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In billows, leave i'th' midst a horrid vale.
Then with expanded wings he steers his flight 225.
Aloft, incumbent on the dusky air
That felt unusual weight, till on dry land
He lights, if it were land that ever burn'd
With solid, as the lake with liquid fire ;
And such appear’d in hue, as when the force 230
Of subterranean wind transports a hill
Torn from Pelorus, or the shatter'd fide
Of thund'ring Ætna, whose combustible
And fuel'd entrails thence conceiving fire,
Sublim’d with mineral fury, aid the winds, 235
And leave a finged bottom all involv’d


conceit of the air's feeling unusual 229. liquid fire;] Virg. Ecl.
weight is borrowed from Spenser, VI. 33.
who speaking of the old dragon Et liquidi fimul ignis.
has these lines, B. 1. Cant. 11.
St. 18.

231. Of subterranean wind ]

Dr. Pearce conjectures that it should Then with his waving wings dis

be read fubterranean winds, because played wide,

it is said aid the winds afterwards, Himself up high he lifted from and the conjecture seems probable the ground,

and ingenious : the fuel'd entrails, And with strong flight did forcibly

Orribiv sublim'd with mineral fury, aid and divide

increase the winds which first blew The yielding air, which nigh too up feeble found

232. Pelorus,] A promontory of Her fitting parts, and element Sicily, now Cape di Faro, about a unsound,

mile and half from Italy, whence To bear so great a weight. Virgil angufia a fede Pelori, Æn.

Thyer. III. 687. Bume.

238. Off

With stench and smoke: Such resting found the fole
Of unbleft feet. Him follow'd his next mate,
Both glorying to have 'scap'd the Stygian flood
As Gods, and by their own recover'd strength, 240
Not by the sufferance of supernal Power.

Is this the region, this the soil, the clime,
Said then the lost Arch-Angel, this the seat
That we must change for Heav'n, this mournful gloom
For that celestial light? Be’ it so, since he 245


238. Of unbleft feet.] Dr. Bent- it is likewise in VIII. 591. and IX. ley to make the accent smoother 559. See the note on ver. 39. reads Of feet unbleft; but Milton 250. — Hail horrors, bail &c.] could have done the same thing, if His sentiments are every way anhe thought proper : On the con- swerable to his character, and suittrary he chooses almost always to able to a created being of the most put the epithet before the substan- cxalted and most depraved nature. iive (excepting at the end of a Such is that in which he takes pofverse) even tho' the verse be the session of his place of torments. rougher for it. A plain sign that

- Hail horrors, hail &c. he thought it poetical to do so.

Pearce. And afterwards 246. Sovran] So Milton spells it

Here at least after the Italian Sovrano. It is not We shall be free ; &c. easy to account for the formation of our word Sovereign.

Amidst those impieties which this

enraged Spirit utters in other places 247. – farthes from him is beft,] This is express'd from the Greek

of the poem, the author has taken K


care to introduce none that is not proverb coppW AIO TEX secubig with absurdity, and incapable ir, Far from Jupiter but far too

of shocking a religious reader; his from thunder. Bentley.

words, as the poet himself de• 248. Whom reason hath equal'd, ] scribes them, bearing only a feb. Reofon is to be pronounced here as lance of worth, not fubftance. He is one fyllable, or two short ones, as likewise with great art described as

Who now is Sovran can dispose and bid
What shall be right: farthest from him is best,
Whom reas’on hath equal’d, force hath made supreme
Above his equals. Farewel happy fields,
Where joy for ever dwells: Hail horrors, hail 250
Infernal world, and thou profoundest Hell
Receive thy new possessor; one who brings
A mind not to be chang’d by place or time.
The mind is its own place, and in itself



owning his adversary to be al- Encet encas' OrxNTOCM; mighty. Whatever perverse inter- Encet HE: pretation he puts on the justice, 252.- by place or timë.] Milton mercy and other attributes of the is excellent in placing his words: Supreme Being, he frequently con- invert them only, and say by time fefles his omnipotence, that being or place, and if the reader has any the perfection he was forced to allow him, and the only considera- the alteration is for the worse. For tion which could support his pride the pause falling upon place in the under the Shame of his defeat. first line by time or place, and again Nor must I omit that beautiful cir- upon place in the next line The cumstance of his bursting out into mind is its own place, would of. tears, upon his survey of those in- fend the ear, and therefore is artnumerable Spirits whom he had in- fully varied. volved in the same guilt and ruin with himself. Addison.

