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to augur well respecting the labours of the Commission, from their having called to their aid the Author of this work, in the capacity of their chief Secretary*.
• It is highly gratifying to observe, (Mr. Carlisle remarks,) that whenever the funds of these venerable and excellent Establishments have been faithfully applied, the most beneficial consequences have ensued. It is, however, painful to relate that many of our numerous and ample endowments have fallen to decay, by the negligence or cupidity of ignorant or unprincipled trustees ; who have silently, or by connivance, suffered the furtive alienation of the very lands which they were called upon so solemnly to defend, and which were in a great measure ordained for the education of their own children.'
• As the property of those benevolent Institutions is, therefore, in several cases lost or sunk, or disgracefully misapplied; or lessened or impaired by gross dereliction of duty, and very great frauds are committed in letting and managing the estates :— it appears' (rather, we would say, it is) · absolutely necessary that such disorder and misapplication should speedily be abolished, by a PUBLIC INVESTI. GATION and REFORM of those evils, which is only within the power of Parliament.
• It is true, that many of the nobility, gentry, or neighbouring ministers, are often the special Visitors; and the Right Reverend their diocesan, and spiritual father, is always their general Visitor ; but such interference is probably seldom exercised, unless at the honest indignation of some conscientious parishioner.' Vol. I. Pref. pp. xxxiv, xxxv.
In a sensible preface, Mr. Carlisle briefly traces the history and progress of the English Universities and Grammar Schools; but, as it is compiled chiefly from Dr. Henry's History of England, and his continuator Mr. Andrews, and other common sources of information, we need not detain our readers by following him in this part of his work.
The volumes now before us, contain descriptions of four hundred and seventy-five Endowed Schools; they are drawn up from the most authentic printed documents, but principally from manuscript communications from the places described. In several instances, no information was given ; and we shall pot be surprised to find that the schools, concerning which in. formation was thus withhelil, are among those which most need the salutary investigation of the Parliamentary Commissioners. The schools are placed in the alphabetical orrler of the counties in wbich they are situated. The topics discussed concerning
* We have been informed that Mr. Carlisle is indebted for this appointment solely to the research displayed in his work; and that the Secretaryship was conferred on bim, unsolicited on his part, and in a manner that reflects the highest honour on the Rt. Hön. Gentlemen by whom he was nominated.
+ Upwards of 1400 letters have been sent and received.
each, are the following; viz.-When and by whom founded; the original and present accounts of the endowments, and whether they are in land or otherwise, and where situated; the number of boys educated, the conditions and periods of their admission and continuance at school; the course of education adopted in each school; the university exhibitions or scholarships attached; the names and emoluments of the head and second or other masters, and their annual charges for pupils ; (if they take any boarders ;) the church preferments attached to each school, and lists of eminent men who were educated in any of them.
In going through these volumes, we have noticed many flagrant abandonments of the intentions of the benevolent founders, by the total neglect or disuse of the schools endowed, mismanagement of revenues, conversion of the school bouses into barns, &c. &c. &c. As a specimen of Mr. Carlisle's work, will, however, convey a more accurate idea of its nature and execution, than any detailed account of its contents, we shall extract the principal part of this account of St. Paul's School, one of the most siistinguished and best administered classical schools of the metropolis.
• John Colet, D.D., Dean of St Paul's, the excellent son of an amiable and patriotic father, Sir Henry Colet, Knt., twice Lord Mayor of London, having, by a life of unsullied reputation, gained the esteem of his countrymen and of mankind, conceived the benevolent design of perpetuating his name by a foundation, the most liberal, rational, and noble. As London was the place of his nativity, and in which his family had been raised to wealth and honour, and, as he bore a new and nearer relation to it as Dean of it's Cathedral Church, he resolved, that, as the City was deficient in public schools, the sons of his fellow citizens should partake largely of his gratitude; whilst the whole kingdom might at the same time enjoy the good effects of his bounty, and of a classical education. Being, therefore, without any near relations (for, numerous as his brethren were, he had outlived them all, he piously resolved, in the midst of life and health, to consecrate the whole of his very ample estate to some useful and perinanent benefaction. With these great and good sentiments, in 1509, he begun seriously to carry his design into effect; and conveyed the whole of his estate in London to The Mercers' Company, in trust, for the endowment of his school. Which was founded by the warrant of Henry the Eighth, on the supplication of the Dean.'
