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violent, was daily more and more hurried gods, no regard for the sanctity of oaths, on to the execution of his design, by his no sense of religion. With a disposition poverty, and the consciousness of his thus chequered with virtues and vices, he crimes ; both which evils he had height- served three years under Asdrubal, withened by the practices above-mentioned. out neglecting to pry into, or perform any He was encouraged to it by the wicked- thing that could contribute to make him ness of the state, thoroughly debauched hereafter a complete general. Livy. by luxury and avarice; vices equally fa- 48. From Middleton's Character of tal, though of contrary natures. Ibid.


All the Roman writers, whether poets § 47. The Character of HANNIBAL.

or historians, seem to vie with each other Hannibal being sent to Spain, on his in celebrating the praises of Cicero, as the arrival there attracted the eyes of the most illustrious of all their patriots, and the whole army. The veterans believed Ha- parent of the Roman wit and eloquence; milcar was revived and restored to them: who had done more honour to his country they saw the same vigorous countenance, by his writings than all their conquerors the same piercing eye, the same complex- by their arms, and extended the bounds of ion and features. But in a short time his his learning beyond those of their empire. behaviour occasioned this resemblance of So that their very emperors, near three cenhis father to contribute the least towards turies after his death, began to reverence his gaining their favour. And, in truth, him in the class of their inferior deities ; never was there a genius more happily a rank which he would have preserved to formed for two things, most manifestly this day, if he had happened to live in pacontrary to each other to obey and to pal Rome, where he could not have failed, command. This made it difficult to de- as Erasmus says, from the innocence of termine, whether the general or soldiers his life, of obtaining the honour and title loved him most. Where any enterprise of a saint. required vigour and valour in the per- As to his person, he was tall and slenformance, Asdrubal always chose him to der, with a neck particularly long; yet command at the executing it: nor were his features were regular and manly; prethe troops ever more confident of success, serving a comeliness and dignity to the or more intrepid, than when he was at last, with a certain air of cheerfulness and their head. None ever shewed greater serenity, that imprinted both affection and bravery in undertaking hazardous at- respect. His constitution was naturally tempts, or more presence of mind and weak, yet was so confirmed by his maconduct in the execution of them. No nagement of it, as to enable him to suphardship could fatigue his body, or daunt port all the fatigues of the most active, as his courage : he could equally bear cold well as the most studious life, with perand heat. The necessary resection of na. petual health and vigour. The care that ture, not the pleasure of his palate, he he employed upon his body, consisted solely regarded in his meals. He made chiefly in bathing and rubbing, with a few no distinction of day and night in his turns every day in his gardens, for the watching, or taking rest; and appropri- refreshment of his voice tiom the labour ated no time to sleep, but what remained of the bar: yet

in the summer, he geneafter he had completed his duty; he rally gave himself the exercise of a journever sought for a soft or retired place of ney, to visit his several estates and villas repose; but was often seen lying on the in different parts of Italy. But his prinbare ground, wrapt in a soldier's cloak, cipal instrument of health was diet and amongst the centinels and guards. He temperance: by these he preserved himdid not distinguish himself from his com- self from all violent distempers: and panions by the magnificence of his dress, when he happened to be attacked by any but by the quality of his horse and arms. slight indisposition, used io enforce the seAt the same time, he was by far the best verity of his abstinence, and starve it prefoot and horse soldier in the army; ever sently by fasting. the foremost in a charge, and the last whọ In his clothes and dress, which the left the field after the battle was begun. wise have usually considered as an Index These shiping qualities were however ba- of the mind, he observed, what he prelanced by great vices; inhuman cruelty ; scribes in his book of Ofices, a modesty more than Carthaginian treachery; no and decency adapted to his rank and respect for truth or honour, no fear of the character : a perpetual cleanliness, with


out the appearano. of pains ; free from writings abound with sentiments of this the affectation of singularity, and avoid- sort, as his life did with the examples of ing the extremes of a rustic negligence them; so that one of his friends, in apoand foppish delicacy; both of which are logizing for the importunity of a request, equally contrary to true dignity; the one observes to him with great truth, that the implying an ignorance, or illiberal con- tenor of his life would be a sufficient extempt of it, the other a childish pride and cuse for it; since he had established such ostentation of proclaiming our preten- a custom, of doing everything for his sions to it.

friends, that they no longer requested, In his domestic and social life his be- but claimed a right to command him. haviour was very amiable: he was a most

