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betical order, as some chapters of the book of fies the water used to wash the hands of the Lamentations, and some Psalms, as xxv., xxxiv., priest who consecrated it. cxix., &c. This is the most obvious indication Abracadabra and Abraxas, words found of verse in the Hebrew poetical books, and was inscribed on some of the amulets supposed to no doubt intended for the assistance of the have been used by the Basilidians.-See BAmemory. St. Augustine, it is said, composed a SILIDIANS. psalm against the Donatists, for the special use of Abrahamites, or Abrahamians. See the laity, which he divided into as many parts as PAULICIANS.—A sect who derived their apthere are letters in the alphabet, in imitation of pellation from Abrabam, a native of Antioch, the 119th Psalm. The same term is also applied or, as the Arabs called him, Ibrahim. The Emto a teacher of the rudiments of learning. peror Theophilus, who united in his own character

Abelians, Abeolites, or Abelonians, here the apparent zeal of a Christian with the fury of tics who appeared about the reign of Arcadius, a persecutor, exterminated the Abrahamites, on in the diocese of Hippo, in Africa, and disappeared a vague charge of idolatry, in the ninth century. in the reign of Theodosius. This sect pretended -A more modern sect of this name sprang up in that Abel was married, but died without having Bohemia under the Act of Toleration, published known his wife. Their peculiarity was derived by the Emperor Joseph II., in 1782. They refrom this doctrine, which they carried into prac-jected all distinctive Christian doctrine, acknowtice, by enjoining men and women, upon entering ledging one God, and receiving nothing of Scripinto the matrimonial state, to entire continence. ture but the Decalogue and the Lord's Prayer. They, moreover, adopted a boy and a girl, who They derived their name from their professing to were to inherit their possessions, and to marry hold the faith of Abraham before he was circumupon the same obligation and profession. cised. Severe means were employed against

Abeyance, a term denoting that which is in them; they were draughted into the army, and expectancy-thus, if an incumbent die, the fee sent to the borders of the empire. Few of them, of houses and lands belonging to the rectory is however, recanted; but the sect soon died out. in abeyance till a successor be formally in- Absolution, in canon law, a juridical act, ducted.

by which the priest, or minister, remits the sins Abjuration, a form by which in ancient of such as are penitent.---This is supposed to be times, in England, a criminal who had taken done by the Roman Catholic priests more directly refuge in a church might save his life by abjuring and immediately, by virtue of their holy office; the realm, or taking an oath to leave or renounce and by the clergy of the Established Church of his country for ever. Also a form by which | England, by “a power and authority given to Popery is renounced, and formal admission to the Christ's ministers to declare and pronounce forProtestant Church obtained. Oath of abjuration, giveness” to the truly penitent. In the Greek in a civil sense, signifies the oath by which a per- Church absolution is deprecatory, as she lays son obliges himself to acknowledge no right in no claim to the infallible powers of the Roman the Pretender to the throne. See OATH. hierarchy. Baptism was known among the

Ablution, a religious ceremony of ancient ancients as the sacrament of absolution, or inand modern times, which consisted in certain dulgence, a general pardon of sins being conveyed purifications of men or things, accompanied with to every true disciple at his entrance with the washing them either wholly or partially. The “mystical body of Christ by the laver of regeneraEgyptians appear to have practised it from the tion." In like manner the Eucharist was esteemed earliest antiquity; the Greeks adopted it under an absolving ordinance: “When we drink the various forms; and the Romans are said to have blood of the Lord,” says St. Cyprian, been scrupulous in their use of it before they per- sorrowful and heavy heart, which before was formed a sacrifice. It was more or less partial pressed with the anguish of our sins, is now abaccording to the occasion; but at the entrance solved or set at liberty by the joyfulness of the of the Roman temples convenient vessels were Divine indulgence or pardon.” But the most placed for this sacred washing. Several cere- distinguishing feature of the indulgence granted monies of the Mosaic law may be called ablu- through a participation of the Eucharist was tions; and the early Christians appear to have this that it resolved the bonds of excompractised it before partaking of the communion; munication, without any other formality or cerein imitation of whom Roman Catholics still occa- mony.” It was usually granted during Passion sionally practise it before and after mass. The week (hebdomas indulgentia). Absolution was Syrians, Copts, &c., have their annual solemn also pronounced during the ministration of the washings; the Turks, their greater and lesser Word; it was administered in a precatory manablutions. All the Oriental religions abound with ner, accompanied by the imposition of hands ; this ceremony, which Mahomet very naturally and, finally, it was judicially exercised when adopted into his code of observances.

