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according actual advocates already amount applied argument assessed Association become benefits called capital cause cent College demand direct discussion doctrine economic England equal exemption existence expenses fact faculty final fixed force francs give graduated greater hand important income tax increase individual industrial interest Italy John l'impôt labor land lead less levied limit Mass means measure ment method movement natural necessary objection organization persons Petty political portion possible practical present principle production Prof progressive taxation property tax proportional proportional taxation protection question reason regarded relation relative result rich roads sense social society term theory things thinks tion trade transportation true United University utility varying wages wants wealth whole writers York City
Էջ 92 - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities ; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
Էջ 28 - Labor, who is directed to acquire and diffuse among the people of the United States useful information on subjects connected with labor, in the most general and comprehensive sense of that word, and especially upon its relation to capital; the hours of labor; the earnings of laboring men and women; and the means of promoting their material, social, intellectual, and moral prosperity.
Էջ 86 - For what reason is there that he which laboureth much, and sparing the fruits of his labour, consumeth little, should be more charged than he that living idlely, getteth little, and spendeth all he gets; seeing the one hath no more protection from the Commonwealth than the other?
Էջ 152 - Equality of taxation, therefore, as a maxim of politics, means equality of sacrifice. It means apportioning the contribution of each person towards the expenses of government, so that he shall feel neither more nor less inconvenience from his share of the payment than every other person experiences from his.
Էջ 41 - As for Example. In the making of a Watch, If one Man shall make the Wheels, another the Spring, another shall Engrave the Dial-plate, and another shall make the Cases, then the Watch will be better and cheaper, than if the whole Work be put upon any one Man.
Էջ 94 - The moment you abandon, in the framing of such taxes, the cardinal principle of exacting from all individuals the same proportion of their income or of their property, you are at sea without rudder or compass, and there is no amount of injustice and folly you may not commit.
Էջ 86 - Which considered, the equality of imposition consisteth rather in the equality of that which is consumed, than of the riches of the persons that consume the same. For what reason is there that he which laboureth much and, sparing the fruits of his labour, consumeth little should be more charged than he that, living...
Էջ 10 - Association has as its purpose the encouragement of economic research, especially the historical and statistical study of the actual conditions of industrial life, the issue of publications on economic subjects, and the encouragement of perfect freedom of economic discussion.
Էջ 56 - Let it be granted, then, that, as a rule, workman and employer should make free agreements and in particular should freely agree as to wages; nevertheless, there is a dictate of nature more imperious and more ancient than any bargain between man and man, that the remuneration must be enough to support the wage earner in reasonable and frugal comfort.
Էջ 153 - ... rises with the amount of the income. On the best consideration I am able to give to this question, it appears to me that the portion of truth which the doctrine contains, arises principally from the difference between a tax which can be saved from luxuries, and one which trenches, in ever so small a degree, upon the necessaries of life. To take a thousand a year from the possessor of ten thousand, would not deprive him of anything really conducive either to the support or to the comfort of existence...