out of his placable to his enemies; and for parts, power to correct them; and in his learning, eloquence, scarce inferior to wretched flight from Pharsalia, was forced any man.

His orations were admired to confess, that he had trusted too much for two qualities, which are seldom found to his hopes; and that Cicero had judged together, strength and elegance: Cicero better, and seen farther into things than ranks him among the greatest orators that he. The resolution of seeking refuge in Rome ever bred; and Quinctilian says Egypt finished the sad catastrophe of this that he spoke with the same force with great man; the father of the reigning which he fought; and if he had devoted prince had been highly obliged to him for himself to the bar, would have been the his protection at Rome, and restoration only man capable of rivalling Cicero. to his kingdom; and the son had sent a Nor was he a master only of the politer considerable fleet to his assistance in the arts; but conversant also with the most present war : but in this ruin of his for- abstruse and critical parts of learning; tunes, what gratitude was there to be ex- and, among other works which he pubpected from a court governed by eunuchs lished, addressed two books to Cicero, and mercenary Greeks? all whose politics on the analogy of language, or the art turned, not on the honour of the king, but of speaking and writing correctly. He the establishment of their own power ; was a most liberal patron of wit and learnwhich was likewise to be eclipsed by the ing, wheresoever they were found ; and admission of Pompey. How happy had out of his love of those talents, would it been for him to have died in that sick- readily pardon those who had employed ness when all Italy was putting up vows

them against himself; rightly judging, and

prayers for his safety! or, if he had that by making such men his friends, he fallen by the chance of war, on the plains should draw praises from the same founof Pharsalia, in the defence of his coun

tain from which he had been aspersed. try's liberty, he had died still glorious, His capital passions were ambition, and though unfortunate; but as if he had love of pleasure ; which he indulged in been reserved for an example of the in- their turns to the greatest excess; yet the stability of human greatness, he, who a first was always predominant; to which few days before commanded kings and he could easily sacrifice all the charms of consuls, and all the r.oblest of Rome, the second, and draw pleasure even from was sentenced to die by a council of toils and dangers, when they ministered slaves ; murdered by a base deserter; cast to his glory. For he thought Tyranny, out naked and headless on the Egyptian as Cicero says, the greatest of goddesses; strand; and when the whole earth, as and had frequently in his mouth a verse Velleius says, had scarce been sufficient of Euripides, which expressed the image for his victories, could not find a spot of his soul, that if right and justice were upon it at last for a grave. His body ever to be violated, they were to be viowas burnt on the shore by one of his lated for the sake of reigning. This was freedmen, with the planks of an old fish- the chief end and purpose of his life; the ing-boat: and his ashes, being conveyed scheme that he had formed from his early to. Rome, were deposited privately by his youth; so that, as Cato truly declared of wise Cornelia, in a vault by his Alban him, he came with sobriety and meditavilla. The Egyptians, however, raised tion to the subversion of the republic. He a monument to him on the place, and used to say, that there were two things adorned it with figures of brass, which necessary, to acquire and to support being defaced afterwards by time, and bu. power-soldiers and money; which yet ried almost in sand and rubbish, was depended mutually upon each other; sought out, and restored by the emperor with money therefore he provided solAdrian.

Middleton. diers, and with soldiers extorted money; $43. The Character of Julius CÆSAR. and was, of all men, the most rapacious in

Cæsar was endowed with every great plundering both friends and foes; sparing and noble quality, that could exalt hu- neither prince, nor state, nor temple, nor man nature, and give a man the ascendant even private persons, who were known to in society; formed to excel in peace, as possess any share of treasure. His great well as war; provident in council ; fear abilities would necessarily have made him

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one of the first citizens of Rome; but, quence, they were pretty nigh equal. Both disdaining the condition of a subject, he of them had the same greatness of mind, could never rest, till he made himself a both the same degree of glory, bært in difmonarcb. In acting this last part his ferent ways: Cæsar was celebrated for his usual prudence seemed to fail him; as if great bounty and generosity; Cato for his the height to which he was mounted had unsullied integrity: the former became turned his head, and made him giddy: renowned by his humanity and compasfor, by a vain ostentation of his power, hie' sion; an austere severity heightened the destroyed the stability of it; and as men dignity of the latter. Cæsar acquired glory shorten life by living too fast, so, by an in- by a liberal, compassionate, and forgiving temperance of reigning, he brought his temper; as did Cato, by never bestowing reign to a violent end. Middleton. any thing. In the one, the miserable

§ 44. The Character of Cato. found a sanctuary; in the other, the guilty If we consider the character of Cato,' met with a certain destruction. Cæsar was without prejudice, he was certainly a admired for an easy yielding temper; Cato great and worthy man; a friend to truth, for his immovable firmness : Cæsar, in a virtue, liberty; yet, falsely measuring all word, had formed himself for a laborious, duty by the absurd rigour of the stoical active life; was intent upon promoting the rule, he was generally disappointed of the interest of his friends, to the neglect of his end which he sought by it, the happiness own; and refused to grant nothing that both of his private and public life. In his was worth accepting; what he desired private conduct he was severe, morose, for himself, was to have sovereign cominexorable; banishing all the soster affec- mand, to be at the head of armies, and tions, as natural enemies to justice, and as engaged in new wars, in order to display suggesting false motives of acting, from his military talents. As for Cato, his only favour, clemency, and compassion: in study was moderation, regular conduct, public affairs he was the same: had but and, above all, rigorous severity: he did one rule of policy, to adhere to what was not vie with the rich in riches, nor in facright without regard to time or circum- tion with the factious; but taking a nostances, or even to a force that could bler aim, he contended in bravery with control him; for, instead of managing the the brave, in modesty with the modest, in power of the great, so as to mitigate the integrity with the upright; and was more ill, or extract any good from it, he was desirous to be virtuous, than appear 80: urging it always to acts of violence by a 80 that the less he courted fame, the more perpetual defiance: so that, with the best it followed him. Sallust, by Mr. Rose. intentions in the world, he often did

great $ 46. The Character of CATALINE. harm to the republic. This was his ge- Lucius Cataline was descended of an neral behaviour; yet from some particular illustrious family: he was a man of great facts, it appears that his strength of mind vigour, both of body and mind, but of was not always impregnable, but had its a disposition extremely profligate and deweak places of pride, ambition, and party praved. From his youth he took pleasure zeal: which, when managed and flatter- in civil wars, massacres, depredations, and ed to a certain point, would betray him intestine broils; and in these he employed sometimes into measures contrary to his his younger days. His body was formed ordinary rule of right and truth. The for enduring cold, hunger, and want of last act of his life was agreeable to his rest, to a degree indeed incredible: his nature and philosophy : when he could spirit was daring, subtle, and changeable: no longer be what he had been; or when he was expert in all the arts of simulation the ills of life overbalanced the good; and dissimulation : covetous of what bewhich, by the principles of his sect, was a longed to others, lavish of his own; vio. just cause for dying ; he put an end to lent in his passions ; he had eloquence his life with a spirit and resolution which enough, but a small share of wisdom. His would make one imagine, that he was boundless soul was constantly engaged in glad to have found an occasion of dying extravagant and romantic projects, too in his proper character. On the whole, high to be attempted. his life was rather admirable than ami- After Sylla’s usurpation, he was fired able; fit to be praised, rather than imi- with a violent desire of seizing the gotated.

Middleton.

vernment; and provided he could but § 45. A Comparison of Cæsar with Cato. earry his point, he was not at all solici

As to their extraction, years, and elo- ous by what means. His spirit, naturally

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