penitents, after their performance of the canonical Ablution, in the Romish Church, is also used penance imposed upon them for their sins, were for a sup of wine and water, anciently taken after publicly and solemnly received at the altar, the bost, to wash it down.' Sometimes it signi- | where, pardon being pronounced, they were de


clared free to the full communion of the church. therein for the ministers of the Anglican Church. The first and second of these absolving pro- By not a few of the clergy and laity the meaning cesses were called “Sacramental Absolution;" of the term is confined to an official declaration the third, “Declaratory Absolution;" the fourth, of God's forgiveness of sin. There are many, “Precatory Absolution;" and the fifth, “Judicial however, who plead for a stronger senge. WheatAbsolution." See INDULGENCE.

ly, in his observations on the seasonable use The form that Tetzel used in vending the of the form of absolution in the Morning and indulgences which first awoke the indignation Evening Prayer, takes the higher ground, by and resistance of Luther has been often quoted, contending" that since the priest has the but is said by Catholics to be unauthentic. ministry of reconciliation committed to him They have thus stated their opinions upon this by God, and hath power and commandment to subject: “Every Catholic is obliged to believe declare and pronounce to bis people, being penithat when a sinner repenteth him of his sins tent, the absolution and remission of their sins, from the bottom of his heart, and acknowledgeth therefore, when he does declare and pronounce his transgression to God and his ministers—the such absolution, those in the congregation that dispensers of the mysteries of Christ-resolving truly repent and unfeignedly believe, bave their to turn from his evil ways, and bring forth fruits pardon conveyed and sealed to them at that very worthy of penance, there is then, and not other- instant through his ministration." In reply to Dr. wise, an authority left by Christ to absolve such | Bennett, who maintained that the form was only a penitent sinner from his sins; which authority declaratory, and that a mere deacon bad as much Christ gave to his apostles and their successors, authority to pronounce the form of absolution as the bishops and priests of the Catholic Church, to preach a sermon, Wheatly adds: “This form in these words, 'Receive ye the Holy Ghost; is expressly called by the Rubric, the Absolution whose sins ye shall forgive, they are forgiven unto or Remission of Sins. It is not called a Declarathem, and whose sins yeretain, they are retained."" tion of Absolution, as one would think it should Penitents in the Church of Rome coming for have been, if it had been designed for no more.” public absolution, are enjoined to appear at the With reference to the form of indicative absolution church door on the day and at the hour ap- in the Service for the Sick—“I absolve thee"pointed, kneeling, each bearing an unlighted taper it is held by many that remission of church cenin his hand. Notice being given to the congre- sures and forgiveness of offences against the gation by the officiating clergyman that he is clergy and members of the church are all that is about to receive the penitents to the consolations intended, for proof of which the collect immeof the church, he falls prostrate before the altar, diately following is quoted, in which the penitent and utters some prayers for the occasion, to which is represented as earnestly desiring God's pardon the people respond, according to the prescribed and forgiveness, an idea utterly inconsistent with form. The priest having risen, advances from the notion that his offences against God had just the altar to the church door, where he exhorts been remitted. On this view nearly all the the penitents, and then taking them by the hand, standard writers on the Liturgy and Articles of leads them into the midst of the congregation. the English Church are agreed, the differences Absolution is then pronounced. In the admis- that exist being generally of a verbal charactersion of one who had been excommunicated the apparent rather than real. We conclude in the following ceremonies are observed :— The priest words of Bishop Burnet :—“Upon a repentance sits down before him at the church door and sincerely begun and honestly pursued, we do in repeats the Miserere-the penitent being at the general, as the heralds of God's mercy and the time prostrate, the congregation kneeling, and ministers of bis Gospel, pronounce to his people the clergy standing. At the commencement of daily the offers that are made us of mercy and each verse of the Miserere, the priest strikes the pardon in Christ Jesus. We do, also, as we are penitent, who is stripped to his shirt as far as his a body that may be offended with the sins of waist, with a short stick or whip made of cords. others, forgive the scandals committed against At the conclusion of the Miserere the penitent the church; and that such as we think die in a is absolved in the usual way. Penitent women state of repentance, may die in the full peace must be veiled during the ceremony which restores of the church, we join both absolutions in one: in them to the bosom of the church. After absolu- the last office, likewise praying to our Saviour tion is pronounced, the following prayer is read: that he would forgive them; and then we, as the “ The passion of our Lord Jesus Christ, the officers of the church, authorized for that end, do merits of the blessed Virgin and all the saints, forgive all the offences and scandals committed and all the good that thou hast done, and the by them against the whole body. This is our evil that thou hast suffered, be to thee for the doctrine." remission of sins, the increase of grace, and the Abstinence, a term nearly synonymous reward of eternal life."

