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principal doctrine, but then it was on account of the supreme and overwhelming importance of that one fact and that one doctrine. It is the cross of Christ which, with them, forms at once the distinguishing glory and the appropriate designation of the whole Gospel. It was the doctrine of the cross, which they held up above all others; this was first, and last, and all in all, in their discourses. It was a view of this doctrine of atonement and salvation by the sacrifice of Christ alone, as being of somewhat more importance for all mankind to know and believe, than this Author appears to think, that made one of them say, "I determined not to know any thing among you, save Jesus "Christ, and him crucified." We recommend to Mr. Watson a little closer attention to the writings of that Apostle, before he ushers his next volume of Dissertations into the world; and we can assure him that he will appear to us, and we think we may say to the religious public in general, much more in character, when he invests his theological productions with a larger portion of the glory of the cross, the doctrine of which at present appears to him to be foolishness, but which, he must be aware, will be the master-theme of those ransomed spirits who are represented as exclaiming, "Thou art worthy, for thou wast "slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood."
Art. V. A Short Introduction to the Greek Language; containing Greek Precepts; a Speech of Clearchus, from Xenophon's Anabasis; and the Shield of Achilles, from Homer's Iliad. Translated into English. 8vo. pp. 178. Price 8s. 6d.
HIS small volume was originally composed for the early instruction of the present Lord Viscount Falkland, and originated in the Editor's apprehension that a child in his first efforts to learn Greek, has sufficient difficulty to contend with, without being embarrassed with Latin as an intermediate guide. The selection is made with judgement. The Greek precepts, and the extracts from Homer and Xenophon, are accompanied each with a liberal version, and with an exact verbal translation. As examples of the proper mode of proceeding in the lessons, the first ten precepts are grammatically analyzed; and so much of the Eton Greek grammar is given in English, as relates to the article and nouns substantive, for the sake of a more convenient reference in parsing. Concise but valuable notes are occasionally added by the Editor.
This short Introduction may be recommended to the very young Greek student, as a useful manual to facilitate his acquaintance with a language in which are preserved the noblest productions of human genius, and the most interesting portions
of the inspired Volume; but let him learn the time when it is proper that he should lay aside such aids as are here provided for him, and proceed, without verbal, or any other translations, to read the works which have immortalized the Greek authors as poets, historians, and philosophers.
Art. VI. A Lexicon of the Primitive Words of the Greek Language, inclusive of several leading Derivatives, upon a new plan of arrangement for the use of Schools and Private Persons. By the Rev. John Booth, Curate of Kirkby Malzeard, near Ripon, Yorkshire, 8vo. pp. 306. Price 9s. 1817.
A Compendious etymological Greek Lexicon is a desideratum
in our literature. The materials for such a work have been abundantly provided by the labours of numerous distinguished scholars, whose researches and criticisms have done so much in preparing the way for a philosophical arrangement of the words. of that exquisite language. It is full time that the Lexicons of Schrevelius and Hederic were superseded at our classical seminaries, by a work more corresponding to the present improved state of philological learning. Such a desideratum is not supplied by Mr. Booth's publication. His plan is professedly a new one. Novelty of plan, however, is in itself a circumstance of no importance to any work; and we observe, that the Author is as sensible of the truth of this remark, as we ourselves are, since in looking for the approbation and support of the public on his labours, he describes them as designed to assist and encourage in the study of the Greek tongue,' and expresses his hope, that this Lexicon will be found of peculiar service to 'learners, and of some utility to proficients in the language.' It is, then, on the ground of utility that the claims of the present volume to patronage, are to be examined. If it be more simple and comprehensive in its arrangement, more luminous and nice in its definitions, and superior in the facilities which it may afford for ready consultation, than its predecessors, it will deserve our commendation. We must, however, confess, that its merits in these respects are too doubtful to receive our praise.
Facility of reference is unquestionably necessary to the excellence of a Lexicon, and this, we apprehend, is best provided for by classing the whole of the vocabules of a language, under one alphabet. Mr. Booth's Lexicon is the very reverse of simple in this respect it is, indeed, most complex, having as many separate alphabets as there are distinctions in grammar, and even more than these. Thus we have two alphabets to nouns of the first declension: Class 1. nouns in ∞, n, n. Class 2. nouns in pure, pa, as. Nouns of the second declension have their distinct alphabet; and so of the others. The verbs are, in like manner, arranged according to their characteristic letters, and a
separate alphabet is used for each class. The various kinds of adjectives, prepositions, adverbs, and conjunctions, are separately arranged in the same manner. This sort of classification we consider as altogether unnecessary in a Lexicon, which is not intended to supply the place of a grammar. The plan of the Port Royal Greek Primitives, is perspicuous and easy, and has not been advantageously exchanged for that adopted in the present work. Mr. Booth's Lexicon, it may be remarked, so far corresponds to the Primitives of Messieurs De Port Royal, as to be rather a dictionary of leading words, than an etymological classification of radicals, which is the correct meaning of primitive applied to words.
The definitions included in this Lexicon, are given, both in Latin and English, with copiousness, and generally, but not always, with exactness. We shall extract a specimen or two of its execution in this respect.
apen, G. pl. Dor. 'aprav, Virtus, fortitudo, industria, navitasVirtue, moral goodness and excellence, courage, valour, fortitude, industry, activity, enterprise, q. "Apns, Mars.'