Yet he was not more generous to his indulgent parent, a sincere and zealous friends, than placable to his enemies ; reafriend, a kind and generous master. His dily pardoning the greatest injuries, upon letters are full of the tenderest expressions the slightest submission; and though no of love for his children; in whose en- man ever had greater abilities or oppordearing conversation, as he often tells us, tunities of revenging himself, yet when it he used to drop all his cares, and relieve was in his power to hurt, he sought out himself from all his struggles in the senate reasons to forgive; and whenever he was and the forum. The same affection, invited to it, never declined a reconciliain an inferior degree, was extended also tion with his most inveterate enemies; of to his slaves, when by their fidelity and which there are numerous instances in his services they had recommended them- history. He declared nothing to be more selves to his favour. We have seen a re- laudable and worthy of a great man than markable instance of it in Tiro, whose placability; and laid down for a natural case was no otherwise different from the duty, to moderate our revenge, and obrest, than as it was distinguished by the serve a temper in punishing; and held superiority of his merit. In one of his repentance to be a sufficient ground for letters tó Atticus, “I have nothing remitting it: and it was one of his saymore,” says he, “to write and my ings, delivered to a public assembly, that “mind indeed is somewhat ruffled at pre- his enmities were morial, his friendships "sent; for Socitheus, my reader, is immortal. “ dead : a hopeful youth; which has His manner of living was agreeable to “afflicted me more than one would ima- the dignity of his character, splendid and “gine the death of a slave ought to do.” noble: his house was open to all the learn

He entertained very high notions of ed strangers and philosophers of Greece friendship, and of its excellent use and and Asia; several of whom were constantly benefit to human life; which he has entertained in it as a part of his family, beautifully illustrated in his entertaining and spent their whole lives with him. treatise on that subject; where he lays His levee was perpetually crowded with down no other rules than what he exem- multitudes of all ranks; even Pompey plified by his practice. For in all the va- himself not disdaining to frequent it. 'l'he riety of friendships in which bis eminent greatest part came not only to pay their rank engaged him, he never was charged compliments, but to attend him on days of with deceiving, deserting, or even slight- business to the senate or the forum; where, ing any one whom he bad once called his upon any debate or transaction of mofriend, or esteemed an honest man. It ment, they constantly waited to conduct was his delight to advance their prospe him home again : but on ordinary days, rity, to relieve their adversity; the same when these morning visits were over, as friend to botb fortunes ; but more zealous they usually were before ten, he retired to only in the bad, where his help was most his books, and shut himself up in his liwanted, and his services the most disin- brary without seeking any other diversion, terested ; looking upon it not as a friend- but what his children afforded to the short ship, but a sordid traffic and merchan- intervals of his leisure. His supper was dise of benefits, where good offices are to the greatest meal; and the usual season be weighed by a nice estimate of gain and with all the great of enjoying their friends loss. He calls gratitude the mother of at table, which was frequently prolonged virtues; reckons it the most capital of all to a late hour of the night, yet he was duties; and uses the words grateful and out of his bed every morning before it good as terms synonymous, and insepa- was light; and never used to sleep again ably united in the same character. His at noon, as all others generally did, and as


it is commonly practised in Rome to this his enemies a plausible handle of rididay.

culing his pride and arrogance; while the But though he was so temperate and forwardness that he shewed to celebrate studious, yet when he was engaged to sup his own merits in all his public speeches, with others, either at home or abroad, he seemed to justify their censures: and since laid aside his rules, and forgot the invalid; this is generally considered as the grand and was gay and sprightly, and the very foible of his life, and has been handed soul of the company.

When friends were down implicitly from age to age, without met together, to heighten the comforts of ever being fairly examined, or rightly unsocial lise, he thought it inhospitable not derstood, it will be proper to lay open the to contribute his share to their common source from which the passion itself flowed, mirth, or to damp it by a churlish re- and explain the nature of that glory, of servedness. But he was really a lover of which he professes himself so fond. cheerful entertainments, being of a na- True glory then, according to his own ture remarkably facetious, and singularly definition of it, is a wide and illustrious turned to raillery; a talent which was of fame of many and great benefits conferred great service to him at the bar, to correct upon our friends, our country, or the the petulance of an adversary; relieve the whole race of mankind: it is not, he says, satiety of a tedious cause; divert the the empty blast of popular favour, or the minds of the judges; and mitigate the applause of a giddy multitude, which all rigour of a sentence, by making both the wise men had ever despised, and none bench and audience merry at the expence more than himself; but the consenting of the accuser.

