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TION, &c., being by the former; and by the latter, such articles as Bible, Bull, CATECHISM, CONCORDANCE, CREED, LITURGY, PENANCE, PSALMODY, SACRAMENT, &c., which have also been revised by their venerable author expressly for this publication. Distinctive terms relating to the Church of England, such as ARCADEACON, CANON, DEAN, PREBEND, RECTOR, Tithes, VICAR, &c., are also from the same great repository. Not a few of the smaller articles from the Metropolitana have been carefully revised or re-written by the Rev. Edward Cockey, M.A., late Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford, Vicar of Hockley, Essex. But all the articles and a few others thus acknowledged form less than a third of the more than 1,500 articles, short and long, of which this volume is composed.

No Cyclopædia comes into direct competition with this one. Broughton's Historical Dictionary of All Religions, in two folios (London, 1745), extends to Mohammedanism and classic mythology, but in many places gives an excellent digest of the more elaborate investigations of Bingham; Buck's Theological Dictionary is very miscellaneous, having many articles on ethics and spiritual experience, with numerous biographies; Hook's Church Dictionary refers of course particularly to the Church of England; Marsden's Dictionary of Christian Churches and Sects fully and faithfully verifies its title; the College Lectures of Bates (London, 1845) are an excellent compend on Christian Antiquities and the Ritual of the English Church ; Eden's Churchman's Theological Dictionary (London, 1859) is, as the name implies, “ intended, though not exclusively, yet more specially, for the use of members of the Church of England ;” Landon's New General Ecclesiastical Dictionary is far from being completed (London, 1849-53); Gardner's Faiths of the World occupies ground far beyond the ecclesiastical territory, but is full of information on the Eastern or Greek Church; while Herzog's voluminous Real-Encyclopædie takes in all branches of theological science. Our CYCLOPÆDIA, confining itself to its proper province, is meant for no party or sect; but gives information on each of them, so full as to present an intelligible and trustworthy record of the more important of them, and at the same time so brief and compact as to keep the volume within reasonable limits and price. A list is affixed of the more important works which may be consulted or used as authorities. In speaking of authorities, it would be unpardonable not to mention the immense storehouse of Bingham, whose industry was equalled by his learning and his usual impartiality. We might refer also to Augusti's Denkwürdigkeiten, or to the abridgment of it in his Handbuch der Christlichen Archäologie, arranged in sections; and to Siegel's Handbuch der Christlich-kirklichen Alterthümer, arranged alphabetically,—two excellent Manuals. Riddle's Christian Antiquities is based upon Augusti, with occasional translations from Siegel; and so is the American work of Coleman. These works, with the Archäologie of Rheinwald and the Lehrbuch of Guericke, with the Histories of Mosheim, Neander, Kurtz, Schaff, and Gieseler, have furnished, in their respective departments, continuous assistance or verification. Where corroborative extracts are given, they are given from the best authorities; and documents of importance are usually quoted at length.

In a word, the aim has been to combine popularity with exactness, so that readers of every grade may profitably consult the volume. While it will be seen how corruption crept innocently into the Church, how error was stealtbily introduced, and ambition and infirmity created schisms and shibboleths, it will

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also be thankfully noted, that many essential and saving truths were still preserved; and that while the cross was often overshadowed, it was not entirely concealed. Not to speak of anti-scriptural dogmas and ceremonies, which the spread of sound and free opinion tends ever to counteract, and will ultimately destroy, may it not be hoped that the various parties of Protestant Christendom, looking at the truth no longer each from its own isolated point of view, but in the light of the Divine Word, and looking on one another in the spirit of the * new commandment,” may learn to revere one another's integrity of motive, and love one another, in recognition of the Lord's own prayer—" that they also may be one in us"-so that there may "unto Him be glory in the Church by Christ Jesus throughout all ages, world without end?"

JOHN EADIE.

13 LANSDOWNE CRESCENT, GLASGOW,

November, 1861.

A BRIEF LIST OF WORKS BEARING ON THE SUBJECTS

TREATED IN THIS VOLUME.

