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night, and made her appear much better golden sand: they often drank of this than she would have done in open day- stream, which had such a particular light. Her whole art was to shew here quality in it, that though it refreshed self more beautiful and majestic than them for a time, it rather inflamed than she really was. For which reason she quenched their thirst. On each side of had painted her face, and wore a cluster the river was a range of bills full of of false jewels upon her breast; but precious ore; for where the rains had what I more particularly observed, was washed off the earth, one might see in the breadth of her petticoat, which was several parts of them long veins of gold, made altogether in the fashion of a and rocks that looked like pure silver. modern fardingale. This place was filled We were told that the deity of the place with hypocrites, pedants, free-thinkers, had forbad any of his votaries to dig into and prating politicians, with a rabble of the bowels of these hills, or convert the those who have only titles to make them treasures they contained to any use, under great men. Female votaries crowded pain of starving. At the end of the valley the temple, choked up the avenues of it, stood the temple of Avarice, made after and were more in number than the sand the manner of a fortification, and surupon the sea-shore. I made it my busi- rounded with a thousand triple-headed ness, in my return towards that part of dogs, that were placed there to keep off the wood from whence I first set out, to beggars. At our approach they all fell a observe the walks which led to this tem- barking, and would have much terrified ple; for I met in it several who had us, had not an old woman, who had begun their journey with the band of called herself by the forged name of virtuous persons, and travelled some time Competency, offered herself
for our guide. in their company;
upon examina- She carried under her garment a golden tion, I found that there were several bow, which she no sooner held up in her paths which led out of the great road hand, but the dogs lay down, and the into the sides of the wood, and ran into gates flew open for our reception. We 80 many crooked turns and wind- were led through an hundred iron doors ings, that those who travelled through before we entered the temple. At the them, often turned their backs upon the upper end of it, sat the God of Avarice, temple of Virtue, then crossed the with a long filthy beard, and a meagre straight road, and sometimes marched starved countenance, inclosed with heaps in it for a little pace, till the crooked path of ingots and pyramids of money, but which they were engaged in again led half naked and shivering with cold : on them into the wood. The several alleys his right hand was a fiend called Rapine, of those wanderers, had their particular and on his left a particular favourite, to ornaments : one of them I could not whom he had given the title of Parsibut take notice of, in the walk of the mony; the first was his collector, and the mischievous pretenders to politics, which other his cashier. There were several long had at every turn the figure of a person, tables placed on each side of the temple, whom, by the inscription, I found to be with respective officers attending behind Machiavel, pointing out the way, with an
, them : some of these I inquired into : at extended finger,like a Mercury. Tatler. the first table was kept the office of Cor
ruption. Seeing a solicitor extremely § 75. The Temple of Avarice.
busy, and whispering every body that I was now returned in the same manner passed by, I kept my eye upon him very as before, with a design to observe care attentively, and saw him often going up fully every thing that passed in the region to a person that had a pen in his hand,
a of Avarice, and the occurrences in that with a multiplication-table and an almaassembly which was made up of persons nac before him, which, as I afterwards of my own age. This body of travellers heard, was all the learning he was had not gone far in the third great road, master of. The solicitor would often before it led them insensibly into a deep apply himself to his ear, and at the same valley, in which they journeyed several time convey money into his hand, for days with great toil and uneasiness, and which the other would give him out a without the necessary refreshments of piece of paper, or parchment, signed food and sleep. The only relief they and sealed in form. The name of this met with, was in a river that ran through dexterous and successful solicitor was the bottom of the valley on a bed of Bribery. At the next table was the of
fice of Extortion: behind it sat a person but if thou wilt not grant me this, that in a bob-wig, counting over a great sum thou wouldst not bear a form more terriof inoney: he gave out little purses to ble than that in which thou appearest to several, who, after a short tour, brought me at present. Let not thy threats or him, in return, sacks full of the same kind menaces betray me to any thing that is of coin. I saw, at the same time, a person ungrateful or unjust. Let me not shut my called Fraud, who sat behind the counter, ears to the cries of the needy. Let me not with false scales, light weights, and scanty forget the person that has deserved well of measures; by the skilful application of me. Let me not, from any fear of thee, which instruments, she had got together desert my friend, my principles, or my an immense heap of wealth; it would be honour. If Wealth is to visit me, and endless to name the several officers, or come with her usual attendants, Vanity and describe the votaries that attend in this Avarice, do thou, O Poverty! hasten to temple; there were many old men, pant- my rescue ; but bring along with thee ing and breathless, reposing their heads on thy two sisters, in whose company thou art bags of money: nay, many of them ac- always cheerful, Liberty and Innocence.” tually dying, whose very pangs and con
Tatler. vulsions (which rendered their
