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family. The females, takiog them for plundering Turks, set their tongues in instant and incessant motion ; but they were speedily and effectually silenced by an intimation that they might expect double pay. The best apartment was dusted out, the carpets and cushions drawn from their repositories, and fruit, flowers, and fish set before the guests. The country through which they were now travelling, seemed principally allotted to the pasture of brood mares. At Unieh, but a slight coruption of Enoe, the house where they were lodged was small, but they procured a sumptuous dinner,' and under the notion, generally too correct, that Europeans drink to excess, their purveyors brought in three large bottles of

excellent wine and a decanter of brandy. The despot of the Greeks, who had shewn them all this atieption, bad the misfortune to be a creditor of the Pasha of Widin, and whenever he ventured to express an hunble hope of repayment, his noble debtor threatened to cut off bis head. With a view to secure protection at the Porte, the luckless Greek obtained froin his visiters, a letter of introduction to Mr. Pisani, the Dragoman to the English Embassy at Constantinople.

From this place the party travelled, through the finest and most luxuriant landscapes, to Keresoun, the ancient Cerasus, whence Lucuilus first introduced the cherry into Europe. Here they were for the first time absolutely unable, by threats, bribes, or intreaties, to procure horses, and they were compelled to embark in a felucca, which, after a very delightful coasting voyage, landed them at Trebisond. At Platana, a place where they bad stopped on the coast, Mr. C. was robbed of his coat and waistcoat, and the Aga declined interference, on the plea, probably a just one, that he had no meaus of detecting the offenders. Apprehending, however, that further steps might be taken, he followed the travellers to Trebisond, and begged that no complaint might be made to the governor, who would doubtless use it as a pretext for levying a heavy contribution on the inhabitants of Platana. As he seemed much agitated, and as the value of the articles was trifling, they proinised forbearance; but in the mean time, the Tatar had related the affair to, the Mutesellim, who seut word that he had ordered the bead of the master of the Coffee-house to be struck off, and the village to be fined. The Tatar, it appeared, had affirmed that there was a large sum of money in the pockets, though he knew perfectly well that there was nothing more than a few piastres and a pocket compass.

Mr. K. wrote to the Mutesellim, requesting that no further notice might be taken of the transaction. This circumstance, though trifling in itself, exhibits a pretty fair specimen of the way in which justice is administered in Turkey. “As a further illustration however, it is stated, tbat as the Aga requested concealment from apprehension of the governor's rapacity, the latter, on precisely similar grounds, exacted a written promise that no complaint should be made to the Pasha, who would probably have made it a pretext for extorting from his governor ten thousand piastres.

Trebisond is a place of considerable trade, and contains some landsome buildings. At Maturage, fifteen iniles from Trebisond, it was necessary to take a guard, and on the following day's journey, Messrs. K. and C. were placed in circumstances of considerable peril. They were on the lofty mountains of Koat Dag, the mist fell thick and fast, and as the night advanced, the cold became increasingly intense. Intending to push forward at a brisker pace, Mr. K. ordered the Geek servant to follow him, and on a peremptory refusal, demanded his pistols. Instead of delivering them up, the Greek threw off his turban and cloak, and dismounting, presented one of the pistols to Mr. K.'s breast, threatening with expressions of the utmost fury, to kill him. Mr. Kinneir was quite unarmed, but Mr. Chavasse would have shot the villain upon the spot, but for Mr. K.'s interference. The Greek ran to bis horse, mounted, and galloped on before, still, however, keeping them in sight. The guard was in the rear, and Mahomed Aga looked on with the utmost indifference. At the village where they stopped, the Greek kept out of the way during the night, but in the morning came to make his peace, still reserving the pistols, and when Mr. C. endeavoured to seize them by force, some of the guards interfered to prevent him from effecting his purpose. A contest immediately ensued, in which resolution prevailed over numbers, and Mr. K. and his friend secured the object of contention. The guards were sulky,' and muttered threats, firing off their carbines for the purpose of intimidation; but the Greek exhibited signs of penitence, employing the Tatar as bis mediator, and at the next halt, procured his pardon, at the request of the master of the Khan and several other respectable persons, but principally, Mr. K. remarks, because his masters

had it not in their power to punish him, and would have « been much in want of his services.'

