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of the inspired Volume; but let him learn the time when it is proper that he should lay aside such aids as are here provided for him, and proceed, without verbal, or any other translations, to read the works which have immortalized the Greek authors as poets, historians, and philosophers.
Art. VI. A Lexicon of the Primitive Words of the Greek Language, inclusive of several leading Derivatives, upon a new plan of arrangement for the use of Schools and Private Persons. By the Rev. John Booth, Curate of Kirkby Malzeard, near Ripon, Yorkshire, 8vo. pp. 306. Price 9s. 1817.
A Compendious etymological Greek Lexicon is a desideratum
in our literature. The materials for such a work have been abundantly provided by the labours of numerous distinguished scholars, whose researches and criticisms have done so much in preparing the way for a philosophical arrangement of the words. of that exquisite language. It is full time that the Lexicons of Schrevelius and Hederic were superseded at our classical seminaries, by a work more corresponding to the present improved state of philological learning. Such a desideratum is not supplied by Mr. Booth's publication. His plan is professedly a new one. Novelty of plan, however, is in itself a circumstance of no importance to any work; and we observe, that the Author is as sensible of the truth of this remark, as we ourselves are, since in looking for the approbation and support of the public on his labours, he describes them as designed to assist and encourage in the study of the Greek tongue,' and expresses his hope, that this Lexicon will be found of peculiar service to 'learners, and of some utility to proficients in the language.' It is, then, on the ground of utility that the claims of the present volume to patronage, are to be examined. If it be more simple and comprehensive in its arrangement, more luminous and nice in its definitions, and superior in the facilities which it may afford for ready consultation, than its predecessors, it will deserve our commendation. We must, however, confess, that its merits in these respects are too doubtful to receive our praise.
Facility of reference is unquestionably necessary to the excellence of a Lexicon, and this, we apprehend, is best provided for by classing the whole of the vocabules of a language, under one alphabet. Mr. Booth's Lexicon is the very reverse of simple in this respect it is, indeed, most complex, having as many separate alphabets as there are distinctions in grammar, and even more than these. Thus we have two alphabets to nouns of the first declension: Class 1. nouns in ∞, n, n. Class 2. nouns in pure, pa, as. Nouns of the second declension have their distinct alphabet; and so of the others. The verbs are, in like manner, arranged according to their characteristic letters, and a
separate alphabet is used for each class. The various kinds of adjectives, prepositions, adverbs, and conjunctions, are separately arranged in the same manner. This sort of classification we consider as altogether unnecessary in a Lexicon, which is not intended to supply the place of a grammar. The plan of the Port Royal Greek Primitives, is perspicuous and easy, and has not been advantageously exchanged for that adopted in the present work. Mr. Booth's Lexicon, it may be remarked, so far corresponds to the Primitives of Messieurs De Port Royal, as to be rather a dictionary of leading words, than an etymological classification of radicals, which is the correct meaning of primitive applied to words.
The definitions included in this Lexicon, are given, both in Latin and English, with copiousness, and generally, but not always, with exactness. We shall extract a specimen or two of its execution in this respect.
apen, G. pl. Dor. 'aprav, Virtus, fortitudo, industria, navitasVirtue, moral goodness and excellence, courage, valour, fortitude, industry, activity, enterprise, q. "Apns, Mars.'
These several meanings are not arranged in their natural order, the primary import of the word not being, as is here intimated by the leading English explanation, moral goodness. The senses of fertility, goodness as applied to land, and praise or glory, might have been added on the authority of Plato and Thucydides.
odos, . Dl. Att: rod, via, iter; ratio, methodus; auxilium viæ; insidiæ quæ juxta viam struuntur-a way, path, road, journey ; manner, method, way of proceeding, provisions for a journey, a viaticum, relief upon the road; an ambuscade, way-laying, ambush?
haixos, Glaucus, cæruleus, cæsius-blue, of sky colour, azure, cerulean, sea-green.
<"nxw, venio, accedo, pervenio, adsum; attineo, pertineo-to come, approach, draw near, arrive, be present; appertain, belong, extend to,. concern. im. & B. “nxov, 1. ñžu, a. na, subj. nw, ne, n, pf. ind. xx, as, obs. The present tense of this verb is not unfrequently used for the preterperfect; e. g. 'añò μaxpoder nxovo, procul venerunt, they came from far?
Mr. Booth's remark scarcely defines the use of the verb in the sense intended: it is more correctly rendered as a present, xw, I am come. Hecuba, in initio. So in Heb. x. 7, ñ××, I am
Art. VII. Principia Hebraica, comprising a Grammatical Analysis of Five Hundred and Sixty-four Verses, selected from the Hebrew Psalms in which are found nearly all the Radical Words in common Use, occurring in the Hebrew Scriptures. To which is prefixed, a concise Hebrew Grammar, adapted to the Analysis, and so arranged as to illustrate the principles of the language, both with, and without Points. By T. K. and D. J. 8vo. pp. 360. Price
THE aim of the Authors of this work is, to smooth the path
to an acquaintance with the Hebrew Scriptures; and we nust do them the justice to express an opinion decidedly and greatly in favour of their attempt. They have unitedly produced an Introduction to the reading of the Hebrew Bible, of distinguished excellence and utility. Nothing so complete of the kind was ever before put into the hands of the English scholar, who is here provided with a guide to Hebrew reading, worthy of his confidence. In awarding the high praise to which the Authors have an unquestionable claim, we cannot omit the commendation due to their unassuming manner. There is here no dogmatism, no presumption, no affectation; but a plain, sedate, straight-forwardness of manner, quite suitable to their office as instructers, with the business of which they are thoroughly acquainted, and the duties of which they conscientiously and ably discharge. Their learning is never used for the purpose of display, but is invariably employed to promote the solid improvement of those persons who may choose to avail themselves of the means here provided for their correct instruction in the knowledge of Hebrew. They are too wise to publish a new and easy method of learning the language, or to deceive the inexperienced, by encouraging the notion that a few days are sufficient for its attainment. But, while the respectable Authors deal fairly by the student, in exhibiting the extent to which his attention must be given to Hebrew, if he would learn it to purpose, it is due to them to state, that they have furnished him with every admissible facility for his initiation and progress in it.
