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Its comparative Antiquity.—Dates of its Foundation.-Romulus and his Succes-

sors; King, Senate, and People; Patricians and Clients.— The Roman Repub-
lic: Consuls, Senate, and People; Tribunes; Twelve Tables ; Patricians, Ple-
beians, and Knights ; Popular Assemblies; Slaves ; Soldiers and Wars ; Tem-
ple of Janus; Invasions by the Gauls who burn Rome ; Romans become mas-
ters of Italy; 3 Punic Wars, and Destruction of Carthage; Romans conquer
the known world; Internal Dissensions, Dictators, Insurrections, Social nad
Civil and Servile Wars, and Conspiracies ; First Triumvirate, Julius Cesar,
Pompey, and Crassus ; Cesar's Dictatorship and Death ; Second Triumvirate,
Octavius (or Octavian), Antony, and Lepidus ; End of the Roman Republic.
-Augustus and the other Roman Emperors; their Chronology and Succession.

- Varying Limits of Roman Territory.—Roman Religion ; its Gods and Heathen
Institutions; 10 Persecutions of Christians; Christianity afterwards Dominant.
-Decline of the Empire ; Luxury, Licentiousness, and Division ; Rome burnt
by the Goths under Alaric; Other enemies, Huns, Vandals, and Heruli; End
of the Roman Empire of the West.-Kingdom of Italy under the Goths and
Lombards.-Rome and the exarchs of Ravenna.-Charlemagne and his succes-

- The Roman Senator.--The Popes as Temporal Princes from 1278 to
1870.—Rome again the Capital of Italy. - Its Situation and General Features ;
its Climate, Hills, River, Ports, Bridges, Military Roads, Railroads, Walls,

Gates ; Panorama of Rome.—Principal Churches; St. Peter's Basilica, with a
( notice of the Chair of St. Peter ; Basilicas of St. John Lateran, St. Mary Ma-

jor, St. Paul, San Lorenzo or St. Lawrence, Holy Cross in Jerusalem, St.
Agnes beyond the Walls; 11 other Churches Described.—Palaces : the Vatican,
with its Pauline and Sistine Chapels, Museum, Library, &c.; Quirinal; Lat-
eran; Capitol ; Private Palaces ; Palace of the Inquisition; Palazzo della Can-
celleria. – Villas. — Colleges. Schools and Periodicals. — Hospitals.-Work

sors.

house.-Squares.-Obelisks.-Fountains.-Aqueducts, modern and ancient.-
Castle of St. Angelo.—Antiquities : Tomb of Cecilia Metella ; the Coliseum ;
Circus of Romulus and Circus Maximus ; Palace of the Cesars; Monte Tes-
taccio; Baths of Caracalla, of Diocletian, and of Titus ; the Pantheon; Roman
Forum; Mamertine Prison; Arches of Titus and of Constantine; Trajan's
Column and Antonine Column ; Pretorian Camp; Campus Martius ; Catacombs
and Columbaria ; Cloaca Marima.— The Modern City : its Industry, Popula-
tion, Districts, Government and Condition under the Papal Rule.

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GENERAL VIEW OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH OR SYSTEM.

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The terms “ Roman Catholic,” “Romanism,” “Romish,” Papacy,” &c.—Prot-

estant Analysis of the System, with Historical Memoranda of Church Rites,
Ceremonies, Practices, Doctrines, Titles, &c.—Cardinal Wiseman's Account of
the R. C. Church ; its Government, Laws (including the Creed of Pope Pius
IV.), Constitutive Principle, and Extent of Dominion, with notes giving the
“Nicene Creed,” the Tridentine Doctrines of Original Sin and Justification,
&c — The "Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary," as pronounced
and defined, Dec. 8, 1854.—Vatican Decree of July 18, 1870, establishing the
Primacy and Infallibility of the Pope.

CHAPTER III., -

- 119-164

THE POPES AND THEIR SOVEREIGNTY.

