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smiling. And if he does not wish them to answer again,' or to criminate each other, he takes care not to set them the example. In short, he strives to be, in all the commonest circumstances of life, what he wishes them to be.
Samuel is fond of exaggeration. Perhaps he acquired the habit at the district school. I saw,' he would say, ' a hundred dogs to-day, father ;' when he knows, if he would reflect, that there were scarcely twenty. “I saw a great turnip to-day, in passing through the street, as large round as a bushel basket;' he told his father when he came home, one evening; whereas he knew, perfectly well, that he was guilty of exaggerating.
But how does his father manage him? What efforts does he make to break so bad a habit; such an obvious stepping stone to downright falsehood ? Does he take special notice of it? Does he rate him for it? Or has he some secret and more efficacious method of management?
These, except the first, are questions which I cannot answer. What is done, when I am not present, in the almost sacred retreats of domestic life, I am, of course, ignorant. But there are some things which I know to be done, which, if nothing else is done, must have a very great and permanent influence.
The father not only sets an example of perfect accuracy before the son, in all his statements, be they ever so trivial; but shows the strictest regard to truth, in others, on all occasions. His wife and his other children, are expected and encouraged to have the most conscientious regard to truth, not only in all their statements, but in all their looks and actions. There are, as every reader who reflects must needs know, a thousand ways of telling falsehoods without the use of words; and, I am sorry to say, that such falsehoods are not unknown even in some of our best families. But in the family of Honestus, there is not, so far as my observation goes, the slightest approach to any such thing. Except in the case of Samuel, they were always remarkable for speaking and acting with the strictest regard to truth; they are still more so, however, for the sake of restoring Samuel. And it gives me great pleasure to state, that they are slowly effecting their object. One thing, at least, is already accomplished. Samuel begins to see his error, and is uniting his own efforts with theirs, to break the chains of habit.
Jane was once inclined to interrupt others in conversation, especially at table. But the habit is now nearly gone. She seldom forgets herself nowadays, so far as to speak until others have done speaking. If she ever does so, it is only when she is thrown off her guard by something extraordinary, as the arrival
Report on Public Instruction.
of a band of Indians, the appearance of the aurora borealis, or something else equally uncommon.
Do you ask how she acquired the mastery over herself, in this respect? It was not by being scolded or lectured. It was not by direct efforts of any kind. The first attempt was by means of the influence of silent example. When she spoke, all the rest, as if by concert, waited till she was through, and then proceeded with their remarks. As this did not at first seem to accomplish the intended object, but, on the contrary, only served to raise her, in her own estimation, the father had recourse to another expedient.
At the breakfast table, dinner table, &c. he would relate stories. These Jane was very fond of hearing, but the habit of interrupting her father by her numerous questions—some of them highly unnecessary--often so protracted the story, that the repast was finished before it ended. Whenever this was the case, the story was not concluded till the next meal. This was exceedingly mortifying to Jane, especially when her father frankly told her the reason of it; that it was because her questions had consumed all the time, and that to be compelled to wait for the remainder of the story was the natural and just punishment of her fault. She resolved on reformation; and though her progress was at first slow, it is now much more rapid, and there is reason to believe that in three months more she will obtain a complete victory.
STOWE ON EDUCATION IN EUROPE.
We have received and examined with intense interest, Prof. C. E. Stowe's Report on Elementary Public Instruction in Europe, made to the thirtysixth General Assembly of the State of Ohio,' under date Dec. 19, 1837. It is a pamphlet of 57 closely printed octavo pages; and contains the most ample information in regard to the state of common education in England, Scotland, France, Prussia, &c. It seems that Prof. S., on leaving this country for Europe, had received a request from the Legislature of Ohio, through Gov. Lucas, that he would make the inquiries which have resulted in this most invaluable report. It is impossible for us to present in a condensed form, an article the whole of which is already condensed as much as possible ; and to publish the entire report would be equally impract cable. We have resolved therefore to present some extracts. The following
Moral and Religious Instruction.
113 is the closing article of the appendix, containing the replies of distinguished teachers or friends of education, to twenty five important questions by Prof. S.; and will give our readers a tolerable idea of the nature and results of his mission, as described in the pamphlet.
“ The following inquiries, with some others not here included, were made out by a committee of the Association of Teachers in Hamilton county. I obtained the answers during my tour in Europe, from Mr Wood of the Sessional School in Edinburgh, Scotland, Rev. Mr Kunze of the Frederick Orphan House, in Berlin, Prussia, and Professor Schwartz of the University of Heidelberg, in Baden. As I received the answers orally and in different languages. I cannot pretend to give them with verbal accuracy; but I have endeavored, in every instance, to make a faithful representation of the sentiment.
1. What is the best method of inculcating moral and relig. ious duty in schools ?
Mr Wood. Every morning I have recitations in the Bible, accompanied with such brief and pertinent remarks as naturally occur in connection with the recitation.