with fasting, in the sense in which fasting The form of absolution in the Book of Com- is most commonly used. The Church of Engmon Pruyer has given rise to great controversy land makes no distinction between them, but respecting “the power and authority” claimed the Church of Rome distinguishes between days of fasting and days of abstinence. See Fast-, visited that country about the year 333. They ISG. If we take this term to express the abstain- are described as a branch of the Copts, or ing from particular kinds of food or refreshment, Jacobites, with whom they agree in admitting we may observe that the law of Moses contains but one nature in Jesus Christ, and rejecting the several precepts on the subject; and, moreover, council of Chalcedon; on which account they are that some of the primitive Christians denied also called Eutychians and Monophysites. The themselves the use of particular meats, though term Copt properly applies only to those Chrisothers regarded this abstinence with contempt. tians who live in Egypt, Nubia, and the countries Asceticism began early in the Church, and was adjacent. The Abyssinian Church is governed severely reprobated by the apostle of the Gen- by a bishop or metropolitan, styled abuna, who is tiles, as in Coloss. ii. (see Rom. xiv.) The council appointed by the Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria, at Jerusalem, which was held by the apostles, residing at Cairo. The abuna being a foreigner, enjoined the Christian converts from among and generally ignorant of the language and the Gentiles to abstain from meats strangled, manners of the country, is not permitted to and from blood (see Acts xv.) Some contend meddle with the affairs of the government: his for the perpetual obligation of this injunction; principal employment is the ordination of priests, whereas the majority of Christians maintain that deacons, and monks. Next in dignity is the it was only of temporary duration. The common komos, or hegumenos, a kind of arch-presbyter, argument against its perpetuity runs thus :- who has the inferior priests and deacons, with Though blood and things strangled could have no the secular affairs of the parish, under his inspecmoral evil in them, they were forbidden to the tion. The deacons occupy the lowest rank of Gentile converts, because their brethren con- priesthood. They have canons also, and monks ; verted from the Jewish faith still felt so strong a the former of whom marty; the latter, at theit repugnance to their use that they could not con- admission, vow celibacy, but with a reservation, verse with any who used them. This reason making a promise aloud before their superior to having now ceased, the obligation to abstinence keep chastity, but adding, in a low voice or cases with it. It must, however, be observed, whisper, " as you keep it.” The debtarahs, a that the Christian churches generally, for several set of chanters who assist in the musical parts of centuries, abstained from blood as an article of the service, are in general estimation even more food; but in the time of St. Augustine much laxity so than the komos, though the latter be superior prevailed, especially in the African Church, on in rank. The emperor alone takes cognizance this subject, the opinion then becoming popular of all ecclesiastical causes, except a few smaller that the injunction, being one of expediency, was ones reserved to the judges; and confers all only of a temporary nature.

