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Illumin, what is low raise and support;
That to the highth of this great argument
I may affert eternal Providence,
And justify the ways of God to Men.

Say first, for Heav'n hides nothing from thy view,
Nor the deep tract of Hell, say first what cause

Moy'd is informed by those, who had oppor- bird, because the descent of the : tunities of conversing with his wi- Holy Ghost is compared to a dove

dow, that she was wont to say that in Scripture, Luke III. 22. As Pin he did really look upon himself as Milton studied the Scriptures in do si inspir'd, and I think his works are the original languages, his images

not without a spirit of enthusiasm. and expressions are oftner copied 1:1 In the beginning of his ad book from them, than from our transla

of The Reajon of Church government, tion. 26 speaking of his design of writing 26. And juslify the ways of Gid 2 a poem in the English language, he to Men.] A verse, which

fays, “ It was not to be obtained Mr. Pope has thought fit to bor

« by the invocation of Dame Me- row with some little variation, in ose « mory and her Siren daughters, the beginning of his Essay on Man,

a but by devout prayer to that But vindicate the ways of God to “ eternal Spirit who can enrich

Man. « with all utterance and knowFangon “ledge, and sends out his Sera- It is not easy to conceive any good

phim, with the hallow'd fire of reason for Mr. Pope's preferring « his altar, to touch and purify the the word vindicate, but Milton “ lips of whom he pleases, p. 61. makes use of the word justify, as it Edit. 1738.

is the Scripture word, That thou 19. Inftruet me, for Thou know'f;] mightest be justified in thy sayings, Theocrit. Idyl. XXII. 116. Rom. III. 4. And the ways of God Eszt Isd, cu gapostati

to Men are justified in the many ar

gumentative difcourses throughout 21. Dove-like fati brooding] Al- the poem, and particularly in the luding to Gen. I. 2. the Spirit of conferences between God the FaGod moved on the face of the waters; ther and the Son. for the word that we translate moved 27. Say first, for Heav'n bides rier fignifies properly. brooded, as a bird thing from thy view,

doth upon her eggs; and he says Nor the deep trałt of Hell,-] The har like a dove rather than any other poets attribute a kind of omni

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Mov'd our grand parents, in that happy state,
Favor’d of Heav'n so highly, to fall off : 30
From their Creator, and transgress his will
For one restraint, lords of the world besides ?
Who first seduc'd them to that foul revolt?
Th’infernal Serpent; he it was, whose guile,
Stirr’d up with envy and revenge, deceiv'd

35 The mother of mankind, what time his pride


science to the Muse, and very T hinfernal Serpent;} An imitarightly, as it enables them to speak tion of Homer, Iliad. I. 8. where of things which could not other- the question is alk'd, and the anwise be supposed to come to their swer return'd much in the same knowledge. Thus Homer, Iliad. manner. ; II. 485.

Test'ap sowe Jewy sendo čuvenΥμείς γαρ θεαμ εσέ, σαρεσε τε,

ne fax satai;
159 78 Warda

Antes y AIO ÚO.
And Virgil Æn. VII. 645.
Et meministis enim, Divæ, et me. 38. - by whose aid aspiring
morare poteftis.

To set himself in glory" above bis

peers,] Here Dr. Bentley obMilton's Muse, being the Holy Spi- jects, that Satan's crime was not, rit, muft of course be omniscient. his aiming above his peers: he was And the mention of Heaven and in place high above them before, as Hell is very proper in this place, as the Doctor proves from V. 812. the scene of so great a part of the But tho this be true, yet Milton poem is laid sometimes in Hell, and may be right here; for the force of sometimes in Heaven.

the words seems, not that Satan 32. For one restraint,] For one aspird to set himself above his peers, thing that was restrain's, every

but that he aspird to fet himself in thing else being freely indulged to

glory, &c that is in divine glory,

107 them, and only the tree of know- 11

w in such glory as God and his Son ledge forbidden.

were fec in. Here was his crime:

and this is what God charges him 33. Who firft seduc'd them to that with in V.725. foul revolt?

- who

Had cast him out from Heav'n, with all his host
Of rebel Angels, by whose aid aspiring
To set himself in glory' above his peers, .
He trusted to have equal’d the most High, 40
If he oppos’d; and with ambitious aim
Against the throne and monarchy of God
Rais’d impious war in Heav'n and battel proud
With vain attempt. Him the almighty Power

· Hurl'd

— who intends to' erect his often cuts off the vowel at the end throne

of a word, when the next word Equal to ours,

begins with a vowel; though he

does not like the Greeks wholly And in VI. 88. Milton says that the drop the vowel, but still retains it rebel Angels hop d

in writing like the Latins. AnoTo win the mount of God, and

ther liberty, that he takes likewise

for the greater improvement and on his throne To set the envier of his state, the

variety of his versification, is pro

nouncing the same word sometimes proud :

as two syllables, and sometimes as Aspirer. ..

only one syllable or two short ones. See also to the fame purpose VII.