praise of all honest men, and the incorHis failings were as few as were ever rupt testimony of those who can judge of found in any eminent genius; such as excellent merit, which resounds always to flowed from his constitution, not his will; virtue, as the echo to the voice ; and since and were chargeable rather to the con- it is the general companion of good actions, dition of his humanity, than to the fault of ought not to be rejected by good men. the man. He was thought to be too san. That those who aspired to this glory were guine in prosperity, too desponding in ad- not to expect ease or pleasure, or tranquilversity: and apt to persuade himself, in lity of life for their pains; but must give each fortune, that it would never have an up their own peace, to secure the peace of end. This is Pollio's account of him, others ; must expose themselves to storms which seems in general to be true; Brutus and dangers for the public good; sustain touches the first part of it in one of his many battles with the audacious and the letters to him; and when things were wicked, and some even with the powerful: going prosperously against Antony, put in short must behave themselves so, as to him gently in mind, that he seemed to give their citizens cause to rejoice that trust too much to his hopes; and he they had ever been born. This is the nohimself allows the second, and says that tion that he inculcates every where of true if any one was timorous in great and dan- glory; which is surely one of the noblest gerous events, apprehending always the principles that can inspire a human breast: worst, rather than hoping the best, he was implanted by God in our nature, to dige the man; and if that was a fault, con- nify and exalt it: and always found the fesses himself not to be free from it: yet strongest in the best and most elevated in explaining, afterwards the nature of minds; and to which we owe every thing this timidity, it was such, he tells us, as great and laudable, that history has to shewed itself rather in foreseeing dangers, offer us through all the ages of the heathen than in encountering them : an explica- world. There is not an instance, says tion which the latter part of his life fully Cicero, of a man's exerting himself ever confirmed, and above all his death, which with praise and virtue in the dangers of no man could sustain with greater courage his country, who was not drawn to it by and resolution,

the hopes of glory, and a regard to posBut the most conspicuous and glaring terity. Give me a boy, says Quinctilian, passion of his soul was the love of glory whom praise excites, whom glory warms; and thirst of praise : a passion that he for such a scholar was sure to answer all not only avowed, but freely indulged; and his hopes, and do credit to his discipline. sometimes, as he himself confesses, to a “ Whether posterity will have any redegree even of vanity. This often

gave “ spect for me,” says Pliny, “ I know


“ not, but I am sure that I have deserved been the common mark of the rage and

from it; I will not say by my malice of all who were aiming at illegal “ wit, for that would be arrogant; but by powers, or a tyranny in the state; and “ the zeal, by the pains, by the reverence while these were generally supported by “ which I have always paid to it." the military power of the empire, he had

It will not seem strange, to observe the no other arms, or means of defeating them, wisest of the ancients pushing this prin- but his authority with the senate and peociple to so great a length, and considering ple, grounded on the experience of his glory as the amplest reward of a well-spent services, and the persuasion of his intelife, when we reflect, that the greatest part grity; so that to obviate the perpetual caof them had no notion of any other reward lumnies of the factious, he was obliged to or futurity; and even those who believed inculcate the merit and good effects of his a state of happiness to the good, yet en- counsels, in order to confirm people in tertained it with so much diffidence, that their union and adherence to them, against they indulged it rather as a wish than a the intrigues of those who were employing well-grounded hope, and were glad there. all arts to subvert them.

“ The frequent fore to lay hold on that which seemed to commemoration of his acts,” says Quincbe within their reach; a futurity of their tilian, “ was not made so much for glory own creating ; an immortality of fame and“ as for defence; to repel calumny, and glory from the applause of posterity. This, “ vindicate his measures when they were by a pleasing fiction, they looked upon as “ attacked :” and this is what Cicero a propagation of life, and an eternity of himself declared in all his speeches, existence; and had no small coinfort in " That no man ever heard him speak of imagining, that though the sense of it “ himself but when he was forced to it: should not reach to themselves, it would " that when he was urged with fictitious extend at least to others; and that they crimes, it was his custom to answer should be doing good still when dead, by " them with his real services; and if ever leaving the example of their virtues to the " he said any thing glorious of himself, imitation of mankind. Thus Cicero, as “ it was not through a fondness of praise, he often declares, never looked upon that “ but to repel an accusation ; that no to be his life, which was confined to this man who had been conversant in great narrow circle on earth, but considered his affairs, and treated with particular envy, acts as seed sown in the immense universe, “ could refute the contumely of an enemy to raise up the fruit of glory and immor- “ without touching upon his own praises ; tality to him through a succession of infi- " and after all his labours for the common nite ages : nor has he been frustrated of “safety, if a just indignation had drawn his hope, or disappointed of his end; but “ from him, at any time, what might as long as the name of Rome subsists, or seem to be vain-glorious, it might reaas long as learning, virtue, and liberty “sonably be forgiven to him: that whea preserve any credit in the world, he will 4 others were silent about him, if lie could be great and glorious in the memory of “not then forbear to speak of himself, all posterity.

