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while philosophers are speculating about the natural operation of supply and demand. The only legislative expedient that would then remain, would be, to revive the old vagrant laws, add deeper horrors to our criminal code, and bring into action that positive check to the superfluous population---the gallows.
Among the eccentricities of eloquence which have been employed in reference to the present subject, one of the most extraordinary passages occurs in an article which appeared in a distinguished Critical Journal, the writer of which deliberately avows, that sooner than have such a system of assessment as that at present in force, he would sit down under mendicity in • its very worst furm ; he would let it roam, unrestricted and at - large, as it does in France ; he would suffer it to rise, without • any control, to the height of unlicensed vagrancy; being tho
roughly persuaded, that under such an economy the whole • poverty of the land would be disposed of at less expense to • the bigher orders, and with vastly less both of suffering and
depravity to the lower orders.' Nay, he appears to charge the Poor Laws with opposing the plan of Divine Providence, by a systematic attempt to extinguish the condition of poverty! • The zeal of regulation against ibe nuisance of public begging, the Reviewer confesses he has long thought a violation of
some of the clearest principles both of Nature and of Chris. tianity.'
The Rev, Mr. Jerram, than whom we must be allowed to say, while we thus withstand bim openly, a better man does not exist, has taken a nearly similar view, not of the design indeed, but of the operation of the Poor Laws, as superseding private benevolence. By the compulsory assessment,' the means of
charity,' he says, are cut off ; the sources from which the .' benevolent feelings are to flow are dried up.'
• How can the individual whose last penny is extorted from him by the parish rates, indulge his wish to assist a brother in real distress? Hence many a case of great and unmerited affliction is past by for want of supplies to meet it. The patient and silent sufferer would have received a cordial,-- but the obtrusive and rapacious hand of self-brought want arrested it in its course. The child of misfortune, who had seen better days, and who retires into a corner to escape the gaze of those who had envied him in better circumstances, would have received a portion of “ the children's food,”—but the boisterous claimant, who had been rampant in vice, rushes before him, and seizes the prey.'
Is Mr. Jerram a poet? Is it possible that so grave a personage as one of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace, can be the author of this fancy-sketch? And can be really be of opinion that the funds of charity are exhausted? He must be no friend then to penny-a-week associations. Saving Banks too, have coine into vogue quite too late, if the poor's rates have extorted from the parishioner his. last penny,' so that though he labours ever so hard, he bas nothing to give to him that needeth. But we are well persuaded that from the pulpit the much respected Vicar of Chobham would hold quite opposite language; that when he lays aside Malthus for the Bible, his own heart will lead him to deprecate all such bollow apologies for selfishness, as the above paragraph undesignedly conveys.
We are not insensible that the Poor Laws, as at present administered, have a ruinous as well as a demoralizing operation. How to remedy the abuses which, in connexion with the circumstances of the times, have led to this state of things, is a very delicate and intricate problem. The principle of the System of Relief, properly understood, we regard as equitable, and what is equitable must consist with true policy. Nothing, at least, that we have as yet met with, has appeared to demonstrate the contrary; but it cannot be denied that the system has been perverted on all hands by selfish indolence and selfish rapacity. We shall in our next Number resume the subject, and shall then proceed to examine more in detail the alleged, evils of the system, and the proposed remedies.
Art. II. Journey through Asia Minor, Armenia, and Koordistan, in
the Years 1819 and 1814 ; with Remarks on the Marches of Alex ander, and Retreat of the Ten Thousand. By John Macdonald Kinneir, 8vo. pp. 603. Map. price 18s. London. 1818.
(Concluded from page 116.) THERE is something strangely seductive in the genuine
spirit of travelling, and Mr. Kinneir seems to have been under its full influence. Undismayed by former disasters, and not satisfied with prior, acquisitions of knowledge, be prepared for further investigations in the same region, but in a different direction. Mr. Chavasse, of the Honourable East India Company's service, proposed to accompany him, and on the 29th April, 1814, they set out, with Costamboul as their first object. Mr. C. does not seem to have been altogether disposed to profit by his companion's experience, and with somewhat too high a spirit, which indeed he manifested on other occasions, determined on retaining the European dress, and Mr. K. contrary to his own judgement, chose to follow his friend's example, that they might be on equal terms, and share alike every danger and every privation. After encountering many difficulties at tbe very out-set, and even being compelled to change their route, they passed up the gulf of Nicomedia, and reached in safety that city, at one time the capital of Bithynia. At Sabanjali, where they were detained by the difficulty of procuring horses,
they met two Tatars, carrying with them in safe custody, the head of a rebel Pasha. Here they were compelled, by the inundations, to take a circuitous route along a bighly romantic road to Gaiwa, the Aga of wbich place requested a pair of spectacles and a spy-glass, in return for his exertions to procure horses. By this time Mr. K. had made an unpleasant discovery. His Tatar, Mahomed Aga, began now to unfold his character ; he was insolent, selfish, cowardly and treacherous, and to bis gross and infamous misconduct nearly the whole of the misfortunes which made this journey so calamitous, were to be attributed.