Game purpose VIL. We have frequent instances in spi140. &c. From these passages it

s ji rit, ruin, riot, reafon, highest, and appears that there is no occasion

several other words. But then these for Dr. Bentley's alteration, which

which excellencies in Milton's verse are is this,

attended with this inconvenience,

that his numbers feem embarass’d

aspiring . to such readers, as know not, or To place and glory above the Son know not readily, where such eliof God. Pearce.

fion or abbreviation of vowels is

to take place; and therefore for Besides the other methods which their fakes we shall take care Milton has employ'd to diversify throughout this edition to mark and improve his numbers, he takes such vowels as are to be cut off,

the same liberties 'as Shakespear and such as are to be contracted and · and others of our old poets, and in abbreviated, thus': imitation of the Greeks and Latins.

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45. Hurda

Hurl'd headlong flaming from th'ethereal sky, 45
With hideous ruin and combustion, down .....
To bottomless perdition, there to dwell :: ::!:
In adamantin chains and penal fire, . ; '.
Who durft defy th' Omnipotent to arms.
Nine times the space that measures day and night 50
To mortal men, he with his horrid crew ,
Lay vanquish’d, rolling in the fiery.gulf, . :
Confounded though immortal: But his doom
Reserv’d him to more wrath; for now the thought


45. Hurld headlong flaming from 48. In adamantin chains ) Æschy.

th'ethercal sky,] Hom. Iliad. lus Prometh. 6. I. 591.

Addqarlivells med noir. Prote, Toro Telagu, ato Bnar · O. Nine times &c.] The nine ng EO 1010.

days astonishment, in which the Hurld headlong downward from Angels lay intranced after their th'ethereal height. Pope. dreadful overthrow and fall from

Heaven, before they could recover 46. With bideous ruin and com- either the use of thought or fpeech,

buftion,] Ruin is deriv'd from is a noble circumstance, and very quo, and includes the idea of fal- finely imagined. The division of ling with violence and precipita- Hell into seas of fire, and into tion, and combustion is more than firm ground impregnant with the flaming in the foregoing verse, it is same furious element, with that burning in a dreadful manner. So particular circumstance of the exthat he was not only hurl'd head. clusion of hope from those infernal long flaming, but he was hurl'd regions, are instances of the same headlong flaming with bideous ruin great and fruitful invention. and combustion ; and what occasion.

Addison. is there then for reading with 63.- darkness vifible) Milton Dr. Bentley confusion inftead of com- seems to have used these words to bustion ?

signify gloom: Absolute darkness

Both of loft happiness and lasting pain 55
Torments him; round he throws his baleful cyes,
That witness’d huge affliction and dismay
Mix'd with obdurate pride and stedfast hate : -
At once, as far as Angels ken, he views
The dismal situation waste and wild;

A dungeon horrible on all sides round
As one great furnace flam’d, yet from those flames
No light, but rather darkness visible
Serv'd only to discover fights of woe, .


is ftri&ly speaking invisible ; but “ where some dismal tapers af. where there is a gloom only, there « forded just light enough to see is so much light remaining as “ the obscurity.” See his Essay serves to fhow that there are ob- on Epic Poetry, p. 44. Euripides jects, and yet that those objects too expresses himself in the same cannot be diftin&tly seen : In this poetical manner. Bac. 510. fense Milton seems to use the strong and bold expression, darkness visible. -as av O XOTI OV HTOFS Hveças.

Pearce. There is much the same image in Seneca has a like expresion, speak- Spenser, but not so bold, Fairy ing of the Grotta of Pausilypo, Queen, B. 1. Cant. 1. St. 14. Senec. Epist. LVII. Nihil illo carcere longius, nihil illis faucibus ob- A little glooming light, much like fcurius, quæ nobis præftant, non ut a shade. per tenebras videamus, fed ut ipsas. And, as Monf. Voltaire observes,

Or after all, the author might perAntonio de Solis, in his excellent

mi haps take the hint from himself in History of Mexico hath ventur'duis

Turid his Il Penseroso, on the same thought, when speak. Where glowing embers through ing of the place wherein Monte- the room zuma was wont to consult his Teach light to counterfeit a Deities; “ 'Twas a large dark gloom.. “ subterraneous vault, says he,


72. In

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