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(says he) is all mine own. He, who took away , playing at dice; and that was the main fruit of the sight of the sea, with the canvas veils of so his sovereignty. I omit the madnesses of Camany ships' »_and then he goes on so, as I know ligula's delights, and the execrable sordidness of not what to make of the rest, whether it be the those of Tiberius. Would one think that Augustus fault of the edition, or the orator's own burley way himself, the highest and most fortunate of manof nonsense,
kind, a person endowed too with many excellent This is the character that Seneca gives of this parts of nature, should be so hard put to it somehyperbolical fop, whom we stand amazed at, and times for want of recretations, as to be found yet there are very few men who are not in some playing at nuts and bounding-stones, with little things, and to some degrees, Grandios. Is any Syrian and Moorish boys, whose company he thing more common, than to see our ladies of qua took delight in, for their prating and their wanlity wear such high shoes as they cannot walk in, tonness? without one to lead them; and a gown as long
Was it for this that Rome's best blood he spilt again as their body, so that they cannot stir to
With so much falsehood, so much guilt? the next room without a page or to two hold it up?
Was it for this that his ambition strove. I may safely say, that all the ostentation of
To equal Cæsar, first; and after, Jove? our grandees is, just like a train, of no use in
Greatness is barren, sure, of solid joys; the world, but horribly cumbersome and incom
Her merchandize (I fear) is all in toys; * modious. What is all this, but a spicc of Grandio? how tedious would this be, if we were always bound
She could not else, sure, so uincivil be,
To treat his universal majesty, to it! I do believe there is no king, who would
His new-created Deity, not rather be deposed, than endure every day of
With nuts, and bounding-stones, and boys. his reign all the ceremonies of his coronation. The mightiest princes are glad to fly often from
But we must excuse her for this meagre enterthese majestic pleasures (which is, methinks, notainment; she has not really wherewithal to make small disparagement to them) as it were for refuge such feasts as we imagine. Her guests must be to the most contemptible divertisements and mean-contented sometimes with but slender cates, and est recreations of the vulgar, nay, even of chil
r. nav. even of chil. with the same cold meats served over and over dren. One of the most powerful and fortunate again, even till they become nauseous. When princes ? of the world, of late, could find out no you have pared away all the vanity, what solid delight so satisfactory, as the keeping of little and natural contentment does there remain, which singing birds, and hearing of them, and whistling may not be had with five hundred pounds a year? to them. What did the emperors of the whole Not so many servants or horses ; but a few good world ? If ever any men had the free and full ones, which will do all the business as well : not enjoyment of all human greatness (nay that so many choice dishes at every meal; but at sewould not suffice, for they would be gods too), veral meals all of them, which makes them both they certainly possessed it: and yet one of them,
the more healthy, and the more pleasant ; not so who styled himself lord and god of the earth, rich garments, nor so frequent changes; but as could not tell how to pass his whole day pleasantly, warm and as comely, and so frequent change too, without spending constantly two or three hours as is every jot as good for the master, though not in catching of Aies, and killing them with a bod for the taylor or valet de chambre : not such a kin, as if his godship had been Beelzebub 3. One stately palace, nor gilt rooms, or the cost liest sorts of his predecessors, Nero, (who never put any of tapestry ; but a convenient brick house, with bounds, nor met with any stop to his appetite) decent wainscot, and pretty forest-work hangings. could divert himself with no pastime more agree. Lastly (for I omit all other particulars, and will able than to run about the streets all night in a dis- | end with that which I love inost in both conditions) guise, and abuse the women, and affront the men not whole woods cut in walks, nor vast parks, por whom be met, and sometimes to beat them, and fountain or cascade-gardens; but herb, and flow. sometimes to be beaten by them: this was one of er, and fruit gardens, which are more useful, and his imperial nocturnal pleasures. His chiefest in the water every whit as clear and wholesome, as the day was to sing and play upon a fiddle, in the | if it darted from the breasts of a marble nymph. habit of a minstrel, upon the public stage: he was or the urn of a river-god. prouder of the garlands that were given to his di
or all this. vou, ke better the substance of vine voice (as they called it then) in those kind of that former estate of life, do but consider the prizes, than all his forefathers were, of their inseparable accidents of both : servitude, disquiet, triumphs over nations : he did not at his death danger, and most commonly guilt, inherent in the complain, that so mighty an emperor, and the last one; in the other liberty, tranquillity, security, of all the Cæsarian race of deities, should be and innocence. And when you have thought upon brought to so shameful and miserable an end; but this, you will confess that to be a truth which oply cried out, “ Alas, what pity it is, that so appeared to you, before, but a ridiculous paraexcellent a musician should perish in this man dox, that a low fortune is better guarded and ner 4 !” His uncle Claudius spent half his time at attended than an high one. If, indeed, we look
only upon the flourishing head of the tree, it apLouis XII.-The Duke de Luynes, the Con
pears a most beautiful object, stable of France, is said to have gained the favour of this powerful and fortunate prince by training
--sed quantum vertice ad auras up singing birds for him. Anon.
| Ætherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit , 3 Beelzebub signifies the lord of flies. Cowley.
Qualis artifex pereo ! Sueton, Nero. . Virg. Georg. ii. 291. .
As far up towards Heaven the branches grow, | absolute tyrant of three kingdoms, which was So far the root sinks down to Hell beluw. the third, and almost touched the Heaven which
he affected, is believed to have died with grief and Another horrible disgrace to greatness is, that discontent, because he could not attain to the it is for the most part in pitiful want and distress: | honest name of a king, and the old formality of what a wonderful thing is this ! Unless it degene-, a crown, though he had before exceeded the rate into avarice, and so cease to be greatness. it I power by a wicked usurpation. If he could harc falls perpetually into such necessitics, as drive it | compassed that, he would perhaps have wanted into all the meanest and most sordid ways of bor something else that is necessary io felicity, and rowing, cozenage, and robbery:
piued away for want of the t.tle of an emperor or
a god. The reason of this is, that greatness has Mancipiis locuples, eget æris Cappadocum rexs. no reality in nature, being a creature of the
fancy, a notion that consists only in relation and This is the case of almost all great men, as well comparison : it is indeed an idol ; but St. Paul as of the poor king of Cappadocia: they abound | teaches us, “that an idol is nothing in the with slaves, but are indigent of money. The an- | world.” There is in truth no rising or meridian cient Roman emperors, who had the riches of the of the Sun, but only in respect to several places: whole world for their revenue, had wherewithal to there is no right or left, no upper-hand in naJive (one would have thought) pretty well at ease, ture; every thing is little, and every thing is and to have been exempt from the pressures of great, according as it is diversely compared, extreme poverty. But yet with most of them it There may be perhaps some village in Scotland was much otherwise; anıl they fell perpetually / or Ireland, where I might be a great man: and into such miserable penury, that they were forced in that case I should be like Cæsar (you would to devour or squeeze most of their friends and I wonder how Cæsar and I should be like one anoservants, to cheat with infamous projects, to ran-ther in any thing); and choose rather to be the sack and pillage all their provinces. This fashion | first man of the village, than second at Rome, of imperial grandeur is imitated by all inferior | Our country is called Great Britany, in regard and subordinate sorts of it, as if it were a point of only of a lesser of the same name; it would be honour. They must be cheated of a third part but a ridiculous epithet for it, when we consider of their estates, two other thirds they must expend it together with the kingdom of China. That, in vanity; so that they remain debtors for all the too, is but a pitiful rood of ground, in comparison necessary provisions of life, and have no way to of the whole Earth besides : and this whole globe satisfy those debts, but out of the succours and of Earth, which we account so immense a body, supplies of rapine: “ as riches increase" (says is but one point or atom in relation to those numSolomon) “ so do the mouths that devour berless worlds that are scattered up and down them 7." The master mouth has no more than in the infinite space of the sky which we bebefore. The owner, methinks, is like Ocnus in hold. the fable, who is perpetually winding a rope of! The other many inconveniences of grandeur I hay, and an ass at the end perpetually eating have spoken of dispersedly
| have spoken of dispersedly in several chapters;
and shall end this with an ode of Horace, not Out of these inconveniences ariscs naturally exactly copied, but truly imitated. ono more, which is, that no greatness can be satisfied or contented with itself: still, if it could mount up a little higher, it would be happy, if it could gain but that point, it would obtain all its
Horace. Lib. III. Ode I. desires; but vet at last, when it is got up to the very top of the Pic of Teneriff, it is in very great