GENERAL CHURCH HISTORY. The Magdeburg Centuriators and the Annales of Baronius in reply; the Histories of Schroeckh, Mosheim, Milner, Neander, Gieseler, Guericke, Spanheim, Jortin, Burton, Waddington, Kurtz, Schaff, Milman, Hardwicke, and Killen—with the Mémoires of Tillemont, the Histoire de L'Eglise of Basnage, and the Histoire Ecclésiastique of Fleury.

SPECIAL OR EPOCHAL CHURCH HISTORY. The Fathers,-Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret, Evagrius; Bede's Ecclesiastical Flistory; Stillingfleet's Origines Britannica; Cranmer's Works; Strype's Memorials and Annals ; Foxes Martyrs; Book of Homilies and Canons; Hooker's Polity; Jewel's Apology; Carwithen's, Baxter's, and Bishop Short's respective Histories of the Church of England; Bishop Mant's History of the Church of Ireland; Jeremy Collier's Ecclesiastical History of Great Britain ; L'Estrange, Comber, Nichols, Bishop Sparrow, Wheatly, Procter, Brogden, and Keeling, on the Common Prayer ; the Works of Bishop Burnet, of Hall, and Usher; Soame's Anglo-Saxon Church and History of the Reformation ; Bishop Gibson's Codex ; the volumes of Heylin on the one side, and Brooke and Neal on the other; Thomas Fuller's Church History of Great Britain ; Price's Nonconformity, Lathbury's History of the Nonjurors ; Burn's Ecclesiastical Law, &c. Booke of the Universal Kirke; the Westminster Directory; Histories of the Church of Scotland, by Knox, Crookshanks, Calderwood, Row, Kirkton, Stevenson, Woodrow, Cook, Hetherington, Lee, and Cunningham ; Steuart's Collections ; Buchanan's Ten Years' Conflict ; Bryce's Ten Years; M*Kerrow's History of the Secession Church; Struthers's History of the Relief Church ; Reid's History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland; Hodge's Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church in America. Lawson's Episcopal Church in Scotland; and the Works of Sage, Keith, Skinner, and Spotswood. Stanley's History of the Eastern Church ; Neale’s History of the Eastern Church; Pinkerton's Translation of Platon's Present State of the Greek Church ; Mouravieff's flistory of the Church of Russia. Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent; Ranke's History of the Popes ; D'Aubigné’s History of the Reformation ; Massingberd's English Reformation ; Labbeus et Cossartius, Concilia Sacrosancta ; Wilkins's Concilia Magnæ Britanniæ; Spelman's Concilia ; Bishop Beveridge's Synodicon ; Grier’s Epitome of the General Councils ; Seckendorf's Commentarius Historicus ; Quick’s Synodicon; Baird's Religion in America.

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LIST OF WORKS ON SUBJECTS TREATED OF.

ANTIQUITIES AND WORSHIP. Suicer's Thesaurus; Vitringa De Synagoga vetere; Lord King's Enquiry; Durandus, Rationale Divinorum Officiorum-translated by Neale and Webb; Durant, De Ritibus Ecclesice Catholicæ; Hospinian, Historia Sacramentaria, Tiguri, 1598, 1602; Sanches De Sacramento Matrimoniæ ; Dodwell De Origine Episcoporum; Rabanus Maurus De Institutione Clericorum ; Du Cange, Glossarium; Renaudot, Liturgiarum Orientalium Collectio; Goar, Eurolóysov, sive Rituale Græcorum; Daniel, Thesaurus Hymnologicus; Maskell's Monumenta Ritualia; Clichtoveus, Elucidatorium Ecclesiasticum; Palmer's Origines Liturgicæ; Rock's Hierurgia ; Spelman on Tithes ; Selden on Tithes ; Bingham's Origines Ecclesiasticæ; or, the Antiquities of the Christian Church, London, 1843, in nine volumes; Augusti, Denkwürdigkeiten aus der Christlichen Archäologie, 1817-31, twelve vols.; and Handbuch der Christlichen Archäologie; Siegel, Handbuch der Christlich-kirklichen Alterthümer, 3 vols., Leipzig, 1836; Coleman's Antiquities of the Christian Church; Rheinwald, Die Kirkliche Archäologie ; Münter, Sinnbilder und Kunstvorstellungen der alten Christen, 1825; Didon's Iconographie Chretienne, Paris, 1843; Riddle's Manual of Christian Antiquities; Bates's College Lectures on Christian Antiquities.! On the Catholic side, Ritter and Braun's edition of Peluccia's Politia ; Mammachius, Originum et Antiquitatum Christianarum libri xx., Romæ, 1749-55; Grancolas, L'Ancien Sacramentaire, and his Les Anciennes Liturgies; Johnson's Unbloody Sacrifice; Thorndike's Works ; Guericke, Lehrbuch des Christlich-kirklichen Archäologie ; Moreri's Grand Dictionnaire Historique; and the Dictionaries of Broughton, Hook, Buck, Eden, and Gardner, referred to in the Preface.

