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Boston Asylum and Farm School.

141

proved by written authentic documents, that the proportion of children who attend school, in soine parts of England, is very sinall.indeed. In Bolton it was one in sixteen, in Bristol one in twentyfour, and in some of the populour districts of Lancashire, one in fortysix. He then compared the state of education in England with that in foreign countries, for the purpose of showing that they were behind them in the race of improvement. He called upon the House, in the name of humanity, to aid and assist in some plan for ameliorating the present moral and physical condition of the huinbler classes. If any man would calculate the matter on the score of saving to the country, he would find that education to the bumbler classes, was the best thing that could be done. Ignorance was a most expensive article, and infinitely more costly than the expense of educating the humbler classes. He moved the appointment of a select committee, to consider and inquire into the moral and physical condition of the poorer classes, in large and densely peopled towns, with a view to their education and improvement.

Boston ASYLUM AND FARM School. The following is an abstract of the Fourth Annual Report of the managers of this Institution.

During the past year, thirteen boys have been admitted into the Institution, and nine have been indented as apprentices, and one withdrawn by his friends. The number now upon the Farm is one hundred and ten. No death has occurred on the Island during the past year.

There are 39 boys between the ages of 7 and 10 years ; 50 between 10 and 13; and 22 between 13 and 14. The same course of instruction bas been pursued for the past year, as had been previously adopted ; and no change has taken place in the officers,

The value of the produce raised on the Farm in 1836, was $3,526 70; and in 1837, it was $4,563 93.

From a comparison of the expenses of the Farm School with those of other Institutions most similar to it in character, the managers find that the comparison is a favorable one for the school. Expenses of the Farın School with 110 boys,

$9000 Proceeds of the Farm,

4000

$5000

Balance, or 87 1-2 cents per week to each boy. Expenses of the House of Refuge in New York,

with 227 boys, Earnings of the boys,

Balance, or $1 08 per week to each boy,

$17,596 14

4,792 83

$12,803 31

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Male and Female Teachers.

Expenses of the House of Refuge in Philadelphia, with 142 boys and girls,

$15,192 26 Earnings,

3,283 02 Balance,

$11,909 24 or about $1 50 per week to each child.

The Asylum and Farm School is believed, by the managers' to be the first, if not the only Institution of its kind in this country. Its object is to unite, in early years, the discipline of the school with a practical education in agricultural pursuits, and to offer a home to those who are friendless and morally exposed,

MALE AND FEMALE TEACHERS. Professor Cunningham, of Lafayette College, in his recent loaugural Address, after speaking of the importance of educating teachers of both sexes in this country, and after using the following language; · Female teachers must be extensively employed, and institutions for ellucating and training them, must be established,' remarks as follows:—and we wish the sentiments were more common.

I an convinced that the best form of a school, is that in which the arrangement of Providence in regard to families is imitated; the prinpal being a male, and the assistants females. The sexes, thus combined, mutually supply each others deficiencies, the government of the school, and the more laborious part of the teaching being devolved on the male, while those departments which require patient assiduity and gentleness and winning kindness, belong more appropriately to the female.'

New York COMMON SCHOOLS. We have received the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Common Schools in the State of New York, made to the Legislature January 5, 1838. We shall endeavor to present some of its leading fentures in our next number.

Meeting AT COLUMBUS, Ohio. We have also received, too late for this number, a report of the proceedings of the Annual Convention of Professional Teachers and other friends of education, held at Columbus, Ohio, on the 19th, 2011, 21st, and 221 of Dec. 1837.

Notices of Books.

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NOTICES OF BOOKS.

The Child's Picture DefiniNG AND READING BOOK. By Rev. T. H. Gallaudet. Third edition. Hartford : F. J. Huntingdon, 1833. pp. 72.

This little book was prepared in the belief that definitions are of little use, in teaching very young children the meaning of words; but that the language of pictures may be used, in the accomplishment of this object, with great success and to a vast extent, if judiciously employed, and if accompanied with a suitable correspovding effort on the part of the teacher. There is a series of pictures in the first part, each of which is accompanied with a list of the vames of the most prominent objccts, and also with a set of very short and simple phrases, illustrating the actions which the picture is intended to represent. We like the plan of the work, and commend it, most cordially and cheerfully, to all our infant and elementary schools, especially for the very youngest classes.

The Mount VERNON Reader; a course of Reading Lessons, selected with reference to their moral influence on the hearts and lives of the young. Designed for junior classes. By the Messrs Abbott. Boston: T. H. Carter, Agent. 1938. pp. 162.

This book seems to us to be just what it professes to be; and we like it, in general, and wish it success. We suppose, however, that even the authors theinselves do not expect children will be so much benefitted by the questions at the end of the lessons, as teachers. But should they merely serve the purpose of leading teachers to do something for their pupils besides hearing them read or say or recite their lessons, parrot-like, the labor bestowed in compiling the work will not be lost.

INAUGURAL ADDRESS of Prof. CUNNINGHAM, as Professor of Ancient Languages, in Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania, Jan. 1, 1838.

A handsome painphlet of twentyseven pages, containing the learned Professor's thoughts on the question whether Normal Seminaries ought to be distinct establishments, or engrafted on colleges.' Prof. C. endeavors to sustain the opinion that in the present circumstances of our country, they must be engrafted on colleges ; and believes and endeavors to show that Lafayette College, is peculiarly fitted for making an experiment of the kind. The question is an important one, but we cannot discuss it now. The address is well worth perusal: a single extract from it, on a collateral topic, is inserted on the preceding page.

• How happy when Innocence wings the bright hour.'

Farnished for the Annals of Education, by Lowell Mason, Professor in the

Boston Academy of Music. Andantino.

[graphic]

AMERICAN

ANNALS OF EDUCATION.

APRIL, 1838.

WHAT BRANCHES SHOULD BE TAUGHT IN COMMON SCHOOLS?

To most minds, this question is beset with difficulties. On the one hand, it seems highly desirable that the range of studies in our common or district schools, should be much more extended than it usually is. The instruction which the mass of our population receive, beyond that of the family, is obtained at these schools. In proof of this, if proof were necessary, it is sufficient to cite the fact so often adverted to, of a late legislature of one of our New England States, consisting of about 200 members, and embracing, without doubt, as full a proportion of learned men as our modern legislatures usually do, of whom it was ascertained that 180 received all, or nearly all, their instruction at the district schools. And if such is the fact in regard to legislative bodies, how is it with the whole community! And if our district schools are, in the result, the principal places of instruction, it seems highly desirable, to say the least, that the elements of something else should be taught in them, besides mere spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, and geography.

On the other hand, it is argued that more branches are already introduced into our schools, than can be taught thoroughly; that the teachers are so overburdened with pupils of all ages, demanding variety of treatment, discipline and lessons, and furnished with such a variety of school books, that nothing can be done ; that instead of adding to the list of branches now required to be taught, it would not only be an act of mercy to both teacher and pupil, but a matter of economy to all concerned, to diminish the number, rather than increase it; and that

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