Mr. Carlisle subjoios Colet's modest statement of the foundation, in order he says, “ that all the intentions of this excellent
man may be understood from his own words; and, that the “ rules for the government of the school, which must have been 6 the study of a cousiderable portion of his time, may be duly “appreciated and preserved ;" but as the whole of these statutes,
and the rent roll of the foundation would occupy too large a space in our journal, we shall confine our extracts to the regulations concerning the scholars.
• There shall be taught in the Scole, Children of all N tions and Contres indifferently, to the number of one hundred and fifty three, * according to the number of the seates in the scele. The Maister sholl admit these children as they be offirid from tyme to tyme ; but first se, that they canne saye the catechyzon, and also that he can rede and write competently, else let him not be admitted in no wis,
• A childe at the first admission, once for ever, shall paye 4d. for wrytinge of his name ; this money of the admissions shall the poor scoler have that swepeth the scole and kepeth the seats cleane.
* In every forme one principall childe shal be placid in the chayre, pre ident of that forme.
• The children shall come unto the scole in the mornynge at seven of the clocke, both Winter and Somer, and tarye there untyll eleven, and returne againe at one of the clocke, and depart at five. And thrise in the daye, prostrate they shall saye the prayers with due tract and pawsing as they be conteyned in a table in the scole, that is to say, in the mornynge, and at none, and at eveninge
• In the scole in no tyme in the yere. they shail use talough candell in no wise, but alonly waxe candell, at the costes of theyr frendes.
• Also I will they bring no meate nor drinke, nor bottel, nor use in the school no breakfasts, nor drinkings, in the iyme of learny.), o in no wise, yf they nede drincke let them be provided in some other place.
* I will they use no cockfightinge, nor rydinge about of victorye, nor disputing at Saint Bartilimewe, which is but foolish babling, and losse of time. I will also that they shall have no Remedyes Play diysi. Yf the maister grantith any Remedyes he shall for eit is., totiens quotiens, excepte the Kyng or an Archbishopp, or a Bishop present in his own person in the scole desire it.
* All these children sind every Childermas daye come to Paulis Churche, and hear the childe Bishop sermon; and atier be at the Hygh Masse, and each of them offer a penny to the childe Byshop, and with them the maisters and surveyors of the scole.
• In general Processions when they be warnid, they shall go twayne and twayne together soberlye, and not singe out, but say devoutleye twene and twene seven Psalmes with the Letanye.
• Yff any childe after he is receyved, and admitted into the scole, go to any other scole, to learne there after the maner of that scole, than I will that suche childe for no man'i suile shall be hereafter received into our scole, but go where him lyste, where his frendes shall thincke shall be better learninge. And this I will be shiewed unto his friendes or other that offer him at his first presenting into the scolt.'
WHAT SHALL BE TAUGHT. • As touching in this scole what shall be taught of the maisters, **Alluding to the number of Fish taken by St. Peter, John xxi, 11.'. and learned of the scolers, it passeth my witte to devyse, and determine in particular, but in general to speake and sume what to saye my mynde, I would they were taught always in good literature bothe Låten and Greeke, and good autors such as have the verrye Romayne eloquence joyned with wisdom, specially Cristen autors, that wrote their wisdome with clean and chaste Laten, other in verse or in prose, for my intent is by this scole, specially to encrease knowledge and worshippinge of God and our Lord Christ Jesu, and good Cristen life and manners in the children.
* And for that entent I will the children learne first above all the Catechizon in Englishe, and after the Accidens, that I made, or some other, yf any be better to the purpose, to induce children more spedely to Laten speeche. And then Institutem Christinni Hominis, which that learned Erasmus made at my requeste, and the boke called Copia of the same Erasmus And then other authors Chris. tian, as Lactantius, Prudent us, and Proba, and Sedulius, and Juvencus, and Baptista Mantuanus, and suche other as shall be thought convenient and most to purpose unto the true Laten speeche. All Barbary, all corruption, all Laten adulterate which ignorant blinde toles brought into this worlde, and with the same hath dystained and poysonyd the olde Laten speeche, and the veraye Rumayne tonge, whiche in the tyme of Tully, and Sallust, and Virgell, and Terence, was usid, whiche also Sainte Jerome, and Sainte Ambrose, and Sainte Austen, and many holy doctors lerned in theyre tymes. I saye that f, Ithiness and all suche abusion whiche the later blynde world brought in, whiche more rather may be called Blitterature then Litterature, I utterly abannyshe and exclude out of this scole, and charge the maisters that they teche alwaye that is beste, and instruct the children in Greke and redynge Laten, in redynge unto them suche autors that hathe with wisdome joyned the pure chaste eloquence.