The titles “ Pope,"

,“Roman Pontiff,” “Holy See,” &c.—The Pope's Spiritual
Sovereignty or Supremacy : Argument from Mat. 16 :18, 19; Question about
Peter's being Bishop of the Church of Rome; Historical View of the
Pope's Spiritual Sovereignty.-History of the Pope's Temporal Authority :
Peter not a Sovereign ; Privileges granted to the Clergy and Bishops by the
Roman Emperors ; Political Importance of the Bishop of Rome from the 7th
century onward ; Grants from Pepin and Charlemagne; " Isidorian Decretals”;
John XII. and the Troubles of the 10th century ; Gregory VII. enforces the
Celibacy of the Clergy, destroys the Independence of the National Churches, and
humbles the Emperor Henry IV.; Donation of the Countess Matilda; The
Crusades and the Canon Law; nocent III. forms a Papal State ; Removal
to Avignon ; Great Schism of the West; Deposition of Pope John XXIII.,
&c., by the Council of Constance; Decline of Power after Boniface VIII.;
Eugene IV. and the Council of Basle; the Papal State from Alexander VI.
to the present time.—Notices of some Popes : Alexander VI.; Julius II. ;
Leo X.; Pius VII.; Leo XII. ; Pius VIII. ; Gregory XVI. ; Pius IX.— The
Pope's Private Life.- His Swiss Guards and State-carriage.--A Papal Proces-
sion.—Mass at the Pope's Chapel.—The Papal Government.-Occupation of
Rome by the Italians in 1870: Language of “The Catholic World”; Excom-
munication of the King of Italy, &c. ; Address of New York Catholics to the
Pope, December, 1870; Resolutions and Address to the Government and People
of Italy, from the Meeting at the N. Y. Academy of Music, Jan. 13, 1871.-
Names and Chronology of the Popes.

PAGE.

CHAPTER IV., ·

- 165-186
THE POPE'S ALLOCUTIONS, BULLS, AND OTHER OFFICIAL COMMUNICATIONS.
“ Allocution" defined ; Allocution Maxima quidem, of June 9, 1862.—"Bull”

defined.—Bulls, In Cæna Domini, Unigenitus, and Æternus ille.—" Brief” ; Defi-
nition and Example.—"Encyclical Letter ” defined ; Encyclical Letter of Pope
Gregory XVI., May 8, 1844, and its bearings.—“ Rescript”; Definition and
Example.—“ Constitution" defined and exemplified.

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“Cardinal" defined ; Development of the Office; Number, Rank, Salary, Dress,

and Mode of Appointment; Personal Appearance ; List.-Secretary of State ;
Antonelli described.—“ Consistory" defined.—“ Conclave” described.—" Pre-
lates” described.—“Congregations"; their origin, composition, and special
work.

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“Ecumenical" and other Councils defined.—The Catholic Almanac's List of Ecu.