At Terekli, numerous remains of antiquity indicated the site of the ancient Heraclea. After a very delightful ride through wild and broken scenery, the travellers reached Tereboli. About seven miles from this last stage, which they quitted late in the evening, they came suddenly upon a large caravan, halting in a small recess of a forest, and refreshing themselves round a blazing fire. In the greatest alarm, the party sprung to their arms, and began a random fire, to terrify the supposed banditti, wlio, with some trouble, quieted their fears and passed quietly on. . Had Mr. K. and his companions been really robbers, nothing could, as he remarks, have saved the caravan, since the fire rendered every object conspicuous, while the assailants. would have been concealed by the darkness and by the trees., About six miles further on, they encountered two suspicious looking men, well mounted, and completely armed, who passed along their line, and then headed the horses, disarming the valiant Tatar; but when Mr. Kinneir and Mr. Chavasse rode up
with cocked pistols, the plunderers disappeared in an instant. From Modoorly, they travelled by night through a fine mountainous country, the effect of which was much increased by the roaring of cataracts, the noise of saw-mills, and the frequent kindling of immense fires. At length, they reached Boli, the ancient Hadrianopolis. At Geirida, they found four of the Sultan's Tatars still waiting for horses, after a detention of many days; a bribe, however, procured them instantly for the Europeans, who set off, leaving the Tatars cursing both them and the post-master.' Their next day's journey led them over part of the Asiatic Olympus, which separated Bithynia from Galatia, and in the course of it they met many parties of Armenians travelling in search of employment. On the banks of the ancient Parthenius, they discovered several curious excavations, and among them one which occupied the whole of an insulated rock. On the 14th of May they reached Costamboul, and were billeted by the Pasha, on an Armenian Priest. They found here the former physician of Chapwan Oglu, and Mr. Kinneir renewed with him the acquaintance of the preceding summer.' The death of that Chief was, as we have before
intimated, followed by the ruin of his family, from whom the Sultan had extorted not less than six millions of piastres. In consequence of this catastrophe the Doctor had left Ooscat, and entered into the service of the Pasha of Costamboul. Here Mr. Kinner was detained by the intrigues of his Tatar, wbo, being paid by the month, bad, it seems, determined to throw as many difficulties as possible, in the way of their progress. He had contrived also to seduce Mr. K.'s servant, a native of Pera, the Franks of which place are stigmatized in a note, as being a . most profligate and unprincipled race.
• On the eve of our departure, the females of the family with whom we had lodged assembled round the door of our apartment, in expectation of a present, the papas or priest having adopted this plan of reimbursing himself for the expense we had occasioned him. We gave each of them a couple of rubas, with which they appeared perfectly satisfied. The Pasha supplied us with excellent horses, which carried us to Tash Kapri in six hours.'
This a place of some importance, containing four thousand inbabitants, who have extensive inanufactories of various articles. Tlie next day's journey was through a very fine country, but bearing throughout the marks of bad and oppressive government. The miserable inhabitants of the few scattered cabins complained that the recesses of the mountains could not shelter thein from the tyranny and rapacity of their rulers. Passing through scenery of the richest kind, adorned with an infinite variety of fruits and flowers and the surface of the ground broken up in the most picturesque forms, the travellers reached the beautiful and roinantic town of Weiwode.
• A short time after our arrival we received a visit from one of those mendicants called dervishes, who in expectation of a present, was lavish in his abuse of the French, and praise of the English ; he brandished a pipe of an enormous size, and exhibited various ges. ticulations, until I ordered my servant to give him twenty paras, when indignant at the smallness of the sum, he threw it with wrath upon the floor, and rushing from the apartment, .swore that the French were a noble and generous people, but the English a set of infidels, who could not escape damnation. These dervishes are a sort of privileged people, and are treated by all the Turks with great respect and attention.'
During the next stage, they were benighted on the banks of the Kizil Ermak, the ancient Halys, in a wild, but luxuriant country, infested by banditti. Mr. K. and Mr. Chavasse rode forward, in hope of discovering some village in wbich they might take shelter, but the nigbt closing on them, with a dark and tempestuous sky, they determined to return, and rejoin their baggage. The party rested therefore, or rather halted in the open air, amid a heavy rain. The next day, after crossing the Kizil Ermak, the finest river in Asia Minor, they reached Vizir Kapri, or the Vizir's Bridge, the capital of a • rich district.'
• We remained several hours standing in the streets of Vizir Kapri, before the Aian or Aga would deign to give us an apartment. -During this time a mob collected round us, for the majority of them had never before seen a European ; and I heard one of the Soorajees uttering imprecations against us for keeping his horses so long unladen. He said it was a high farce to see gours lodged in private houses, whilst the faithful were obliged to be contented with the accommodation of a coffee-house. We were at last shewn into a room, but preferred spreading our carpets in an open veranda, where we ran less risk of being annoyed with bugs and other loathsome insects.'
At Konak, Mr. K. had to encounter at once the intrigues of his old Tatar, and the airs of the Zabit. To the latter he behaved with a dignified contempt, which brought him a little to his senses.
Adverting to the badness of his fare in this village, Mr. Kinneir takes occasion to express his conviction that the more moderate the diet, the more fatigue and hardship the frame is capable of sustaining. He states it to be his invariable practice during a journey, to abstain from ' animal food, wine or spirits.' Mr. Chavasse, he remarks, who at first thought it impossible 'to exist without beef or mutton,' in a very short time became 'a convert,' to his system. With respect to mere stirouli, as wine and spirits, we are quite disposed to agree with Mr. Kinneir; but in regard to abstinence from animal food, we question the correctoess of his conclusions. Where the constitution has been already accustomed to it, its continuance would seem necessary to the full maintenance of muscular strength ; and it is not improbable that the melancholy catastrophe which befel Mr. Chavasse, might be partly owing to the debility occasioned by unaccustomed abstinence. It has been quoted as the statement of the physician who attended the lamented Burckhardt in his last illness, that he never met with a case in which the constitution made so little effort to recover itself; and it is we believe, a well known fact, that Mr. B. had accustomed himself while sojourning in hot climates, to the use of vegetable food. Indeed, we have ourselves understood, that even in India, not only are Europeans superior in muscular strength to the abstinent natives, but their powers of endurance are also greater.
At Samsoon, the Amisus of antiquity, one of the most flourishing towns of the ancient Pontus, the travellers reached the Euxine, along the shores of which part of their journey lay. At one of their halting places, they were quartered on a Greek