A mind not to be chang'd by place

or time. 252. Receive thy new pole for ; ] The mind is its own place. This passage seems to be an improvement upon Sophocles, Aiax 254. The mind is its own place, 395, where Ajax, before he kills

illa These are some of the extravahimself. cries out much in the same gances of the Stoics, and could . manner.

not be better ridiculed than they

are here by being put in the mouth 14 02076, 01200 pce , fucc of Satan in his prelent fituation. N diyoy wg quoi,

Tlyer. 257. --- all

Can make a Heav'n of Hell, a Hell of Hear’n. 255
What matter where, if I be still the same,
And what I should be, all but less than he
Whom thunder hath made greater? Here at least
We shall be free; th’Almighty hath not built
Here for his envy, will not drive us hence: 260
Here we may reign secure, and in my choice
To reign is worth ambition though in Hell :
Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven.
But wherefore let we then our faithful friends,
Th'associates and copartners of our loss,
Lie thus astonish'd on th'oblivious pool,



· 257. all but] I have heard Xdows emisar', 8X ay arrazaga' it propos'd to read albeit, that is yw' although; but prefer the common Kρεισον γαρ οιμαι τι δε λάτρευreading.

еку атра, 259.-th' Almighty hath not built H Tatel Qurau Ziua TISOY a s

Here for his envy,] This is not a dov. place that God should envy us, or It was a memorable saying of futhink it too good for us; and in lius Cæsar, that he had rather be this sense the word envy is used in the first man in a country-village several places of the poem, and than the second at Rome. The particularly in IV.517. VIII. 494. reader will observe how properly and IX. 770.

the saying is here applied and ac263. Better to reign in Hell, than commodated to the speaker. It is

serve in Heaven.) This is a here made a sentiment worthy of wonderfully fine improvement upon Satan, and of him only; Prometheus's answer to Mercury in Æschylus. Prom. Vinct. 965.

nam te nec fperent Tartara

regem, Tns ons natpoias tiig suny luer Nec tibi regnandi veniat tam dira meg.gray,

cupido. Virg. Georg. I. 36.


And call them not to share with us their part
In this unhappy mansion, or once more.. .
With rallied arms to try what may be yet. .
Regain’d in Heav’n, or what more loft in Hell? 270

So Satan spake, and him Beëlzebub
Thus answer’d. Leader of those armies bright, ;
Which but th’Omnipotent none could have foil'd,
If once they hear that voice, their livelieft pledge
Of hope in fears and dangers, heard fo oft - 275
In worst extremes, and on the perilous edge: -
Of battel when it rag'd, in all assaults
Their surest signal, they will soon resume


Grotius hath ascribed the same fen- It has been observ'd to me by a timent to Satan in his Adamus Exul, person of very fine taste, that a tragedy which our author seems Shakespear has an expression very to have imitated in some few places, like this in 2 Hen. IV. A& I. and has translated the following You knew, he walk'd o'er perils, lines; but how much better is the

on an edge sense of the two laft verses expressd More likely to fall in, than to get in one by Milton!

o'er : -Nam, me judice, Regnare dignum eft ambitu, etfi and something like it in i Hen. IV. in Tartaro;

A I. Alto præesse Tartaro fiquidem ju. I'll read you matter, deep and danvat,

gerous; Cælis quam in ipfis fervi obire As full of peril and adventrous munia.

spirit, 276. — on the perilous edge As to o'erwalk a current, roaring

Of battel] Perhaps he had in loud, mind Virgil, Æn. IX. 528. On the unfted fast footing of a spear. Et mecum ingentes oras evolvite Hot. If he fall in, good night, belli. Jortin.

or sink or swim,


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