benefices, except that of abuna. Abstinents or Abstinentes, a sect of The monks are divided into two classes—those heretics, of the third century, which originated in of Debra Libanos, and those of St. Eustathius. France and Spain. They opposed marriage, and They have not, properly speaking, any convents, bence have been called Continentes, and con- but inhabit separate houses erected round their demned the use of flesh and wine. In what church. Their ignorance is extreme. The superior doctrinal error their heresy consisted it is diffi- of the monks of Mabebar Selassé, in the northcult to ascertain.

west part of Abyssinia, is the itchegué, who is Abuna, the title given by the Christian of greater consequence in turbulent times than Arabs to the archbishop or metropolitan of the abuna. He is ordained by two chief priests Abyssinia, who is rarely, if ever, a native of that holding a white cloth or veil over his head, and country, The title denotes our Father, and is a third repeating a prayer; after which they all variously written. The abuna, who resides at lay their hands on his head, and join together in Cairo, is selected by the Patriarch of Alexandria, singing psalms. The churches are very numerwhose appreciation of the person best fitted for ous, owing to the prevalence of an opinion among the office is generally influenced by the douceur the great, that whoever leaves a fund to build a he may be enabled to give. After his election he church, or has erected one during his life, makes is held responsible by the Patriarch of Alexandria a sufficient atonement for all his sins. They for the due administration of the duties pertain-are usually erected on eminences in the vicinity jag to his office. He is chosen usually from the of running water, for the purpose of affording Coptic priests, between whom and the Abyssinians facilities to the purifications and ablutions a friendly intercourse is maintained at Cairo. which they practise according to the Levitical

Abusive, in ecclesiastical law, is applied law. The churches are surrounded with rows to a permutation of benefices without the con- of Virginia cedar, and being circular, with sent of the bishop, which is consequently null. conical summits and thatched roofs, and encom

Abyssinian Church, that section of the passed on the outside with pillars of cedar, to Christian Church established in Abyssinia, the which the roof, projecting eight feet beyond the country denominated by the ancients Ethiopia. wall, is fixed, furnish an agreeable walk in the The conversion of the Abyssinians to the hot or rainy season, and diversify the scenery. Christian faith is ascribed to Frumentius, who | The internal partition and arrangement of the


church is that prescribed by the Mosaic law; Academy.—The name was originally that of and many of the ceremonies and observances in a garden or grove where Plato taught at Athens. their mode of worship are obviously derived from The word usually signifies now a society of the ceremonial rites of the Jewish religion. learned men, associated for the advancement of