The travellers were now among the mountains of Armenia, and in addition to the bleak and unsheltered exposures of elevated ranges, had to encounter the privations and sufferings arising from want of accommodation. The dwellings in these dreary tracts, are usually underground, the roofs covered with grass, and the goats and sheep grazing on them; the door is the only opening for light and air, and cows, sheep, and dogs are permitted to share the accommodations of the family. Under these circumstances, it will be readily believed that Messrs. K, and C. would prefer the most casual and imperfect

! shelter to such miserable abodes. The natives of these exposed ranges, are a short, stout, and active race of men, remarkably

dark in their complexions.' Like most mountaineers, they are brave and hardy, patient of cold and fatigue, and their favourite pastime is the chase of the stag. Their dress is picturesque, consisting of a cap or turban, a short jacket, and • wide brown woollen trowsers. Their deportment was courteous, and they betrayed no rude curiosity, though they had never before been visited by Europeans. Byaboot, the residence of a chief, stands on lower ground, and from the depth of snow, is, during four months of the year, cut off from all communication with the surrounding villages. No wood can at any time be procured nearer than three days' journey, and the poor are compelled to use as fuel, cow-dung baked in the sun. Byaboot is defended by moveable towers, constructed of logs of wood, musket-proof, and triangular in shape, with raised turrets at the angles. The Aga 'took a fancy’ to Mr. Chavasse’s gun, and withheld the horses to secure his point; but on an intimation, that if the party were detained much longer, complaint would be made to the Pasha of Erzeroum, he desisted from his claim, and sent the horses.

The road now lay over the Cop Dag, said to be equal to Ararat in height, and whose dependent ranges and valleys presented a scene of striking grandeur. After crossing the Euphrates, they entered on the immense plain of Erzeroum, tolerably well cultivated, but bleak and desolate in appearance, from the absence of trees and the lowness of the habitations scattered over it. At Erzeroum they were visited by the Pasha's phy. sician, whose appearance and medical qualifications were of no common kind. He was short, hump-backed, and bandy-legged, had an extravagant beard, and long coarse black hair. His dress consisted of a shabby blue coat with an embroidered vest; his pantaloons were of green Angora shawl; his cap was of yellow silk with silver trimmings, and a long orange coloured pelisse covered his coat. This grotesque personage was a Venetian, and had formerly been Sir James Mackintosh's butler. His errand was to make inquiry, on the part of the Pasha, into the adventures of Napoleon.

• The patives of the east have always taken great interest in the fortunes of this extraordinary man. His name and exploits had become familiar to them : they looked upon him as the favoured of heaven; and the exaggerated statements of his power were well calculated to make a strong impression on the minds of men naturally fond of pomp and grandeur. The thinking classes of the Turks and Persians contemplated in him their future protector against the hostile intentions of Russia, and listened at first with doubt and afterwards with consternation to the reports of his defeats and rapid overthrow.'

Erzeroum is one of the most extensive and important Pashaliks in the Turkish dominions, inferior only to Egypt, and equal to Bagdad. It stretches from the frontiers of Russia to those of Persia, and includes in its superintendence the Begs of Koordistan. Ahmed, the Pasha at the time of Mr. K.'s visit, is described as a man of ability, accomplishment, and liberality. He had distinguished himself in the Russian war, and was made Grand Vizier ; but having been beaten by Kutusof, he was sent into honourable exile at Erzeroum. The province carries on a conşiderable traffic in leather, copper from mount Taurus, and other articles raw and manufactured; it is, besides, remarkable for the size and excellence of its cattle.