Odi profanum vulgus, &c. danger of breaking its neck downwards, but in no
HENCE, ye profane ; I hate you all; possibility of ascending upwards into the seat of tranquillity above the Moon, The first ambitious
Both the great vulgar, and the small. men in the world, the old giants, are said to have
To virgin minds, which yet their native whiteinade an heroical attempt of scaling Heaven in
ness hold, despite of the gods : and they cast Ossa upon
Not yet discolour'd with the love of gold
(That jaundice of the soul, Olympus, and Pelion upon Ossa : two or three
Which makes it look so gilded and so foul), mountains more, they thought, would have done their business: but the thunder spoilt all the work,
To you, ye very few, these truths I tell;
The Muse inspires my song; hark, and observe when they were come up to the third story:
it well. And what a noble plot was crost!
We look on men, and wonder at such odds And what a brave desigu was lost !
'I'wixt things that were the same by birth; A famous person of their offspring, the laten
We look on kings as giants of the Farth,
These giants are but pigmies to the gods. giant of our nation, when fivin the condition of a |
The humblest bush and proudest oak' very inconsiderable captain, he had made him- |
Are but of equal proof against the thunder-stroke. self lieutenant-general of an army of little Titans, 1
Beauty, and strength, and wit, and wealth, and which was his first mountain, and afterwards general, which was his second, and after that,
And love to see themselves, and smile, Hor, 1 Fp, vi. 39. 7 Eccl. v.Il. And joy in their pre-eminence awhile ;
Ev’n so in the same land,
[stand; | second is like the foolish chough, which loves to Poor weeds, rich corn, gay flowers, together steal money only to hide it. The first does Alas! Death mows down all with an impartial much harm to mankind; and a little good too, hand.
to some few : the second does good to none;
no, not to himself. The first can make no exAnd all ye men, whom greatness does so please, cuse to God, or angels, or rational men, for his Ye feast, I fear, like Damocles :
actions: the second can give no reason or coIf ye your eyes could upwards move
lour, not to the Devil himself, for what he docs; (Dut ye, I fear, think nothing is above)
he is a slave to Mammon without wages. The Ye would perceive by what a little thread
first makes a shift to be beloved; ay, and envied The sword still hangs over your head: too by some people; the second is the universal No tide of wine would drown your cares;
object of hatred and contempt. There is no Nomirth or music over-noise your fears :
vice has been so pelted with good sentences, and The fear of Death would you so watchful keep, especially by the poets, who have pursued it As not t'admit the image of it, Sleep.
with stories, and fables, and allegories, and al
lusions; and moved, as we say, every stone to Sleep, is a god too proud to wait in palaces, Ning at it: among all which I do not remember And yet so humble too, as not to scorn
a more fine and gentleman-like correction, than The meanest country cottages :
that which was given it by one line of Ovid:. “His poppy grows among the corn." The balcyon Sleep will never build his nest
Desunt luxuriæ multa, avaritiæ omnia. In any stormy breast. 'Tis not enough that he does find
Much is wanting to luxury, all to avarice. Clouds and darkness in their mind; Darkness but half his work will do:
To which saying, I have a mind to add one 'Tis not enough; he must find quiet too. member, and tender it thus,
The man, who in all wishes he does make, Poverty wants some, luxury many, avarice all Does only Nature's counsel take,
things, That wise and happy man will never fear The evil aspects of the year;
Somebody says 8 of a virtuous and wise man, Nor tremble, though two comets should appear; | “ that having nothing, he has all :" this is just He does not look in almanacs, to see
| his antipode, who, baving all things, yet has Whether he fortunate shall be ;
nothing. He is a guardian eunuch to his beLet Mars and Saturn in the heavens conjoin,
lored gold: divi eos amatores esse maximos, And what they please against the world design,
| sed nil potesse. They are the fondest lovers, So Jupiter within him shine.
