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BRITISH ORDER IN COUNCIL, approving the substituted
Rates and Duties on British and Foreign Trade, leviable in Whitby Harbour. June 11, 1863.
At the Court at Windsor, the 11th day of June, 1863. PRESENT, THE QUEEN'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY IN COUNCIL.
WHEREAS by the 57th section of the “Harbours and Passing Tolls, &c., Act, 1861,"* it is enacted that the trustees of Whitby Harbour may, for the purpose of maintaining and improving the harbour, with the consent of Her Majesty in Council, impose rates on vessels using the harbour, and on goods shipped or unshipped, in the harbour not exceeding the rates specified in Schedule A annexed to the“ Burgh Harbours (Scotland) Act,1853,” and
may from time to time, with the like consent vary such rates by reducing or raising the same, so that they do not exceed the rates mentioned in the said schedule, and that any rates so imposed may be either in lieu of, or in addition to, any other rates leviable by the said trustees.
And whereas the trustees of Whitby Harbour have prepared and submitted for approval a table of rates, as the rates to be levied by them from the date of this Order, in substitution for the table of rates authorised to be levied by an Order in Council, dated the 6th January, 1862;t And whereas it has been made to appear to Her Majesty that the said rates do not exceed the rates specified in Schedule A of the “ Burgh Harbours (Scotland) Act, 1853,"I
And that the same are proper and reasonable ;
Now, therefore, Her Majesty, by virtue of the powers vested in Her, and by and with the advice of Her Privy Council, is pleased to approve, and doth hereby approve and signify her consent to the said schedule of rates submitted, as aforesaid, by the trustees of Whitby Harbour, a copy of which is subjoined.
WHITBY PIERS AND HARBOUR.
Items hereby altered.Ş 1.- Rates on Vessels Entering or Leaving the Harbour. For
every vessel coastwise, of 15 and under 50 tons, per ton register, 1 penny.
For every vessel, boat, yaul, or craft, under the burden of 15 tons, partially or wholly decked, entering the harbour or precincts thereof with fresh, salted, or dried fish, each, 6 pence. * See Page 710. + See Page 785.
See Page 773. $ See corresponding items of Order in Council of January 6, 1862, Page 785. VOL, XI.
For every vessel exceeding the burden of 10 tons for the support, maintenance, and improvement of the existing or any future tide lights, per ton register, } penny. 2.-Rates on Goods or Merchandise shipped or unshipped at the
Harbour. Lime, per chaldron of 16 bolls, 4 pence.
BRITISH Despatch, respecting the Union of the Ionian Islands
with Greece. London, June 10, 1863.
Earl Russell to Lord Bloomfield.
Foreign-Office, June 10, 1863. The time is at hand when Her Majesty's declaration of her readiness to consent to the union of the Ionian Islands with Greece, if the Ionian Islands should themselves desire that union, must be followed by practical measures ; and Her Majesty's Government are anxious, before taking further steps, to free the subject from ambiguity. As, therefore, some unfounded notions are entertained with respect to those Islands, it may be useful that I should call your Excellency's attention to the truth regarding their position, their rights, and their future condition.
The Ionian Islands are not, as some persons appear to suppose, a part of the possessions of the British Crown. They form the Republic of the Seven Islands, placed by Treaty under the protection of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, his heirs and
The manner in which these Islands came under the protection of the British Crown is well known to all those who are acquainted with the European transactions of 1815. Provisions relating to them were not included among the Articles of the General Treaty concluded at Vienna in the month of June of that year. But on the 4th of June of that year, the Plenipotentiaries of the 4 Powers, Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia, being assembled, recorded in a Protocol what had passed at their Conference of that day.*
The Plenipotentiary of Austria declared that the question of the possession of the Ionian Islands being connected with the tranquillity of Italy, and of the former Venetian Provinces, the Court of Austria would change itself with the protection of these
* See State Papers, Vol. 2, Page 744.
Islands, and would guarantee to them the maintenance of their laws and privileges.
But the Plenipotentaries of Russia said, that desiring nothing else than to assure to the inhabitants of those Islands the happiest lot, and that most appropriate to their situation, they thought it their duty to promote the wish of the inhabitants of those Islands, that they should remain under the protection of Great Britain. The Plenipotentiaries of Russia also remarked that Count de Capodistrias, who had been charged specially with this matter, being absent, they could not then make any definitive arrangement, and they proposed an adjournment; and this proposal was finally adopted.
It is well known that Count de Capodistrias, who at that time enjoyed great favour with the Emperor Alexander, was zealous in behalf of the nationality and freedom of his countrymen. Knowing that the Ionian Islands could not stand alone as an independent State, he wished to place them under the protection of Great Britain, whose institutions, framed on principles of liberty, he desired to see established among a people of Greek habits and language.