• In the introduction to the Rudiments of Grammar, drawn up by this excellent man, and published for the standing use and service of • Paul's school,” are s the honest and admirable rules” which he prescribed, for the admission and continuance of boys in his school. These rules and orders were to be read over to the parents, when they first brought their children, for their assent to them, as the express terms and conditions of expecting any benefit of education there.
“ The mayster shall reherse these articles to them that offer their Chyldren, on this wyse here followynge:
“ If youre Chylde can rede and wryte Latyn and Englyshe suffycyently, so that he be able to rede and wryte his own lessons, then he shal be admitted into the scole for a scholer.
“ If youre chykle, after reasonable season proved, be founde here unapte and unable to lernynge, than ye warned thereof, shal take hym awaye, that he occupye not oure rowme in vayne.
“ If he be apt to lerne, ye shal be contente that he continue here tyl he have competent literature.
“ If he absente six dayes, and in that mean season ye shew not cause resonable (resonable cause is al only se kedes,) than his rowme
be voyde, without he be admitted agayne, and pay 4d.
Also after cause shewed, if he contenewe to absente tyl the weke of admyssion in the next quarter, and then ye shewe not the contenuance of his sekeness, then his rowme to be voyde, and he none of the scole tyl he be admytted agayne, and paye 4d. for wry. ting his name.
« Also if he fall thryse into absence, he shał be admytted no more.
“ Your chylde shal on Chyldermas daye, wayte upon the boy Byshop at Poules, and offer there. Also
shall fynde him waxe in Winter. “ Also ye shall fynde him convenyent bokes to his lernynge.
6 If the offerer be content with these articles, than let his childe be admytted.'
• To these instructions is subjoyned an abridgement of the principles of religion.
• The celebrated Cardinal Wolsey, when he had founded a shcool in his native town of Ipswich, and was to recommend some little system of grammatical rules to it, did Dean Colet and himself the honour to reprint those rudiments, and directed them to be used in his seminary.
• As it is ever pleasing to trace the actions of good men, I subjoin a further account of this magnificent Institution, as contained in a letter from the learned Erasmus to Justus lopas.
Upon the death of his father, when, by right of inheritance, he was possessed of a good sum of money; lest the keeping of it should corrupt his mind, and turn it too much toward the world, he laid out a great part of it, in building a new School in the Church-yard of St Paul's, dedicated to the Child Jesus : a magnificent fabric; to which he added, two dwelling houses for the two several masters : and to them be allotted ample salaries, that they might teach a certain number of buys, free, and for the sake of charity.
“ He divided the school into four apartments. The first, vizi, the porch and entrance, is for Catechumens, or the children to be instructed in the principles of religion ; where no child is to be admitted, but what can read and write. The second apartment is for the lower boys, to be taught by the second master or usher : the third, for the upper forms, under the head master : which two parts of the school are divided by a curtain, to be drawn at pleasure. Over the master's chair is an image of the Child Jesus, of admirable work, in the gesture of teaching; whom all the boys, going and coming, salute with a short hymn: and there is a representation of God the Father, saying, Hear ye him ;' these words being written at my suggestion. The fourth, or last apartment, is a little Chapel for Divine Service. The school has no corners, or hiding places; nothing like a cell or closet. The boys have their distinct forms, or benches, one above another. Every form holds sixteen; and he that is head, or captain of each form, 'has a little kind of desk by way of pre-eminence. They are not to admit all boys of course; but to choose them in according to their parts and capacities.
" I he wise and sagacious founder saw, that the greatest hopes and happiness of the Commonwealth were, in the training up of