purses useless to them) only made them grasp them
$76. The Balance of Happiness equal. the faster. There were some tearing with
An extensive contemplation of human one hand all things, even to the garments affairs, will lead us to this conclusion, that and flesh of many miserable persons who among the different conditions and ranks stood before them; and with the other of men, the balance of happiness is prehand throwing away what they had seized, served in a great measure equal; and that to harlots, flatterers, and panders, that the high and the low, the rich and the stood behind them. On a sudden the poor, approach, in point of real enjoyment, whole assembly fell a trembling; and, much nearer to each other, than is comupon inquiry, I found that the great room monly imagined. In the lot of man, muwe were in was haunied with a spectre, tual compensations, both of pleasure and that many times a day appeared to them, of pain, universally take place. Provi- . and terrified them to distraction. In the dence never intended, that any state here midst of their terror and amazement, the should be either completely happy, or enapparition entered, which I immediately tirely miserable. If the feelings of pleaknew to be Poverty. Whether it were by sure are more numerous and more lively, my acquaintance with this phantom, which in the higher departments of life, such alhad rendered the sight of her more fami- so are those of pain. If greatness flatters liar to me, or however it was, she did not our vanity, it multiplies our dangers. If make so indigent or frighiful a figure in opulence increases our gratifications, it inmy eye, as the god of this loathsome tem- creases, in the same proportion, our desires ple. The miserable votaries of this place and demands. If the poor are confined to were, I found, of another mind: every one a more narrow circle, yet within that circle fancied himself threatened by the appari- lie most of those natural satisfactions which, tion as she stalked about the room, and after all the refinements of art, are found began to lock their coffers, and tie their to be the most genuine and true.-In a bags, with the utmost fear and trembling. state, therefore, where there is neither so I must confess, I look upon the passion much to be coveted on the one hand, nor which I saw in this unhappy people, to be to be dreaded on the other, as at first apof the same nature with ihose unaccount. pears, how submissive ought we to be io able antipathies which some persons are
ihe disposal of Providence! How tempe. born with, or rather as a kind of frenzy, rate in our desires and pursuits! How not unlike that which throws a man inio much more attentive to preserve our virtue, terrors and agonies at the sight of so useful and to improve our minds, than to gain the and innocent a thing as water. The whole doubtful and equivocal advantages of asseinbly was surprised, when, instead of worldly prosperity!
Blair. paying my devotious to the deity whom they all adored, they saw me address myself § 77. At first selling out in Life, beware to tbe Phantom. "Oh! Poverty! (said I)
of seducing Appearances. my first petition to thee is, that thou At your first setting out in life espewouldst never appear to me hereafter; cially, when yet unacquainted with the
world and its snares, when every pleasure of others, I seek an interest which is chienchants with its smile, and every object merical, and can never bave existed. shines with the gloss of novelty; beware How then must I determine? Have I no of the seducing appearances which sur- interest at all?- If I have not, I am a fool round you, and recollect what others have for staying here. 'Tis a smoky house; and suffered from the power of headstrong de- the sooner out of it the better. But why sire. If you allow any passion, even no interest ?- Can I be contented with though it be esteemed innocent, to acquire none, but one separate and detached? Is a an absolute ascendant, your inward peace social interest, joined with others, such an will be impaired. But if any which has absurdity as not to be admitted ? - The bee,
-the taint of guilt, take early possession of the beaver, and the tribes of herding aniyour mind, you may date from that mo- mals are enough to convince me, that the ment the ruin of your tranquillity:-Nor thing is somewhere at least possible. How, with the season of youth does the peril then, am I assured that 'uis vot equally end. To the impetuosity of youthful de- true of man ?--Admit it; and what follows? sire, succeed the more sober, but no less If so, then honour and justice are my indangerous attachments of advancing years; terest; then the whole train of ral virtues when the passions which are connected are my interest; without some portion of with interest and ambition begin their which, not even thieves can maintain soreign, and too frequently extend their ma- ciety. lignant influence, even over those periode But, farther still-I stop not here-I of life which ought to be most tranquil. pursue this social interest, as far as I can From the first to the last of man's abode trace my several relations, I pass from on earth, the discipline must never be re- my own stock, my own neighbourhood, laxed, of guarding the heart from the do- my own nation, to the whole race of manminion of passion. Eager passions, and kind, as dispersed throughout the earth. violent desires, were not made for man. Am I not related to them all by the muThey exceed his sphere: they find no tual aids of commerce, by the generalinteradequate objects on earth; and of course course of arts and letters, by that common can be productive of nothing but misery. nature of which we all participate? The certain consequences of indulging Again-I must have food and clothing them is, that there shall come an evil day, -Without a proper genial warmth, I in
a when the anguish of disappointment shall stantly perish-Am I not related, in this drive us to acknowledge, that all which view, to the very earth itself? to the distant we enjoy availeth us nothing. Blair. sun, from whose beams I derive vigour ?