but impotent to enjoy. If of your pleasures and desires no end be found, And, oh, what man's condition can be worse God to your cares and fears will set no bound. Than his, whom plenty starves, and blessings What would content you? wby can tell ?
curse; Ye fear so much to lose what ye have got,
The beggars but a common fate deplore,
The rich poor man's emphatically poor.
I wonder how it comes to pass, that there has Spare nought that may your wanton fancy please; never been any law made against him: against
But, trust me, when you bave done all this, him do I say? I mean, for himn : as there are Much will be missing still, and much will be public provisions made for all other madmen : amiss.
it is very reasonable that the king should appoint some persons (and I think the courtiers would not be against this proposition) to manage his
estate during his life (for his heirs commonly VII.
need not that care): and out of it to make it
their business to see, that he should not waut OF AVARICE.
alimony befitting his condition, which he could
never get out of his own cruel fingers. We reThere are two sorts of avarice: the one is but
lieve idle vagrants, and counterteit beggars; of a bastard kind, and that is, the rapacious ap
but have no care at all of these really poor men, petite of gain; not for its own sake, but for the
who are, methinks, to be respectfully treated, in pleasure of refunding it immediately through all
regard of their quality. I might be endless the channels of pride and luxury: the other is
| against them, but I am almost choaked with the the true kind, and properly so called; which is
super-abundance of the matter ; too much plen. a restless and unsatiable desire of riches, nor for any farther end or use, but only to hoard, 1 8 The author, well acquainted with the taste of and preserve, and perpetually increase them. his readers, would not disgust their delicacy by The covetons man, of the first kind, is like a letting them know that this “ somebody" was greedy ostrich, which devours any metal; but | St. Paul, 12 Cor. vi. 10.1though the sense it is with an intent to feed upon it, and in effect, and expression would have done honour to Plato. it makes a shift to digest and excern it. The HURD.
ty impoverishes me, as it does them. I will | Do you within the bounds of nature live, conclude this odious subject with part of Ho And to augment your own you need not strive; race's first satire, which take in his own familiar One hundred acres will no less for you style:
Your life's whole business, than ten thousand, do.
But pleasant 'tis to take from a great store. I admire, Maecenas, how it comes to pass, What, man ! though you 're resolv'd to take no That no man ever yet contented was,
more Nor is, nor perhaps will be, with that state | Than I do from a small one? If your will In which his own choice plants him, or his fate. Be but a pitcher or a pot to fill, Happy the merchant, the old soldier cries : To some great river for it must you go, The merchant, beaten with tempestuous skies, When a clear spring just at your feet does Bow! Happy the soldier ! one half-hour to thee Give me the spring, which does to human use Gives speedy death, or glorious victory :
Safe, easy, and untroubled stores produce;
Tis not (I think you 'll say) that I want store In a full food Tantalus stands, his skin
Wash'd o'er in vain, for ever dry within: They are enough to reach, at least a mile, He catches at the stream with greedy lips, Beyond long orator Fabius's style.