The religion of Abyssinia is, in reality, a strange science and art, and these are numerous in the compound of Judaism, Christianity, and super- various countries of Europe. The term is also stition. Judaism appears to predominate. They applied to the literary and theological seminaries practise circumcision, and extend it to both of the English dissenters, such as those for the sexes. They observe both Saturday and Sunday Baptists at Bristol and Bradford, and those for as Sabbaths; they eat no meats prohibited by Independents at Rotherham and Cheshunt, and the law of Moses; women are obliged to the formerly at Homerton and Highbury. Some of legal purifications; and brothers marry their the more recent academies, as at St. John's brothers' wives. Their festivals and saints are Wood, London; Springhill, Birmingham; Regent numberless. As they celebrate the epiphany Park, London; and the one at Manchester, take with peculiar festivity, in commemoration of the more ambitious name of colleges. The plan Cbrist's baptism, and sport in ponds and rivers, of educating students for the ministry, in the some have supposed they undergo baptism every majority of these seminaries, is vastly more exyear. One of their saints' days is consecrated pensive than in Scotland. to Balaam's ass; another to Pilate and his wife, Acatholici (not Catholic), a term because Pilate washed his hands before he pro-ployed in Roman Catholic countries to denote nounced sentence on Christ, and his wife de Protestant and other professing Christians who sired him to have nothing to do with the blood are not members of the so-called Catholic Church. of that just person. They have four seasons of Acceptants.—The term arose from the famous Lent: the great Lent commences ten days earlier Jansenist controversy and the Bull Unigenithan in England, and is observed with so much tus of Clement XI., 1713, many in France opseverity that many abstain even from fish, be- posing it, and therefore named appellants, while cause St. Paul says there is one kind of flesh of others receiving it were naturally called acceptmen, and another of fishes. They at least equal ants. This division of parties subsisted till the the Church of Rome in miracles and legends of middle of last century. saints, which occasioned no inconsiderable em- Acclamation. It was a common custom in barrassment to the Jesuits, whom they presented the fourth century to testify esteem for the with such accounts of miracles wrought by their preacher, admiration of his eloquence, or approsaints, in proof of their religion, and those so bation of his doctrine by public applause and well circumstantiated and attested that the mis-acclamations in the church. We are told that sionaries thought themselves obliged to deny they sometimes applauded Chrysostom's sermons miracles to be any evidence of the truth of a reli- by tossing their thin garments, waving their gion. Prayers for the dead are common, and in- plumes or their handkerchiefs, and crying outvocations of saints and angels ; and such is their - Thou art the thirteenth apostle; " " thou art veneration for the Virgin that they charged the worthy of the priesthood," &c. Jerome alludes Jesuits with deficiency in this respect. While in one of his letters to a sermon of bis on the images in painting decorate their churches, resurrection, which caused Vigilantius to start up, and excite their reverential regard, they at the clapping his hands and stamping with his feet, same time abhor all images in relievo, except and shouting, “Orthodox.” Such custom, the cross. They maintain that the soul of man derived originally from the theatres, was soon is not created, because, say they, God finished found productive of evil effects in the preachers all his works on the sixth day. They admit the as well as their hearers; and Chrysostom freapocryphal books, and the canons of the apostles, quently expressed his dislike to it. as well as the apostolical constitutions, to be Accommodation, the analogical applicagenuine; but Solomon's Song they consider tion of one thing to another. In theology, the term merely as a love poem in honour of Pharaoh's is used to signify the application of Scripture to daughter. It is uncertain whether they believe something resembling or analogous to its original in the doctrine of transubstantiation. Ludolpb purport. A prophecy is said to be fulfilled proand Bruce differ on this question; but the latter perly when what is foretold comes to pass; or by affirms that they are now, with regard to doc- way of accommodation, when anything occurs to trine, as great heretics, and, with respect to a place or people similar to what at some premorals, as corrupt as the Jesuits have represented vious period took place with regard to another. them. Attempts have been recently made to There is considerable difficulty in the proper found evangelical missions in Abyssynia. application of this mode of interpreting Scripture;

Acacians, the followers of Acacius, Bishop because it is obvious that if a passage relating of Cæsarea, who flourished in the fourth century, indubitably to one event may be arbitrarily and was at one time an associate of Aëtius, but applied to another, merely because of some supafterwards deserted him, and subscribed the posed or traceable resemblance, ingenious persons Nicean doctrine.-See AETIANS.

who have no general comprehension of truth, nor


any regard to its interests, may employ as many Achiropætos, the ancient name of certain modes of interpretation as they have particular miraculous pictures of Christ and the Virgin, and subordinate purposes to serve. But an supposed to have been made without hands. The apostle may use a passage of the Old Testament most celebrated of these is the picture of Christ, for the mere sake of illustration, and without in the church of St. John de Lateran at Rome, adding the formula, " that it might be fulfilled." said to have been begun by St. Luke, but finished