to that stupendous course and order of the $ 78. Virtue, Man's true Interest. infinite host of heaven, by which the times
and seasons ever uniformly pass on? I find myself existing upon a little spot, Were this order once confounded, I could surrounded every way by an immense un- not probably survive a moment; so absoknown expansion-Where am I? What Jutely do 1 depend on this common genesort of a place do I inbabit? Is it exactly ral welfare.-- What, tben, have I to do, accommodated, in every instance, to my but to enlarge virtue into piety? Not only convenience ? Is there no excess of cold, honour and justice, and what I owe to none of heat, to offend me? Am I never
man, is my interest; but gratitude also, annoyed by animals, either of my own acquiescence, resignation, adoration, and kind, or a different ? Is every thing sub- all I owe to this great polity, and its greater servient to me, as though I had ordered all Governor, our common parent. Harris. myself ?-No-nothing like it--the farthest from it possible. — The world appears
$79. On Gratiluule. not, then, originally made for the private convenience of me alone?- It does not. There is not a more pleasing exercise of But is it not possible so to accommodate the mind, than gratitude. it, by my own particular industry? If to It is accompanied with such inward accommodate man and beast, heaven and satisfaction, that the duty is sufficiently reearth, if this be beyond me, 'tis not possi- warded by the performance. It is not like ble-What consequence then follows? or the practice of many other virtues, difficult can there be any other than this If I seek and painful, but attended with so much an interest of my own, detached from that pleasure, that were there no positive com
mand which enjoined it, nor any recom- knowledge of the true God, have set the pense laid up for it hereafter—a generous Christian world an example how they mind would indulge in it, for the natural ought to employ this divine talent, of gratification that accompanies it.
which I am speaking. As that nation If gratitude is due from man to man- produced men of great genius, without how much more from man to his Maker? considering them as inspired writers, they -The Supreme Being does not only con- have transmitted to us many hymns and fer upon us those bounties which proceed divine odes, which excel those that are more immediately from his hand, but even delivered down to us by the ancient those benefits which are conveyed to us Greeks and Romans, in the poetry as by others. Every blessing we enjoy, by much as in the subject to which it is conwhat means soever it may be derived upon secrated. This, I think, might be easily us, is the gift of Him who is the great shewn, if there were occasion for it. Author of good, and Father of mercies.
Spectator. If gratitude, when exerted towards one another
, naturally produces a very pleas- $ 80. Religion the Foundation of Coning sensation in the mind of a grateful
tent: an Allegory. man; it exalts the soul into rapture, when Omar, the hermit of the mountain Aus it is employed on this great object of gra- bukabis, which rises on the east of Mecca, titude, on this beneficent Being, who has and overlooks the city, found one evening given us every thing we already possess, a man sitting pensive and alone, within å
a and from whom we expect every thing we few paces of his cell. Omar regarded yet hope for.
him with attention, and perceived that his Most of the works of the Pagan poets looks were wild and haggard, and that his were either direct hymns of their deities, body was feeble and emaciated: the man or tended indirectly to the celebration of also seemed to gaze steadfastly on Omar; their respective atıributes and perfections. but such was the abstraction of his mind, Those who are acquainted with the works that his eye did not immediately take of the Greek and Latin poets which are cognizance of its object. In the moment still extant, will, upon reflection, find this of recollection he started as from a dream, observation so true, that I shall not enlarge he covered his face in confusion, and upon it. One would wonder that more bowed himself to the ground. “Son of of our Christian poets have not turned affliction,” said Omar, « who art thou, their thoughts this way, especially if we and what is thy distress ?" "My name,
• ” coosider, that our idea of the Supreme replied the stranger, “is Hassan, and I Being, is not only infinitely more great am a native of this city: the Angel of Adand noble than could possibly enter into versity has laid his hand upon me, and the the heart of a heathen, but filled with wretch whom thine eye compassionates, every thing tbat can raise the imagination, thou canst not deliver.” « To deliver thee," and give an opportunity of the sublimest said Omar, “belongs to Him only, from thoughts and conceptions.
