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McKnight translates the passage," yet for your sake he became poor, that ye through his poverty might be rich."
But even if the Unitarian translation were supported by these great authorities; were it, as it is not, philologically accurate; and were either mode of rendering admissible, it would still be difficult to defend their translation upon their own hypothesis. Jesus of Nazareth, they tell us, was ignorant of the nature of his commission till he was about thirty years of age, when he was led to the scene of his grand temptation, for the express purpose of teaching him," that his powers were not to be employed for his own gratification and the relief of his necessities; but for the benefit of the human race in obedience to the will of God."* If then he had otherwise employed them, be would have opposed the design of him who bestowed them, and of course would have failed in the execution of his commission. In abusing them, he would have been chargeable with high offence, and in not abusing them, under such prohibitions, there was surely no uncommon merit; especially as, according to the Unitarian opinion, he was only in possession of his powers for little more than the space of one year. The words under review were employed by the Apostle to set him forth as a pattern of condescension and generosity; but it is difficult to conceive what motive to the fulfilment of these charities the Corinthians could deduce from the fact, that this Jesus, during that short period, was not permitted to work miracles for the gratification of his own necessities. It is easy, on the contrary, to understand the nature of the Apostle's argument, and we cannot be susceptible of gratitude, if we feel not the force of the motive which is founded upon the common interpretation of his words. In this view of them, we have a transcendent and unexampled display of love and condescension. "Many waters could not quench it, neither could the floods drown it. The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests, but the Son of Man had not where to lay his head. Ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might be rich." pp. 35-39.
Never was argument more lame and inadequate to its purpose than the reasoning of Unitarians in this instauce. That Jesus had the power of using the miraculous agency with which, according to them, he was endowed, for purposes of personal support or gratification, they cannot venture to affirm; but unless he could have so employed that agency, he could not be rich in their sense of the expression; and there surely could be no "gracious goodness" in Jesus's living in poverty, while he could not possibly have lived otherwise. Never was reference, on- Unitarian principles, so completely unmeaning as that of Paul to the condescension and kindness of our blessed Lord. This is one of the numerous passages which no ingenuity of cri
• Wakefield's Inquiry, p. 182. Belsham's Inquiry, p. 448. Belsham, p. 415.
ticism or interpretation, will ever divert from their proper purpose and meaning.
Mr. Wilson's Inquiry is one of the fairest and most temperate publications which we have seen on the subject which it brings under discussion: he does justice to the opinions of his opponents, and treats them with respectful attention, wisely coneluding that misrepresentation and the use of irritating language are not required for the service of truth. We have only further to express our wish that more care had been employed in preparing the present work for the public, which wish the Author may consider as intended to serve his own interests by suggesting the necessity of a complete revisal of the Inquiry, should a second edition be demanded.
Art. VIII. Narrative of my Captivity in Japan, during the Years 1811, 1812, and 1813. With Observations on the Country and the People. By Captain Golownin, R. N. To which is added, an Account of Voyages to the Coasts of Japan; and of Negociations with the Japanese for the Release of the Author and his Companions. By Captain Rickord, 2 vols. 8vo. London. 1818. WITH regard to nations not less than individuals, it must always be agreeable to a benevolent mind to have prejudices removed, and to exchange an unfavourable opinion for a favourable one. There is, perhaps, no country against which Europeans entertain more dislike and suspicion than Japan. Except, indeed, to the Dutch, whose uniform policy has been either to conceal or to misrepresent, the Japanese are a people almost unknown. The timidity of character which is in them a far more striking feature than the cruelty of which it has sometimes given them the appearance, has induced them to seclude themselves from almost every advantage of commerce, lest it should likewise subject them to innovations in their habits, or to the discovery of their weakness. Although the field of Captain Golownin's observations was unavoidably very limited, yet, from the peculiarity of his situation, he was brought into much nearer contact with the Japanese, than he would have been under circumstances, which might have commanded more of the shew of respect, but would, at the same time, have induced more of their characteristic dissimulation and reserve. His Narrative is written in an unaffected style, and the simplicity which pervades it has the appearance of being the simplicity of truth. He professes to describe only what came within his own observation and experience, and to report only what the saw with his own eyes.
Captain Golownin was in 1811 appointed by the Russian Government, to the command of the Diana, imperial sloop of war, with orders to explore as minutely as possible, the southern
Kurile and Shantar Islands, and the coast of Tartary from latitude 53° 38' north to Okotzk. The object of his destination was one which had at different periods awakened the curiosity and excited the enterprising spirit of the most celebrated navigators, among whom we may reckon our own countrymen Gore and Broughton. The Japanese at this time manifested so lit le inclination to return the advances which the Empress Catherine had made a few years before, with the view of gaining their friendship, that they had not only forbidden all Russian vessels to touch at any of their ports, or pretence of either trade or negotiation, but had even ordered that in case of any of their own people being wrecked on the coasts of Russia, they should be conveyed back to their country in Dutch, and not Russian vessels. The causes of this dislike, which are detailed at some length, were such as rendered the utmost prudence and caution requisite on Captain Golownin's part, in case of his being subjected to any intercourse with the Japanese during his inspection of the islands under their dominion. It was not long before the exercise of these qualities was called for. By what might seem a fatality, he was in duced to send a boat towards the island of Eetoorpoo, imagining it to be inhabited by Kuriles, but perceiving this boat to be met by another from the shore, and fearful of the reception his people might meet with, he ran the sloop close into the shore, and hastened in another armed boat to their assistance. On landing, he, to his great surprise, saw Mr. Moor, the midshipman, under whose command the first boat had been sent out, in conversation with some Japanese, and was still more concerned to hear that these Japanese had sent the Russian Kuriles, who it appeared, had been accidentally cast on the island a year before, and detained prisoners there from that time, to meet the boat, and entreat those who were in it not to set foot on shore. Captain Golownin, on hearing this, justly reprimanded Mr. Moor for his rashness in persisting in his original destination without turning back to consult his superior officer. The young man excused himself by alleging that such conduct might, he feared, have been imputed to cowardice. From this over-tenderness for his own reputation, sprang all the calamities which subsequently befel himself, as well as his commander. After much prevarication on the part of the Japanese, and the hairy Kuriles, an appellation by the bye, which does not convey an idea very flattering to the personal vanity of any tribe of the human species, the Russians sailed from Eetoorpoo, accompanied by a Kurile of the name of Alexei Maximovitsch, who engaged to act as their interpreter among the Kuriles and Japanese. By the advice of this person, they afterwards, being fearful of wanting provisions,
sailed towards the Island of Kunaschin, where he informed them they would meet with safe anchorage, and a fortified willage which could supply them with wood, water, rice, and fresh roots.