Mr Kunze. In Prussia, the scholars are all taught Luther's Smaller Catechism ; they have a daily recitation in the Bible, beginning with the historical portions ; the schools are always opened and closed with prayer, and the singing of some religious hymns. The Bible and Psalm-book are the first books which are put into the hands of the child, and they are his constant companions through the whole course of his education, and required to be such through life.
Professor Schwartz. Every teacher should have a religious spirit, and by his personal influence, diffuse it among his pupils. The religious and moral instruction in the schools of Baden is similar to that in Prussia, as stated by Mr Kunze.
2. What is the best mode of using the Bible in schools ?
Mr W. Take the whole Bible, just as it is in our translation ; for the younger children, select the easier historical portions, and go through with it as the scholars advance.
Mr K. In Prussia we have tried all sorts of ways, by extracts, by new translations, by commentaries, written expressly for schools; but after all those trials, there is now but one opinion among all acquainted with the subject, and that is, that the whole Bible, just as it stands in the translations in common use, should be a reading and recitation book in all the schools. In the Protestant schools, Luther's translation is used, and in the Catholic schools, the translation approved by that church. The
Rewards, Emulation, Discipline, &c.
children are required not merely to repeat the words of the translation by rote, but to give a good exhibition of the real sentiment in their own language.
Prof. S. Answer similar to Mr Kunze's above. 3. Method of governing schools—moral influence-rewards of merit-emulation-corporeal punishment ?
Mr W. I use all the purely moral influence I can; but rewards for the meritorious are highly necessary; and as to the principle of emulation, I appeal to it more and more the longer I teach. The evils of emulation, such as producing discouragement or exciting envy in the less successful scholars, I avoid by equalizing the classes as much as possible, so that all the scholars of each class, may, as to their capabilities of improvement, be nearly on a level. I know no successful school for young scholars where corporeal punishment is disused. The teacher must retain it as a last resort.
Mr K. The Bible, prayers and singing, are most essential helps to the consistent teacher in governing his scholars ; but premiums, emulation, and corporeal punishment, have hitherto been found indispensable auxiliaries. In our schools we have premiums of books, and in the orphan house there is a prize of fifty dollars annually awarded to each of the most meritorious scholars, which is allowed to accumulate in the Savings bank till the pupil comes of age, when it is given to him to aid in establishing him in business. Each teacher keeps a journal, divided under different heads, of all the delinquences of his scholars; and if any one has six in a month, he must suffer corporeal punishment. The instrument of punishment is a cow-skin; but no teacher is allowed to inflict more than four blows at any one time, or for any offence. This kind of punishment is not often needed. Of the 380 boys in the orphan house, not more than two in a month render themselves liable to it. After the scholar enters the gymnasium, he is no longer liable to corporeal punishment; but in all the schools. below this, it is held in reserve as the last resort.
Prof. S. I do not approve of rewards as a means of discipline. Emulation may be appealed to a little ; but much of it is not good, it is so liable to call forth bitter and unholy feeling. The skilful teacher, who gains the confidence and affection of his scholars, can govern without emulation or rewards, and with very little of corporeal punishment. In a school in Heidelberg of 150 children under ten years of age, not two in a year suffer this kind of punishment. In Baden the teacher is not allowed to strike a scholar without obtaining permission of the school inspector, and in this way all hasty and vindictive punishments
Male and Female Teachers.
are prevented. The daily singing of religious hymns is one of the most efficient means of bringing a school under a perfect discipline by moral influence.
4. What is generally the best method of teaching?
Mr W. As much as possible by conversation; as little as may be by mere book recitation. The pupil must always learn from the book.
Mr K. Lively conversation. Very few teachers in Prussia ever use a book in recitation. The pupils study from books, and recite without them.
Prof. S. The living word in preference to the dead letter. 5. Employment of female teachers ?
Mr W. For young children, they do well; and if good female teachers can be obtained, they might perhaps carry female education through without the help of male teachers.
Mr K. Female teachers have not been much employed in Prussia, they are not generally successful. In a few instances they have done well.
Prof. S. Man is the divinely appointed teacher ; but for small children female teachers do well; and in respect to all that pertains to the heart and the fingers, they are even better than male teachers. It is not good that females should be educated entirely by teachers of their own sex ; the female cannot be educated completely without the countenance of man to work upon the heart.
6. Is there any difference in the course of instruction for male and female schools?
Mr K. None in the primary schools ; but in the higher schools the course of instruction for males is more rigidly scientific than for females ; and some branches of study are appropriate 10 the one class of schools which do not at all come into the other, and vice versa.
7. Public endowments for female schools of a high order ? Mr W. There are no such endowments in Scotland.
Mr K. There are very few in Prussia : only one in Berlin, but that a very good one.
Female schools of a high order are mostly sustained by individual effort, under the supervision of the magistrates, but without aid from the Government.
Prof. S. We have none in Baden, nor are they needed for the female. The house is her school; and such are her susceptibilities, and her quickness of apprehension, that she is fitted by Providence to learn from real life; and she often learns thus, more successfully than boys can be taught in the school.
8. Number of studies to be pursued simultaneously in the different stages of instruction ?