menical Councils.-Councils accepted by the Greeks, &c.— Notices of Ecumen-
ical Councils : (I.) First of Nice, 325 ; (II.) First of Constantinople, 381 ; (III.)
of Ephesus, 431 ; (IV.) of Chalcedon, 451; (V.) Second of Constantinople,
553; (VI.) Third of Constantinople, 680; (VII.) Second of Nice, 787; (VIII.)
Fourth of Constantinople, 869 ; (IX.) First Lateran, 1123; (X.) Second Lat-
eran, 1139; (XI.) Third Lateran, 1179; (XII.) Fourth Lateran, 1215; (XIII.)
First of Lyons, 1245; (XIV.) Second of Lyons, 1274; (XV) of Vienne,
1311.-Council of Pisa, 1409, summoned by Cardinals to end the Great West-
ern Schism.-Council of Constance, 1414-18; its Deposition of Pope John
XXIII. ; Election of Martin V.; Burning of John Huss and of Jerome of
Prague ; Decrees respecting the Supremacy of the Council, &c.—Council of
Basle, 1431, &c.; its Contests with Pope Eugene IV.–Council at Ferrara and
Florence, 1438, &c., for Union with the Greek Church.—Fifth Lateran Council,
1512-17; its Sanction of Papal Supremacy.—Council of Trent, 1545-63; The
Catholic World's Synopsis of its Work; Notices by Hallam and Mosheim.-
Vatican Council, 1869–70; Bull of Convocation, 1868; Letters Apostolic to
the Eastern Churches and to Protestants, &c., with the Answer of American
Presbyterians; Syllabus of 1864 ; Protestant Anticipations of the Council ;
Preparatory Committees; Apostolical Letter of Regulations, and Assembly of
Dec. 2d; Council-hall; Opening of the Council, Dec. 8th, from “ The Catholic
World”; Committees chosen ; Discussion on the 1st schema ; 2d Public Ses-
sion, and Profession of Faith by the Pope and Members of the Council, Jan. 6,
1870; Additional Regulations; 3d Public Session, and Dogmatic Decree on

Catholic Faith, April 24th ; Schema on the Little Catechism voted on, May 4th ;
Discussion, Parties, and Vote on the Dogma of the Pope's Primacy and Infal-
libility ; Address of the Minority, decliving to attend the Promulgation of the
Dogma; 4th General Session, July 18th, and Promulgation of the Decrees and
Canons respecting the Pope's Primacy and Infallibility, as described in “ The
Catholic World” and “ The New York Tribune”; The Tribune's Synopsis of
the Council's Work; Adjournment and Indefinite Suspension of the Council.

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“Priest ”; Different Meanings ; Protestant and R. C. Views.—Sacrament of Or.

ders, from the Catechism of the Council of Trent: 7 Orders, viz., Tonsure, Por-
ter, Reader or Lector, Exorcist, Acolyte, Subdeacon, Deacon, Priest; Degrees
of the Priesthood, viz., Priest simply, Bishop or Pontift, Archbishop, Patri-
arch, Sovereign Pontiff.-Clerical Dress: its Various Articles alphabetically
described, with their Emblematic Significations; Different Colors for Different
Days ; Bishop's Dress; Dress of Minor Orders ; Materials and Cost.–Ecclesi-
astical Education and Seminaries; Decrees, Course, &c.; Dr. Mattison on R. C.
Clergy in the United States.-Celibacy, except among the Oriental priests ;
cases of St. Peter and St. Patrick.–Beneficed Priests, Professors, and Bishops
take Oath of Conformity and Obedience.—Priests assignable and removable by
the Bishop.—Co-pastors not allowed:-Bishops; how nominated and appointed
in the United States; Consecration of 3 Bishops in New York, Oct. 30, 1853;
Bishop's Oath.—Statistics of Priests, Ecclesiastical Seminaries and Students by
Dioceses in the United States, 1870 and 1871; Present Number in the Country.

- Names of Archbishops, Bishops, and Vicars Apostolic in the United States,
1870-1.–Bishops and Priests in the World; Number and Efficiency.

CHAPTER VIII.,

283-347

RELIGIOUS ORDERS AND CONGREGATIONS.

Early History of Monasticism : Paul of Thebes, Anthony, and Simeon the Stylite;