POLEMICAL In Systematic Theology—the Loci Communes of Melanchthon and Musculus; the Systems of Turretine, Mastricht, Pictet, Quenstedt, Stapfer and Muntinghe; of Dick, Hill, Wardlaw, and Woods; the Dogmatik respectively of Twesten, Ebrard, Martensen, Hofmann; Hahn, Lehrbuch der Christlichen Glauben ; Hey's Lectures on Divinity; Calvin's Institutes; Arminü Opera, translated by Nichols, Limborch, Theologia Christiana; Richard Watson's Theological Institutes; Whitby on the Five Points. Canons and Catechism of the Council of Trent, translated by Buckley; Petavius, Opus de Theologicis Dogmatibus ; Lingard's Anglo-Saxon Church; James's Bellum Papale; Pearson on the Creed; Burnet and Harold Browne on the Thirty-nine Articles ; Bower's History of the Popes; Mendham's Literary Policy of the Church of Rome and other works; Möhler's Symbolik, and Nitzsch's Beantwortung, or reply; Bullarium Romanum ; Bishop Gibson's Preservative against Popery; A. Butler's Lives of the Saints ; C. Butler's Book of the Roman Catholic Church and his Vindication; Edgar's Variations of Popery ; Stavely's Horse Leech; M'Crie's Works ; Greenwood's Cathedra Petri. Barclay's Apology; Clarkson's Portraiture of Quakerism. Wall's History of Infant Baptism; Carson on Baptism. Oxford Tracts for the Times ; Goode's Rule of Faith. Catechismus Racoviensis; Priestley's Institutes; Newman's Arians. Hagenbach, History of Doctrines ; Hall's Harmony of Confessions; Dunlop's Collection; Müller, Die Symbolichen Bücher der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche ; Niemeyer, Collectio Confessionum; Winer, Comparative Darstellung des Lehrbegriffs der verschiedenen Kirchen-parteien; Vater, Synchronistische Tafeln der Kirchengeschichte ; Swedenborg's True Christian Religion.

MISCELLANEOUS. Galland's Bibliotheca veterum Patrum, &c., fourteen vols., folio; Cave's Historia Literaria ; Lives of the Fathers; Primitive Christianity, &c.; Du Pin's Nouvelle Bibliothèque, forty-three vols., octavo, translated in sixteen volumes, folio; Acta Sanctorum, fifty-five volumes, folio, begun in 1643, and still in progress ; D'Achery's Spicilegium; Corpus Juris Canonici; Dagdale's Monasticon Anglicanum; Fosbrooke's British Monachism; Archdall's Monasticon Hibernicum; Le Quien's Oriens Christianus ; Godolphin's Repertorium Canonicum; Ceillier's Histoire Générale des auteurs sacrés et Ecclésiastique ; Adam's Religious World; Marsden's Churches.

ECCLESIASTICAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

A

ABB A and . (Alpha and Omega), the first and Abba, Abbat, Abbot, IN (Father), titles the last letters of the Greek alphabet. In Reve- of honour and authority, first derived from lation i. 8, xxi. 6, xxii. 13, this title is three the literal signification of the word. Abba times applied by Christ to himself, and is ex- occurs three times in the New Testament, plained as meaning "the beginning and the having in each place the explanation rathe ending," " the first and the last." The idea, attached to it. The Jews are said to have under a different form of expression, is found in forbidden their slaves to use this title to their the Old Testament. There is no doubt that, in masters, while it was commonly adopted among the Apocalypse, the title asserts the Lord's su- themselves as expressive both of honour and preme divinity, His eternity and immutability, affection. In the Eastern Churches it was given His creative and all-embracing presence and at a very early date to their bishops, and is energy. Various ingenious comments—some of still retained in the Coptic, Syriac, and Ethiopic them very trifling-have been made upon the Churches. The title is pre-eminently borne by letters; and, inwoven with the figure of the cross the Bishop of Alexandria. Baba, Papa, Pope, -alpha being placed on the one side, and omega had their origin from the same root. Abbat, on the other they formed a frequent symbol in or Abbot, in the fourth and fifth centuries, the early Church.

was gradually, and at last distinctively, applied Abata (äleta), that portion of the interior of to the heads of those religious orders who ancient churches within which the people were then began to exclude themselves from the not permitted to worship, hence its name žßæra, world. The power they exercised within their

észrs, or ädurov scilicet, 67.4ze "inadmissible." own circle was all but absolute, and rarely, if It was separated from the body of the edifice ever, was it disputed by those who had given by wooden rails, called cancelli, whence our themselves up to their spiritual guidance. They word chancel; and as it was exclusively de- inflicted corporeal as well as spiritual punishvoted to the priesthood, the altar, oblation table, ments upon offenders—whipping constituting the bishop's throne, and seats for the presbyters were former, while the latter comprised suspension placed inside its precincts. The jealousy of the from the privileges of office, exclusion from the clergy in the time of St. Ambrose to preserve Eucharist, severer devotional exercises, expulsion their prerogative to the exclusive occupation of from the abbey, and excommunication. They the abata, was so intense, that when the were endowed with such opulence, and were so Emperor Theodosius came to present his offer- famed for their sanctity, that bishops were freing, he was barely suffered to enter that he might quently chosen from their number; for, in the lay it upon the oblation table; the privilege of first instance, they assumed to themselves no communicating within the rails being resolutely active share in the government of the Church, denied even to his imperial majesty. This and were considered as the humblest of laymen. steru discipline, however, relaxed a little in At length the abbot, or archimandrite (chief of the subsequent times; for we find that permission sheepfold), became the priest of the house; and, to communicate at the altar was granted to the from the decrees of the councils held in the fifth faithful in the sixth century; and the second century, abbots wereevidently at that time adopted council of Tours ordained that the "holy of among the clergy, and subject to the bishops and holies" sbould be open both for men and women councils alone. They cultivated learning with to pray and communicate in at the time of the considerable success, and gradually engrossed oblation. With this exception, however, the within their different establishments its most imoriginal discipline was maintained during the portant documents. In the seventh century they performance of other religious services. --Cole- were made independent of episcopal jurisdiction, man, p. 83; Bingham, vol. ii., p. 433.-See assumed the mitre, and bore the pastoral staff. CAAXCEL

Through the whole of the dark ages riches and

un.