Thus, in Rom. x. 18, Paul quotes Ps. xix. 4, by angels. The name is a Greek compound. as illustrating the diffusion of the Gospel, but Acæmetæ (á xowuéé'w, watchers), the name without saying that it was a fulfilled prediction. of an order monks in the fifth century, who This is very different from the kind of accommo- performed a sort of chanting service night and dation introduced by Semler and the earlier Ger-day, dividing themselves into three classes, man rationalists, and applied not only to the in- so that one might succeed another at a stated terpretation of prophecy, but to the teachings of hour, and thus their devotions might be susChrist and his apostles with regard to angels or tained without any intromission. In vindication devils, or the atonement itself. On their theory, of their practice, they appealed to the apostolic the statements avowing those doctrines are only precept, which requires us to "pray without convenient falsehoods, suited to the character and ceasing." There is a kind of acæmetæ now subprejudices of the age. On such a bypothesis, sisting in the Romish Church. where shall we find truth in Scripture, and wbat Acoluthi, an order of ecclesiastics in the shall we say to the veracity of those who wrote early Latin Church, whose office was in some respect it? For example, Jesus speaks of evil spirits subordinate to that of the subdeacon. The archdwelling in some; nay, speaks to the demon, and deacon, at their ordination, put into their hands charges him to " come out.” What, then, shall a candlestick with a taper-hence called accenwe say to his honesty, if he did not believe in the sores—to intimate that they were appointed to reality of demoniacal possession, but only spoke light the candles of the church, and an empty to humour the errors and ignorance of his con- pitcher, to denote that they were to furnish wine temporaries?

for the sacramental festival. Imposition of hands Accomplishment, in theology, is a term was not deemed necessary in the public appointused in speaking of events predicted by the ment of the acoluthi. Jewish prophets in the Old Testament, and ful- Act, in the universities, a thesis publicly filled under the New. Those prophecies in which maintained by a candidate for a degree, or to the Jews find an accomplishment about the period show a student's proficiency. At Oxford, the when they were first uttered, are often called time when masters or doctors complete their Jewish; those which Christians apply to Christ degrees is also called the "act,” which is beld or his dispensation, derive a distinctive epithet with great solemnity. At Cambridge, they call from this circumstance. Unaccomplished pro- it the commencement." phecy is ever a difficult subject of study.

"Act” is also a collegiate appellation for the Accursed.-See ANATHEMA.

person who proposes questions that are the A cephali, or Acephalitæ (from éxipados, subjects of disputation in the exercises of the headless), the title of the stricter Monophysites university schools. in the fifth century, who had been deprived of Act, a common name for certain statutes in their chief, Mongis, by his submission to the connection with the religious history of this council of Chalcedon. It seems that the name country. Among the most famous are: had been before applied to the persons who re- Act of Uniformity, passed in the reign of Queen fused to follow either John of Antioch or St. Elizabeth, establishing Protestantism as the naCyril, in a dispute that happened in the council tional religion of England, and binding all her subof Ephesus in 431. This epithet was also given jects to the order and form prescribed in the Book to those bishops who were exempt from the of Common Prayer. Also, a statute of the reign jurisdiction and discipline of their patriarch. of Charles II., 1662, enjoining all ministers in

In the reign of King Henry I. the levellers England to declare their unfeigned assent and received this distinctive appellation because they consent to the entire Book of Common Prayer. were not believed to possess even a tenement to The royal assent was given to this act on the entitle them to have the right of acknowledging 19th May, and on Bartholomew's Day, August a superior lord. In our ancient law books it is 24, the same year, more than two thousand used for persons who held nothing in fee. ministers were ejected from their livings, be

Achaiæ Presbyteri, or the Presbyters of cause they conscientiously refused to subscribe. Achaia, were those who were present at the Act, Conventicle, passed in 1664. It enacted martyrdom of St. Andrew the apostle, A.D. 59, that only five persons above sixteen years of age, and are said to have written an epistle in relation besides the family, were to meet for worship. to it. Bellarmin and several other eminent Act, Corporation, a statute of 13 Charles II., writers in the Church of Rome allow it to be chap. i., in which it is enacted, "That no person genuine; while Du Pın, with many others, with shall be chosen into any office of magistracy, or good reason reject it.

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