Pachomjus, Basil and the Basilians (at Cleveland, O.); Development down to
St. Benedict.-Historical, Characteristic, and Statistical Descriptions of the Re-
ligious Orders and Congregations, especially of those in the United States, in-
cluding their Names and Sorts, Rules, Habits, Divisions, Establishments, Dis-
tinguished Members, &c.—I. Monks proper. Basilians (sce above). Benedic-
tine Monks and Nuns. Trappists.-II. Canons. Augustinian Canons. Pre-
monstrants.-III. FRIARS, or Mendicant Orders. Franciscans; Conventuals,
Observants, Recollects, Monks, Nuns, Pius IX. and other Tertiarians, &c.
Capuchins. Dominicans, Monks, Nuns, Tertiarians, Inquisitors, &c. Carmel.
ites, “ Calced ," and “Discalced," Monks, Nuns, Tertiarians, &c. Augustinian
Eremites. Servites. “Sisters of Charity of the Order of St. Augustine.”
Sisters of Mercy. Visitation Nuns. Ursuline Nuns. Alexian Brothers.-IV.
REGULAR CLERKS. Jesuits (see Chap. IX.).—Order of St. Viateur.–V. Con-

Oratorians: Italian and English ; French. Passionists. Laz-

arists. Sisters of Charity, and their Mother-Houses at Emmettsburg, Yonkers,

and Madison ; " Sisters of Charity, commonly called Gray Nuns”; “Sisters

of Charity, commonly called Sisters of Providence”; “ Sisters of Charity of

the B. V. M.”; “Sisters of Charity of Nazareth.” Sulpicians. Redemptorists.

Paulists. Oblate Fathers. “Fathers of the Society of Mary.” “Society of

the Fathers of Mercy.” “Brethren of the Christian Schools,” and “ Christian

Brothers.” “ Brothers of the Christian Instruction of the Sacred Heart of Jesus

and Mary,” and “ Brothers of Christian Instruction.” “Congregation of the
Holy Cross.” Xavierian Brothers. “ Brothers of the Sacred Heart.” “ Chris.
tian Brothers of the Society of Mary.” Congregation of the Most Precious
Blood.” “ Ladies of the Sacred Heart.” “Sisters of St. Joseph.”

“ Sisters
of the Congregation of our Lady,” or “of Notre Dame,” and “ School-Sisters of
Notre Dame." Sisters of Loretto.” “Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and
Mary.” “ Sisters of St. Ann." Community of the Poor Handmaids of Jesus
Christ.” “Sisters of our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd,” and “ 3d
Order of St. Teresa." “Little Sisters of the Poor.” “ Sister-Servants of the
Immaculate Heart of Mary,” and “ Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart
of Mary.“Sisters of the Humility of Mary.” “Sisters of St. Mary."
“ Daughters of the Cross.” “Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus.” “ Sisters of
the Incarnate Word.” “Oblate Sisters of Providence.” “Sisters of the Holy
Family.” “Sisters of Providence." “St. Agnes Community.” “ Sæurs Hos.
pitalières.

“Presentation Convents."-Statistics of Religious Orders and Con-
gregations in the United States and in the World.-Extinct Orders.—Present
Monastic Constitution.—Terms Defined.-Suppression of Monasteries and Mo-
nastic Orders in Various European Countries.-Detention of Persons in Con-
vents, and Proposals for Legislation.—Dr. De Sanctis on the 3 Classes of Per-
sons who become Nuns, and on the Character and Health of Roman Convents.

-Leo XII. compels a Nun to see her Mother.- Edith O'Gorman, &c.—Hull

Convent Trial.—Rev. Dr. Bonar’s Lines, “ This is no heaven!”–Reformatory

Decree of the Council of Trent.—Bp. Ricci's and Pius IX.'s Attempts at Re-

form.—Regulations of Plenary Council of Baltimore.--Form for the Benedic-

tion and Consecration of Virgins.-Ceremony of Reception, among the Sisters

of Mercy.

CHAPTER IX., •

- 348-360

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Their Founder, Ignatius Loyola.Origin, Objects, and Constitutions.—Mosheim

on their Influence.-History and Suppression in France and other European
Countries. Character by Hallam, Penny Cyclopedia, and De Sanctis.— Number
at different times.-History and Generals since 1814.-Jesuits in the United
States : Early Efforts; Statistics in 1860 and 1870.

Early Christian Missionaries.- New Impulse of the 13th Century. Columbus,

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