immunities were heaped upon them. Kings, and Abbacy, a religious house, governed by a supedukes, and counts, abandoned their thrones and rior, under the title of abbot or abbess. The honours to submit to their sway; or themselves jurisdiction of abbeys was first confined to the assumed the title of abbot, as among the highest immediate lands and buildings in possession of the civil distinctions. Hugh Capet, the founder of house. As these establishments increased in imthe third French dynasty, was styled Hugh portance, and were brought into the neighbourl'Abbé, or Hugh the Abbot. Many offices in the hood of cities and populous towns, they exstate were now aspired after by the abbots : we ercised extensive powers over their respective find them performing the functions of ambas- neighbourhoods, and in some cases issued coins, sadors and ministers, and occasionally adorning and became courts of criminal justice. In with their talents the highest stations. To their other instances they gave birth to towns and watchfulness over the manuscripts and other cities. Abbeys, priories, and monasteries, differ monuments of antiquity, now almost wholly in principally in the extent of their particular powers their hands, it is but just to record that the whole and jurisdiction. All these establishments, in Christian world became indebted. Their ambi- the Greek Church, follow the rule of St. Basil. tion, however, and their vices knew no bounds. The Russian abbeys and nunneries have been an Gregory VII., who was eagerly bent upon object of peculiar attention in the policy of that humbling the bishops, and transferring their government since the time of Peter the Great, privileges to the Roman see, granted them who brought the whole discipline of them under exemptions both from the temporal authority such peculiar restrictions as have effectually of their sovereigns and all other spiritual juris- remedied their grosser inconveniences. The rage diction, besides that of Rome, before for entering into these retreats no longer exists; known. They assumed the titles of universal and as all the higher ranks of the Russian clergy abbots, abbots-sovereign, abbots-general, &c., are taken from amongst them, it is a matter of and twenty-six lords-abbots sat in the English just anxiety with the government that such men Parliament.

only should be suffered to enter the order as may Abbe', a kind of secular clergymen, once afterwards prove worthy of their important desig. popular in France, and amongst whom arose nation. Both the male and female establishments several men of great literary merit. They are divided into three classes : Stauropegia, Cænoenjoyed certain privileges in the Church, but no bia, and Laura. The first two are directly under fixed station, being considered as professed the government of the holy synod, and the last scholars and academics, and principally occupied under that of the archbishops and bishops of their in public and private tuition. Some of them respective dioceses. The abbeys in England, have risen to eminence in the state.

before the time of the Reformation, were numerAbbess, the superior of an abbey or convent ous and wealthy, and enjoyed many important of nuns, over whom she exercises nearly the privileges. Their lands were valued, at the time same rights and authority as the abbots-regular of their confiscation by Henry VIII., at the over their monks. Their powers were formerly immense sum of £2,850,000, an enormous sum, very extensive; they are said to have assisted by our present currency.-See MONASTERY. at ecclesiastical councils, and even to have been Abbot is also a title given to bishops whose sometimes called to the English Wittenagemote, sees were formerly abbeys; and sometimes to the before the conquest. Some abbesses have had superiors or generals of some congregations of the right of commissioning a priest to act for regular canons, as that of St. Genevieve at Paris, them in those spiritual functions which their sex and of Montreal in Sicily. It was likewise would not permit them to exercise; they have usual, about the time of Charlemagne, for several occasionally confessed their own nuns; and are lords to assume the title of count-abbots, abbaallowed, by St. Basil, always to be present when commites, as superintendents of certain abbeys. the priest shall confess them. In the Russian in the Evangelical Church of Germany the Church, the abbess is called Hegumina. A secular title is still sometimes given to such clergy as priest performs divine service in the chapel of possess the revenues of former abbeys. the house, but the nuns read the lessons and sing Abbots in Commendam, seculars who the hymns. "The nunneries in Russia, at pre- have received tonsure, but are obliged by their sent," says Mr. Pinkerton," are properly nothing bulls to take orders when of proper age. but asylums for aged and unfortunate females, Abbots-Regular, those who take the vow, who thus spend the remainder of their days in and wear the habit of their order. retirement, most of them usefully employed ; Abbreviators, secretaries connected with the and it were altogether inconsistent with truth court of Rome, first appointed about the early and justice to consider them as belonging to part of the fourteenth century, to record bulls those retreats of licentiousness and vice, of which and other papal ordinances. The office has been we have so many shocking accounts in ecclesi- held by some eminent men. astical history." Present State of the Greek Abcedary, Abcedarian, or AbbecedaChurch.-See MONACHISM.

rian, A, B, C, D, E, &c., a term applied to those Abbey, sometimes written Abbathey or compositions whose parts are disposed in alpha

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