Captain Golownin, being desirous of examining the harbour of Kunaschin, as well as the channel which separates that island from Matsmai, which has never hitherto been described by European navigators, willingly acceded to this proposal, but he proceeded with the greatest caution, in order that he might not alarm the Japanese, who on the first approach of the vessel shewed every disposition towards hostility and dislike. After an intercourse of signs and negotiations somewhat minutely described, he was at last induced to go on shore to confer with the Governor, who sent him an invitation for that purpose, and who met him in a manner which be most likely thought would convince the Russian Captain of the importance of the personage with whom he had the honour to be admitted to converse. He appeared completely armed, and accompanied by two soldiers, one of whom carried his long spear, and the other his cap and helmet, which was adorned with the figure of the moon. In addition to these outward signs of dignity, he assumed a demeanour, intended, we may presume, to be imposing.
His eyes were cast down and fixed upon the earth, his hands pressed close against his sides; he besides proceeded at so slow a pace, that he scarcely extended one foot beyond the other, and kept his feet as wide apart, as though a stream of water had been running betwixt them.' Vol. I p. 61.
During the interview with this slow-walking personage, many circumstances occurred, which ought to have put Captain Golownin on bis guard; but it seemed as if he was determined to oppose Russian credulity to Japanese suspicion,-the most Task confidence to the most cautious artifice. Another invitation was given by the Governor, and accepted; in a fatal moment the Captain landed with Mr. Moor, the midshipman, Mr. Chlebnikoff, the pilot, the Kurile Alexei, and four able seamen. An interesting account of their reception follows; but in its very outset there was enough to alarm any one who possessed ordinary penetration.
On entering the castle-gate, I was astonished at the number of men I saw assembled there. Of soldiers alone, I observed from three to four hundred, armed with muskets, bows and arrows, and spears, sitting in a circle, in an open space to the right of the gate on the left, a countless multitude of Kuriles surrounded a tent of striped cotton cloth, erected about thirty paces from the gate. I never could, have supposed this small insignificant place capable of containing so many men, and concluded that they must have been collected from
all the neighbou ring garrisons since we appeared in the harbour." Vol. 1. p. 69.
Still no suspicions were awakened in the breast of the worthy Captain, who, to avoid the very appearance of distrust on his part, had ordered the boat which had brought him, to be hauled up on the shore, until it was half out of the water, leaving only one sailor with it; nor could even the information given him by Mr. Moor, that naked sabres were distributing among the soldiers, who were sitting in the open space, convey to him any idea beyond that of two or three having been accidentally drawn out of their sheaths. His eyes were not opened, till on his inquiry concerning a supply of provisions, a hostage was demanded while a message on the subject should be sent to the Governor of Matsmai, under whose jurisdiction the Governor of Kunaschin considered himself. To this proposal, Captain Golownin replied, that he could say nothing, without consulting the officers who remained on board the Diana: he then rose to go away, upon which, the Governor suddenly altering the tone of his voice, broke forth into a loud and vehement speech, in which he made frequent mention of certain Russians, who bad a few years before committed several wanton injuries on the Japanese coasts, in burning their villages, and destroying their provisions, and accompanied his words with striking several times on bis sabre.
In this manner, he made a long speech, of which the_terrified Alexei interpreted to us only the following sentence: "the Governor says, that it he lets a single one of us out of the castle, his own bowels will be ript up." This was brief and decisive! We instantly made all the haste we could to escape. The Japanese did not venture to close upon us, but set up a loud cry, and threw oars, and large pieces of wood at us to knock us down. On our reaching the gate, they red several times on us, but without effect, though one of their balls whistled past the head of Mr. Chlebnikoff. We now found that they And succeeded in detaining Mr. Moor, the sailor Makaroff, and our Kurile Alexei in the castle We ran, however, to our landing place; but on arriving there, perceived with horror, that the tide had ebbed, about five fathoms, and left the strand quite dry. As the Japanese saw that it was impossible for us to get the boat afloat, and had previously ascertained that it contained no arms, they became confident, advanced against us with drawn sabres, which they held in both hinds, muskets, and spears, and surrounded us beside the boat. I cast a look upon the boat, and said to myself:-It must be so;-our Last refuge is lost; our fare is unavoidable;-I surrendered. The Japanese seized me by the arms and conducted me to the castle, into which my unfortunate companions were also conveyed. On the way thither a soldier struck me several times on the shoulder with a small ina bar, but one of the officers said something to him, accompanied with a look of displeasure, and he immediately discontinued.' Vol. I. p. 74.