whom we should receive with humility Plutarch tells us of a heathen who was both good and evil: yet hide not thy life singing an hymn to Diana, in which he from me; for the burthen which I cannot celebrated her for her delight in human remove, I inay at least enable thee to sacrifices, and other instances of cruelty sustain.” Hassan fixed his eyes upon the and revenge; upon which a poet who was ground, and remained some time silent; present at this piece of devotion, and then fetching a deep sigh, he looked up at seems to have had a truer idea of the di- the hermit, and thus complied with his vine nature, told the votary, by way of requesi. reproof, that in recompense for his hymn, It is now six years since our mighty lord he beartily wished he might have a daugh- the Caliph Almalic, whose memory be ter of the same temper with the goddess blessed, first came privately to worship in he celebrated. It was indeed impossible the temple of the boly city. The blessing to write the praises of one of those false which he petitioned of the prophet, as the deities, according to the Pagan creed, prophet's vicegerent, he was diligent to without a mixture of impertinence and dispense : in the intervals of his devotion, absurdity.
therefore, he went about the city relieving The Jews, who before the time of Chris- distress and restraining oppression: the bianity were the only people who had the widow smiled under his protection, and
the weakness of age and infancy was sus- tlon: to exalt thee, would destroy thic tained by his bounty. I, who dreaded no simplicity of thy life, and dininish that evil but sickness, and expected no good happiness which I have no power either beyond the reward of my labour, was to increase or to continue.” singing at my work, when Almalic entered He then rose up, and commanding me my dwelling. He looked round with a not to disclose his secret, departed. smile of complacency; perceiving that As soon as I recovered from the confuthough it was mean it was neat, and sion and astonishment in which the Caliph though I was poor l appeared to be con- left me, I began to regret that
behatent. As his habit was that of a pilgrim, viour had intercepted his bounty; and I hastened to receive him with such hos- accused that cheerfulness of folly, which pitality as was in my power; and my was the concomitant of poverty and cheerfulness was rather increased than re- labour. I now repined at the obscurity strained by his presence. After he had of my station, which my former insensiaccepted some coffee, he asked me many bility bad perpetuated: I neglected my questions; and though by my answers i labour, because I despised the reward; I
I always endeavoured to excite him to mirth, spent the day in idleness, forming romanyet 1 perceived that he grew thoughtful, tic projects to recover the advantages which and eyed me with a placid but fixed at- I had lost: and at night, instead of losing tention. I suspected that he had some myself in that sweet and refreshing sleep, knowledge of me, and therefore inquired from which I used to rise with new health, his country and his name. “ Hassan,” cheerfulness, and vigour, I dreamt of said he, “ I have raised thy curiosity, and splendid habits and a numerous retinue, of it shail be satisfied; he who now talks gårdens, palaces, eunuchs, and women, with thee, is Almalic, the sovereigu of the and waked only to regret the illusions faithful, whose seat is the throne of Medi- that had vanished. My health was at na, and whose commission is from above." length impaired by the inquietude of my These words struck me dumb with asto- mind; I sold all my moveables for subnishment, though I had some doubt of sistence; and reserved only a mattrass, their truth: bui Almalic, throwing back upon which I sometimes lay from one his garment, discovered the peculiarity of night to another. his vest, and put the royal signet upon his In the first moon of the following year, finger. I then started up, and was about the Caliph came again to Mecca, with the to prostrate myself before him, but he pre- same secrecy, and for the same purposes. vented me: “ Hassan,” said he, “ forbear; He was willing once more to see the man, thou art greater than I, and from thee I whom he considered as deriving felicity have at once derived humility and wis- from himself. But he found me, not singdom." I answered, “ Mock not thy ser- ing at my work, ruddy with health, vivid vant, who is but as a worm before thee; with cheerfulness; but pale and dejected, life and death are in thy hand, and hap- sitting on the ground, and chewing opium, piness and misery are the daughters- of which contributed to substitute the phanihy will.” “ Hassan,” he replied, “ I can toms of imagination for the realities of no otherwise give life or happiness, than greatness. He entered with a kind of
, by not taking them away: thou art thy: joyful impatience in his countenance, self beyond the reach of my bounty, and which, the moment he beheld me, was possessed of felicity which I can neither changed to a mixture of wonder and pity. communicate nor obtain. My influence I had often wished for another opportunity over others, fills my bosom with perpetual to address the Caliph; yet I was consolicitude and anxiety; and yet my in- founded at his presence, and, throwing fluence over others extends only to their myself at his feet, I laid
upon vices, whether I would reward or punish. my head, and was speechless. “ Hassan,” By the bow-string, I can repress violence said he, “ what canst thou have lost, whose and fraud; and by the delegation of wealth was the labour of thine own hand; power, I can transfer the insatiable wishes and what can have made thee sad, the of avarice and ambition from one object spring of whose joy was in thy own bosom? to another : but with respect to virtue, 1 What evil hath befallen thee? Speak, am impotent; if I could reward it, I would and if I can remove it, thou art happy. reward it in thee. Thou art content, and I was now encouraged to look up, and I hast therefore neither aparice nor anubi- replied, “Let my Lord forgive the pre