From his toucht mouth the wanton torrent slips: But hold, ye, whom no fortune e'er endears, You laugh now, and expand your careful brow; Gentlemen, malecontents, and mutineers,
'Tis finely said, but what's all this to you? Who bounteous Jove so often cruel call,
| Change but the pame, this fable is thy story, Behold, Jove's now resolv'd to please you all. Thou in a flood of useless wealth dost glory, Thou soldier, be a merchant: merchant, thou Which thou canst only touch, but never taste; A soldier be: and lawyer, to the plough. Th'abundance still, and still the want, does last. Change all your stations straight: why do they stay? The treasures of the gods thou would'st not spare: The devil a man will change, now when he may. But when they 're made thine own, they sacred Were I in general Jove's abused case,
are, By Jove I'd cudgel this rebellious race:
And must be kept with reverence; as if thou But he's too good; be all, then, as ye were ; "No other use of precious gold didst know, However, make the best of what ye are,
But that of curious pictures, to delight, And in that state be cheerful and rejoice,
With the fair stamp, thy virtuoso sight. Which either was your fate, or was your choice. The only true and genuine use is 1bis, No, they must labour yet, and sweat, and toil, To buy the things, which nature cannot miss And very miserable be awhile;
Without discomfort ; oil and vital bread, But 'tis with a design only to gain
And wine, by which the life of life is fed, What may their age with plenteous ease main. And all those few things else by which we live : tain.
All that remains, is giv'n for thee to give. The prudent pismire does this lesson teach, If cares and troubles, envy, grief, and fear, And industry to lažy mankind preach:
The bitter fruits be, which fair riches bear; The little drudge does trot about and sweat, If a new poverty grow out of store;' Nor does he straight devour all he car get; The old plain way, ye gods ! let me be poor. But in his temperate inouth carries it home A stock for winter, which he knows must come. And, when the rolling world to creatures bere Turn; up the deforin'd wrong-side of the year, And shuts bim in, with storms, and cold, and
Paraphrase on HORACE, B. III, Od. xvi. wet, He cheerfully does his past labours eat :
A Tower of brass, one would have said, O, does he su? your wise example, th' ant,
And lucks, and bolts, and iron bars, Does not, at all times, rest and plenty want; And guards, as strict as in the heat of wars, But, weighing justly a mortal ant's condition, | Might have preserv'd one imocent maidenhead, Divides his life 'twixt labour and fruition.
The jealous father thought be well might spare Thee, neither heat, nor storms, nor wet, nor cold, All further jealous care; From thy unnatural diligence can withhold : And, as he walk'd, t' himself alone he smild, To th' lodies thou would'st riin, rather than see To think how Venus' arts he had beguil'd; Another, though a friend, richer than thee.
And, when he slept, his rest wns deep : Fond man ! what good or beauty can be found | But Venus laugh'd to see and hear himn sleep. In heaps of treasure, buried under ground?
She taught the amorous Jove Which rather than diminish'd e'er to see,
A magical receipt in love, Thou would'st thyself, too, buried with them be: Which arm'd him stronger, and which belp'd him And what's the ditlerence is 't not quite as bad
more, Never to use, as never to have had ?
Than all his thunder did, and his almighty-ship In thy vast barns millions of quarters store;
before. Thy belly, for all that, will hold no more
She taught bim love's elixir, by wbich art Than mine does. Every baker makes much bread: His godhead into gold he did convert : What then? He's with no more, than others, No guards did then his passage stay, fed,
He pass'd with ease ; gold was the word;
Subtle as lightning, bright, and quick, and fierce, and draw up all bridges against só numerous an
Gold through doors and walls did pierce. .enemy.
The truth of it is, that a man in much business To blow up towns, a golden mine did spring, must either make himself a knave, or else the
He broke through gates with his petar ; world will make him a fool: and, if the injury "Tis the great art of peace, the engine 'tis of war; went no farther than the being laught at, a wise And fleets and armies follow it afar :
man would content himself with the revenge of The ensign 'tis at land, and 'tis the seaman's star. retaliation ; but the case is much worse, for these
civil cannibals too, as well as the wild ones, not Let all the world slave to this tyrant be,
only dance about such a taken stranger, but at Creature to this disguised deity,
last devour him. A sober man cannot get too Yet it shall never conquer me.
soon out of drunken company, though they be A guard of virtues will not let it pass.