“ that indeed would be shameful; but As to the other part of the charge, or “ when he was injured, accused, exposed the proof of his vanity drawn from his " to popular odium, he must certainly be boasting so frequently of himself in bis “allowed to assert his liberty, if they speeches both to ihe senate and the people, “would not suffer him to retain his digthough it may appear to a common reader

“ nity.” to be abundantly confirmed by his This then was the true state of the case, writings; yet if we attend to the circum- as it is evident from the facts of his histostances of the times, and the part which ry; he had an ardent love of glory, and he acted in them, we shall find it not only an eager thirst of praise : was pleased, excusable, but in some degree even neces- when living, to hear his acts applauded; sary. The fate of Rome was now brought yet more still with imagining, that they to a crisis, and the contending parties were would ever be celebrated when he was making their last efforts either to oppress dead:

: a passion which, for the reasons alor preserve it; Cicero was the head of ready hinted, had always the greatest force those who stood up for its liberty, which

eatest souls: but it must needs entirely depended on the influences of his raise our contempt and indignation, to see eounsels; he had many years, therefore, every conceited pedant, and trifling de

on the

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claimer, who knew little of Cicero's real utterly lost; as the first book of his Letters cbaracier, and still less of their own, pre- to Licinius Calvus ; the first also to Q. suming to call him the vainest of mortals. Axius; a second book to his son ; a second

No man, whose life had been wholly also to Corn. Nepos; a third book to J. spent in study, ever left more numerous, Cæsar; a third to Octavius; a third also or more valuable fruits of his learning in to Pansa; an eighth book to M. Brutus; every branch of science, and the politer and a ninth to A. Hirtius. Of all which, arts; in oratory, poetry, philosophy, law, excepting a few to J. Cæsar and Brutus, history, criticism, politics, ethics ; in each we have nothing more left than some scatof which he equalled the greatest masters tered phrases and sentences, gathered from of his time; in some of them excelled all the citations of the old critics and grammen of all times. His remaining works, marians. What makes these letters still as voluminous as they appear, are but a more estimable is, that he had never desmall part of what he really published; signed them for the public, nor kept any and though many of these are come down copies of them; for the year before his to us maimed by time, and the barbarity death, when Atticus was making some inof the intermediate ages, yet they are just quiry about them, he sent him word, that ly esteemed the most precious remains of he had made no collection ; and that Tiro

; all antiquity, and, like the Sybilline books, had preserved only about seventy. Here if more of ihem had perished, would have then we may expect to see the genuine been equal still to any price.

man, without disguise or affectation ; espeHis industry was incredible, beyond cially in his letters to Atticas, to whom the example, or even conception, of our he talked with the same frankness as to days; this was the secret by which he himself; opened the rise and progress

of performed such wonders, and reconciled each thought, and never entered into any perpetual study with perpetual affairs. affair without his particular advice: so He suffered no part of his leisure to be that these may be considered as the meidle, or the least interval of it to be lost : moirs of his times; containing the most But what other people gave to the public authentic materials for the history of that shows, to pleasures, to feasts, nay even age, and laying open the grounds and moto sleep, and the ordinary refreshments tives of all the great events that happened of nature, he generally gave to his books, in it; and it is the want of attention to and the enlargement of his knowledge. On them that makes the generality of writers days of business, when he had any thing on those times so superficial, as well as particular to compose, he had no other erroneous; while they choose to transcribe time for meditating but when he was tak- the dry and imperfect relations of the later ing a few turns in his walks, where he Greek historians, rather than take the used to dictate his thoughts to his scribes pains to extract the original account of who attended him. We find many of his facts from one who was a principal actor letters dated before day-light; and some in them. from the senate; others from his meals; In his familiar letters, he affected no and the crowd of his morning levee. particular elegance or choice of words,

No compositions afford more pleasure but took the first that occurred from comthan the epistles of great men: they touch mon use, and the language of conversathe heart of the reader by laying open that tion. Whenever he was disposed to joke, of the writer. The letters of eminent wits, his wit was easy and natural; flowing aleminent scholars, eminent statesmen, are ways from the subject, and throwing out all esteemed in their several kinds: but what came uppermost; nor disdaining there never was a collection that excelled

even a pun, when it served to make his so much in every kind as Cicero's, for the friends laugh. In letters of compliment, purity of style, the importance of the mat- some of which were addressed to the ter, or the dignity of the persons concern- greatest men who ever lived, his inclinaed in them, We have above a thousand tion to please is expressed in a manner still remaining, all written after he was agreeable to nature and reason, with the forty years old; which are a small part not utmost delicacy both of sentiment and only of what he wrote, but of what were diction, yet

of those pompous actually published after his death by his titles and lofty epithets, which modern servant Tiro. For we see many volumes of custom has introduced into our commerce them quoted by the ancients, which are with the great, and falsely stamped with

without any

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