In arranging the journey through Koordistan, Mr. K. was anxious to follow the track of the ten thousand, and with that view chose the route by Betlis and Sert. On the first day's journey they lost their road, and it was with much difficulty that they recovered it. From the summit of Hamur Tegh, they contemplated the plain through which the Morad or Water of Desire flowed in a thousand serpentine curves;' and in the remote distance they distinguished the snowy peak of the Sepan Dag, which bangs over the lake Van, and is said to be too lofty for ascent. Its form is conical, and it exhibits volcanic appear. ances ; obsidian is found along the borders of the lake. Descending into the plain, they balted at an encampment of Koords, and found a cordial reception from the chief, a man of courteous and polished manners.

• He beckoned us to sit down, and ordered coffee to be served and dinner to be prepared. The tent was about fifty feet in length and thirty in breadth, made of coarse black woollen cloth, supported by nine small poles. The walls were made with cane bound together by twisted purple silk, and about four feet high; one end was allotted to the women, and the other to the chief, who sat on a silk cushion, having on each side long felts spread for the accommodation of the visitors. Soon after we were seated, he addressed the Tatar, desiring to know what sort of a place England was, since he heard the people there were wise, and made excellent cloth and pistols. Mahomed Aga, with great gravity, assured him that it was a city two hundred hours in circumference, completely filled with emeralds, rubies, and all sorts of rich merchandize; an account which seemed to excite the surprize of the Koord, although he did not express a doubt of the Tatar's veracity. He then ordered his horses to be brought out for us to look at, and we afterwards sat down to dinner, which consisted of a large dish of meat, two plates of cheese, two bowls of sour milk, and abundance of good bread, served up on a leather cloth.'

At an Armenian village called Leese, Mr. K. was visited by a party of Lesgæ.

· These people are the scourge of all the neighbouring countries,

being generally employed as the guards of great men; they are mercenary troops, armed with carbines, pistols, and daggers, and during the period for which they engage themselves, will serve with great fidelity, even against their nearest relations. They are of a middle stature, firmly built, of black complexions, and a fierce menacing air.'

In the present instance, they were a detachment from the guard of the Pasha of Moush, who was encamped in the neighbourhood, and who had sent them with assurances of protection, which afterwards turned out to be in expectation of a valuable present. With a view to secure this, he threatened to send them by a different road from that which they had indicated. Mr. K. suspecting that the intrigues of his Tatar had some share in this, sent his servant with a resolute message, which produced the desired effect, and procured for them a guard, and permission to travel as they pleased. The ragged regiment appointed to escort them, was commanded by an old and strange looking Koord, who, however, conducted himself with great kindness and propriety. About half way on their first day's journey, Messrs. K. and C., who were in advance, met with the following adventure.

• We encountered a party of the Lesgæ, who eyed us with a suspicious look, and seemed doubtful whether or not they might venture to attack us ; they passed on, however, and soon afterwards we met some others of the same stamp, well mounted and armed, as were also the former. I was a few yards in advance, and they endeavoured to intercept me, but I avoided them: they then made a push at Mr. Chavasse, and stopped the Sooragee, demanding, with à menacing air, whither we were going : they held a parley for a few moments, and one of them cocking his carbine, rode up and seized a baggage horse. The guide and his attendants were not with us; but nevertheless, when we perceived that the Lesgæ had seized the baggage, we spurred our horses towards them with our pistols in our hands; find. ing us prepared and determined to resist, they abandoned their prey, and turning round, fled at full gallop, to call in, as we supposed, the assistance of their companions. During the whole of this scene Ma. homed Aga remained absolutely in a state of stupor, with his back towards the banditti, betraying in his countenance symptoms of the most abject fear; and when Mr. Chavasse called on him to advance, he looked at him without appearing to understand what he said. The Koord and his followers coming up soon afterwards, we pursued our journey without further molestation.'

At Betlis they were left by their guide, whose close and diligent attention they recompensed by an additional present. Being dissatisfied, he found a pretext for requiring more, which being complied with, he then proposed to raise an additional ten shillings by way of loan. 'Not succeeding in this last application, he rushed from the room in great wrath, abusing the infidels till he quitted the house.

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