never so kind and merry among themselves; it is And wisdom is a tower of stronger brass.
not unpleasant only, but dangerous, to himn. The Muses' laurel, round my temples spread, Do ye wonder that a virtuous man should love Does from this lightning's force secuie my head : | to be alone? It is hard for him to be otherwise ; Nor will I lift it up so high,
he is so, when he is among ten thousand : neither As in the violent meteor's way to lie.
is the solitude so uncomfortable to be alone withWealth for its power do we honour and adore ? out any other creature, as it is to be alone in the The things we hate, ill-fate and death, have midst of wild beasts. Man is to man all kind of more.
beasts; a fawning dog, a roaring lion, a thieving
fox, a robbing wolf, a dissembling crocodile, a From towns and courts, camps of the rich and treacherous decoy, and a rapacious vulture. The great,
civilist, methinks, of all nations, are those whom The vast Xerxean army, I retreat;
we account the most barbarous ; there is some And to the small Laconic forces fly,
moderation and good-nature in the ToupinamWhich holds the straits of poverty.
baltians, who eat no men but their enemies, whilst Cellars and granaries in vain we fill,
we learned and polite and Christian Europeans, With all the bounteous Summer's store, like so many pikes and sharks, prey upon every If the mind thirst and hunger still :
thing that we can swallow. It is the great boast The poor rich man's emphatically poor.
of eloquence and philosophy, that they first conSlaves to the things we too much prize, gregated men dispersed, united them into socieWe masters grow of all that we despise.
ties, and built up the houses and the walls of cities.
I wish they could unravel all they had woven; A field of corn, a fountain, and a wood,
that we might have our woods and our innocence Is all the wealth by nature understood.
again, instead of our castles and our policies. They The monarch, on whom fertile Nile bestows have assembled many thousands of scattered peo
All which that grateful earth can bear, ple into one body: it is true, they have done so; Deceives himself, if he suppose
they have brought them together into cities to That more than this falls to bis share. cozen, and into armies to murder, one another : Whatever an estate does beyond this afford, they found them hunters and fishers of wild crea. Is not a rent paid to the lord :
tures : they have made them hunters and fishers But is a tax illegal and unjust,
1 of their bretheren : they boast to have reduced Exacted from it by the tyrant Lust.
them to a state of peace, when the truth is, they Much will always wanting be,
| have only taught them an art of war: they have To him who much desires. Thrice happy he framed, I must confess, wholesome laws for the To whom the wise indulgency of Heaven,
restraint of vice, but they raised first that devil, With sparing hand, but just enough has given. which now they conjure and cannot bind: though
there were before no punishments for wickedness, 1 yet there was less committed, because there were
no rewards for it. VIII.
But the men, who praise philosophy from this
topic, are much deceived: let oratory answer THE DANGERS OF AN HONEST MAN for itself, the tinkling perhaps of that may nite
a swarm ; it never was the work of philosophy to IN MUCII COMPANY.
| assemble multitudes, but to regulate only, and
govern them, when they were assembled; to make If twenty thousand naked Americans were not the best of an evil, and bring thein, as much able to resist the assaults of but twenty well-armed | as is possible, to unity again. Avarice and amSpaniards, I see little possibility for one honest bition only were the first builders of towns, and man to defend himself against twenty thousand founders of empire; they said, “ Go to, let us knaves who are all furnished cap i pe, with the | build us a city and a tower whuse top may reach defensive arms of worldy prudence, and the ollen unto Heaven, and let us make us a name, lest sive too of craft and malice. He will find no less we be scattered abroad upon the face of the odds than this against him, if he have much to do earth 9." What was the beginning of Rome, the in human affairs. The only advice therefore which metropolis of all the world? What was it, but a Ican give him is, to be sure not to venture his concourse of thieves, and a sanctuary of crimiperson any longer in the open campaign, to retreat and entrench himself, to stop up all arenues,
9 Gen. xi. 4. VOL. VII.