These desires of Count de Capodistrias were, by the influence of the Court of Russia, and with the consent of Great Britain, accomplished by the Treaty of Paris of November 5, 1815, between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia.*
The Preamble of this Treaty recites that the powers concerned, "animated by the desire of prosecuting the negotiations adjourned at the Congress of Vienna, in order to fix the destiny of the Seven Ionian Islands, and to ensure the independence, liberty, and happiness of those Islands, by placing them and their Constitution under the immediate protection of one of the Great Powers of Europe, have agreed to settle definitively by a special Act whatever relates to this object, &c.”
The 1st Article of this Treaty declares that “the Islands of Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Ithaca, Cerigo, and Paxo, with their dependencies, such as they were described in the Treaty between His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias and the Ottoman Porte, of the 21st of March, 1800,t shall form a single, free, and independent State, under the denomination of the United States of the Ionian Islands."
The 4th Article declares "that the Lord High Commissioner of the Protecting Power shall regulate the forms of convocation of a Legislative Assembly, of which he shall direct the proceedings, in order to draw up a new Constitutional Charter for the State, which His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland shall be requested to ratify.”
The 5th Article is as follows: “In order to ensure without restriction to the inhabitants of See Vol. 1, Page 45.
See Vol. 1, Page 47.
the United States of the Ionian Islands the advantages resulting from the high protection under which these States are placed, as well as for the exercise of the rights inherent in the said protection, His Britannic Majesty shall have the right to occupy the fortresses and places of those States, and to maintain garrisons in the same.”
A like provision places under the order of the Commanderin-chief of the troops of His Britannic Majesty the military forces of the said United States.
It appears clear from these provisions that the intention of the High Allied Powers was to found in the Seven Islands a free, independent State, which, by the protection of so powerful a country as Great Britain, might develop its resources without fear of external aggression or internal anarchy.
It appears, also, from the 5th Article that the main object of the stipulation placing the fortresses in the hands of Great Britain, was to ensure to the inhabitants of the United States of the Ionian Islands the advantages resulting from the high protection under which the States are placed.”
The Constitution established in execution of the Articles of the Treaty contained in its 4th Article a provision that “the established language of the States is Greek,"'* thus showing conclusively that the intention of Count de Capodistrias to create a Greek nationality was steadily kept in view by Great Britain, as a State entrusted with the Protectorate.
The British Government having received this trust, have endeavoured faithfully to discharge the duties imposed upon them by the Allied Powers. In spite of many obstacles, they have ameliorated in all respects the condition of the inhabitants. With regard, however, to the exercise of the constitutional functions of the Lord High Commissioner and the Legislative Body, complete harmony has seldom prevailed between them. But the great change which took place in the condition of some of the neighbouring Turkish Provinces, when the Greek people of those Provinces asserted their independence, altered materially the political condition of the inhabitants of the Seven Islands. From that time the sympathies of the Ionian people began to turn towards Greece, and when the Greek Kingdom became a recognized State of Europe, the wish to be politically united with men of their own race took root among the people of the Ionian Islands.
This wish has been often laid hold of as a pretext for factious opposition; it has been expressed since 1850, at times when Great Britain could not listen to it without yielding to projects of ambition very foreign from the freedom of Greece. But in its origin and tendency there is something in this Ionian wish of union with Greece which must obtain the respect of the British nation.
* See State Papers, Vol. 4, Page 648.
A love of independence in union with a kindred race has in itself claims to regard from a nation which prides itself on its love of freedom.
It is thus that, with a view to strengthen the Greek Monarchy, to fulfil the original objects of the foundation of the Ionian Islands as a State, and to comply with the wishes frequently, though irregularly, expressed in the Ionian Islands themselves, Her Majesty's Government have declared their readiness to consent to the union of the Ionian Islands with Greece.
Her Majesty's Government are not insensible of the value of Corfu as a maritime and military station, nor are they unaware of the apprehensions felt in Austria and Turkey at the prospect of the abandonment of the Ionian Islands by Great Britain. It has been suggested in England that Corfu might be retained while the other islands might be given up. But Her Majesty's Government conceive that it would be a perversion of the trust confided to them by Europe, and a breach of faith towards the Ionian people, if Great Britain were to turn a portion of a single, free and independent State under Her Protectorate, into a part of her military Possessions, and to make Corfu an element of her European power.
Her Majesty's Government propose, therefore, now that a King of Greece has been recognized by the protecting Powers, to consult in the most formal and authentic manner the wishes of the inhabitants of the Ionian Islands as to their future destiny. If those wishes, deliberately expressed, should be in favour of a union with Greece, Her Majesty's Government would propose that, with a view to considering the future condition of the Ionian Islands, a Conference should be assembled, to consist of the Representatives of the Powers who signed the Treaty of November 1815, and of the protecting Powers who, in 1827* and 1832, signed the Treaties by which the Kingdom of Greece was constituted.
I am, &c.,
RUSSELL. P.S.—You are desired to read and give a copy of this despatch to Count Rechberg. Lord Bloomfield, Vienna,
Mem.--A similar despatch was addressed to Earl Cowley, Paris ; Sir A. Buchanan, Berlin ; and Lord Napier, St. Petersburgh.
See Vol. 4, Page 304.
+ See Vol. 4, Page 313.