The Authors have very judiciously constructed their work, for the use of the two different classes of Hebrew readers, the Punctists, and the Anti-punctists: it is, however, particularly adapted for the latter.
The Analysis is distributed into six parts. Through the whole of the first of these divisions, every change, addition, and omission, both of letters and points, is explained. In the remaining parts, the marks of reference which have most frequently occurred, are omitted, except in the case of difficult and unusual forms, which are constantly elucidated. A careful and repeated perusal of the first part of the Analysis, cannot fail of initiating the student who prefers reading with points, into the
proper use of the language in this more complex form; and his perseverance through the whole will be the means of furnishing him for the intelligible and easy comprehending of any part of the Hebrew Bible. We do not perceive in this excellent work either defects or errors of importance sufficient to require particular notice. (duo, of danμous, x. T. A.) Matt. xviii 9. (p. 32) is not a Hebraism.
Art. VII. Narrative of a Residence in Algiers, by Signor Pananti, with Notes and Illustrations, by Edward Blaquiere, Esq RN. Author of "Letters from the Mediterranean." £2. 2s. boards,
3 4to. pp. 467. London. 1818.
TT T is justly remarked by the Editor of this interesting work, that next to the great question of South-American inde pendence, no subject demands more serious consideration, than the state of Italy, and of the coast of Barbary. This is discussed with considerable strength of argument and force of eloquence, in the course of the Author's narrative; and when it is considered that he is a native of the country whose cause he advocates, and consequently acquainted with all the hardships under which it labours, and that he has been an unwilling resident in that state which he calls upon Europe to chastise, and has consequently witnessed and experienced the cruelties it is in the practice of inflicting, a double share of attention is due to statements which combine the acute reasoning of an able theorist, with the practical knowledge of a man who has seen much of the world, and whose perceptions have been sharpened by adversity, which has been justly styled the mother of wisdom.
There is something peculiarly affecting in the contemplation of Italy, so rich in native genius, in the finest remains of arts, and the most interesting recollections of former greatness, so favoured by nature with every requisite for power and enjoyment, yet, with all her intellectual fire damped by tyranny, her choicest productions of art distributed by ruthless invaders, and all her associations of former days only contrasting more painfully with her present degradation. In that fine country, even the choicest gifts of nature are made subservient to the seusual and immoral indulgences which, in the absence of every great and liberal pursuit, become the sole occupation of life to her oppressed inhabitants, whose vivacity and feeling, checked in all their most meritorious sources, produce, like neglected hot-beds, the rankest weeds, where care and encouragement would bring forth the choicest fruits. Yet, when we turn from this scene, to contemplate that which the piratical states of Barbary afford, how much more deeply must we be affected and appalled! In them we behold, not merely the insolence of despotism, the
triumph of imposture and idolatry, but also, crowds of unhappy wretches, most of them professedly fellow Christians, many of them our fellow countrymen, all of them our fellow creatures, loaded with chains, condemned to a toil severer than that of beasts of burden, and holding, merely at the will of ferocious despots, the uncertain tenure of a life imbittered by every species of suffering, and too often deprived even of hope, that consolation which appears to be peculiarly consecrated to the unhappy.
That, in the present day, when so much philanthropy has been awakened throughout Europe, and such unceasing exertions made in the cause of humanity, for the emancipation of slaves in different parts of the world, so little attention should have been shewn to those who would surely on a first view appear the most nearly connected with us, in the essential similarities of religion and manners, is a moral phenomenon which can be accounted for only by looking more deeply into political causes, than the simply benevolent would in such a case imagine to be at all necessary. There can be but little doubt, that an unpardonable degree of toleration of the insolence of the Barbary States, if not an absolute connivance at them, has too long been shewn by some of the most powerful States in Europe. England has, however, struck one forceful blow towards their demolition, and it only remains for her to follow it up, and for others no less interested in the cause, (a common one for the interests both of commerce and humanity,) to act in concert with her, and to recollect, that in making treaties with people who pride themselves on their perfidy, all half-measures are worse than nothing; tending not merely to weaken their own hands, but to strengthen those of the enemy.
Signor Pananti, after some years passed in England, as a place of refuge from the misery of his native land, torn by dissensions, and oppressed by a foreign yoke, began to feel that maladie du pays, to which men are subject exactly in proportion to the rest of their amiable qualities. He accordingly took his passage on board a Sicilian brig, bound for Palerino, which was to sail from Spithead with the Mediterranean convoy. This convoy, however, was unfortunately suffered to sail without it, through the carelessness and self-sufficiency of the Captain, whose name, as well as that of his vessel, was Hero, a misnomer which gives our hero the opportunity of consoling himself for the disappointment, with the reflection, couched in the fascinating form of a pun, that he was not the first person who had been sacrificed to the folly or ambition of persons bearing that appellation.
This false step in the Captain, was, as is generally the case, followed by others of the same nature. He not only ventured, contrary to the wish of his passengers, and the advice of his crew,