These several meanings are not arranged in their natural order, the primary import of the word not being, as is here intimated by the leading English explanation, moral goodness. The senses of fertility, goodness as applied to land, and praise or glory, might have been added on the authority of Plato and Thucydides.
odos, . Dl. Att: rod, via, iter; ratio, methodus; auxilium viæ; insidiæ quæ juxta viam struuntur-a way, path, road, journey ; manner, method, way of proceeding, provisions for a journey, a viaticum, relief upon the road; an ambuscade, way-laying, ambush?
haixos, Glaucus, cæruleus, cæsius-blue, of sky colour, azure, cerulean, sea-green.
<"nxw, venio, accedo, pervenio, adsum; attineo, pertineo-to come, approach, draw near, arrive, be present; appertain, belong, extend to,. concern. im. & B. “nxov, 1. ñžu, a. na, subj. nw, ne, n, pf. ind. xx, as, obs. The present tense of this verb is not unfrequently used for the preterperfect; e. g. 'añò μaxpoder nxovo, procul venerunt, they came from far?
Mr. Booth's remark scarcely defines the use of the verb in the sense intended: it is more correctly rendered as a present, xw, I am come. Hecuba, in initio. So in Heb. x. 7, ñ××, I am
Art. VII. Principia Hebraica, comprising a Grammatical Analysis of Five Hundred and Sixty-four Verses, selected from the Hebrew Psalms in which are found nearly all the Radical Words in common Use, occurring in the Hebrew Scriptures. To which is prefixed, a concise Hebrew Grammar, adapted to the Analysis, and so arranged as to illustrate the principles of the language, both with, and without Points. By T. K. and D. J. 8vo. pp. 360. Price
THE aim of the Authors of this work is, to smooth the path
to an acquaintance with the Hebrew Scriptures; and we nust do them the justice to express an opinion decidedly and greatly in favour of their attempt. They have unitedly produced an Introduction to the reading of the Hebrew Bible, of distinguished excellence and utility. Nothing so complete of the kind was ever before put into the hands of the English scholar, who is here provided with a guide to Hebrew reading, worthy of his confidence. In awarding the high praise to which the Authors have an unquestionable claim, we cannot omit the commendation due to their unassuming manner. There is here no dogmatism, no presumption, no affectation; but a plain, sedate, straight-forwardness of manner, quite suitable to their office as instructers, with the business of which they are thoroughly acquainted, and the duties of which they conscientiously and ably discharge. Their learning is never used for the purpose of display, but is invariably employed to promote the solid improvement of those persons who may choose to avail themselves of the means here provided for their correct instruction in the knowledge of Hebrew. They are too wise to publish a new and easy method of learning the language, or to deceive the inexperienced, by encouraging the notion that a few days are sufficient for its attainment. But, while the respectable Authors deal fairly by the student, in exhibiting the extent to which his attention must be given to Hebrew, if he would learn it to purpose, it is due to them to state, that they have furnished him with every admissible facility for his initiation and progress in it.
The Authors have very judiciously constructed their work, for the use of the two different classes of Hebrew readers, the Punctists, and the Anti-punctists: it is, however, particularly adapted for the latter.
The Analysis is distributed into six parts. Through the whole of the first of these divisions, every change, addition, and omission, both of letters and points, is explained. In the remaining parts, the marks of reference which have most frequently occurred, are omitted, except in the case of difficult and unusual forms, which are constantly elucidated. A careful and repeated perusal of the first part of the Analysis, cannot fail of initiating the student who prefers reading with points, into the
proper use of the language in this more complex form; and his perseverance through the whole will be the means of furnishing him for the intelligible and easy comprehending of any part of the Hebrew Bible. We do not perceive in this excellent work either defects or errors of importance sufficient to require particular notice. (duo, of danμous, x. T. A.) Matt. xviii 9. (p. 32) is not a Hebraism.
Art. VII. Narrative of a Residence in Algiers, by Signor Pananti, with Notes and Illustrations, by Edward Blaquiere, Esq RN. Author of "Letters from the Mediterranean." £2. 2s. boards,
3 4to. pp. 467. London. 1818.
TT T is justly remarked by the Editor of this interesting work, that next to the great question of South-American inde pendence, no subject demands more serious consideration, than the state of Italy, and of the coast of Barbary. This is discussed with considerable strength of argument and force of eloquence, in the course of the Author's narrative; and when it is considered that he is a native of the country whose cause he advocates, and consequently acquainted with all the hardships under which it labours, and that he has been an unwilling resident in that state which he calls upon Europe to chastise, and has consequently witnessed and experienced the cruelties it is in the practice of inflicting, a double share of attention is due to statements which combine the acute reasoning of an able theorist, with the practical knowledge of a man who has seen much of the world, and whose perceptions have been sharpened by adversity, which has been justly styled the mother of wisdom.
There is something peculiarly affecting in the contemplation of Italy, so rich in native genius, in the finest remains of arts, and the most interesting recollections of former greatness, so favoured by nature with every requisite for power and enjoyment, yet, with all her intellectual fire damped by tyranny, her choicest productions of art distributed by ruthless invaders, and all her associations of former days only contrasting more painfully with her present degradation. In that fine country, even the choicest gifts of nature are made subservient to the seusual and immoral indulgences which, in the absence of every great and liberal pursuit, become the sole occupation of life to her oppressed inhabitants, whose vivacity and feeling, checked in all their most meritorious sources, produce, like neglected hot-beds, the rankest weeds, where care and encouragement would bring forth the choicest fruits. Yet, when we turn from this scene, to contemplate that which the piratical states of Barbary afford, how much more deeply must we be affected and appalled! In them we behold, not merely the insolence of despotism, the