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Before we draw our remarks to a close, we feel tempted to turn back for a moment to Mr. Everett's passing observation on the supposed interest that Florida has in the continuance of this war, arising from the rich gleanings she is supposed to gather from its “profits.” This observation is in accordance with the popular opinion. There are doubtless many adventurers collected in that ill-fated territory, the refuse of the regular army and of the volunteers, who, like birds of prey, are found " wherever the carcass is.” These hang loosely upon the skirts of war, and would find their occupation gone, if the Indians were to emigrate. Such persons may occasionally aid the enemy, and even treacherously consort with them. But, notwithstanding these exceptions, the people of Florida deplore the continuance of a contest, that has almost blotted out her plantations, and reduced her fixed population to a few towns. Her share in the millions” that have been spent under the cover of her name has been very small. She had little in the outset to sell or to let, and she has scarcely any thing now. Even had not her prolific orange groves been cut off by a killing frost just before the war, their golden fruits, which were of golden value in times of peace, would have been rejected for the rough purposes of war. Many of these millions were borne off by the more than fourteen thousand volunteers who crowded into her territory ; some of them went to the northern and middle States, whose hay and grain, cultivated in peace, have been thrown so profusely into the cavernous jaws of war ; and, of all the large sums that have been expended on transportation, Florida has probably not profited a mill in a million. The « few” may have smiled, but the " many" have wept in blood and ashes, over the long train of ills that have followed the treaty of “ Payne's Landing," - a treaty which they, perhaps, had never heard of, until they began to suffer under the ineffectual attempts to carry it into execution.
We will finish our somewhat vague and cursory remarks upon this protracted, vexatious, humiliating, and burdensome war, by expressing a hope that it is approximating a close. Certainly much has been done during the present season to justify such a hope. The enemy has been traced and retraced to his strong-holds or hiding-places, — literally his derniers resorts, — and finds that our troops can so far imitate his sly
VOL. LIV. — No. 114.
and insidious modes of warfare, as to be often upon him, through his loop-holes of retreat, when least expected. He is fast becoming convinced, that his hummocks and swamps, and even his everglades, where he flattered himself that no pursuit could, or would, ever come, are now nearly all familiarized to our bold and persevering scouts. He has, with but one exception, — and that exception, we trust, will be removed before this article meets the public eye, - been chased from one refuge to another, until his "smokes” are hardly permitted to ascend iwice from the same place. The women, wearied out with sufferings and perils, have long since threatened to come in without their husbands and fathers. They have often thrown themselves, with apparent design, in the way of the scouts, and become willing guides, in hopes that all together might be led into captivity. So many of these Indians have now been removed to the far West, that the residue, in spite of their unrelenting hostility, begin to regard the other side of the Mississippi as their real home. Such a feeling will go further with this peculiar people, who hardly consider war as an evil, than almost any amount of coercion. And this feeling is developed and fostered by the present policy of the command in Florida. The sword is in one hand, and the olive in the other. The Indians are driven in, and beckoned in, and are fast dwindling to a mere point as to numbers. Let the war be terminated when it may or how it may, it will leave a memorable lesson behind ; teaching us, as a nation, not to measure the cost or the length of any conflict we are about to provoke, by our own strength, or the weakness of the enemy; and to count all wars, whether insignificant or formidable in prospect, as an evil day that should be put afar off. And if the millions which are really chargeable to, and have been spent on, this “ Florida war, shall produce a national conviction, that long-suffering and magnanimity should mark all our dealings with the unfortunate red men, and that a contrary policy brings with it the chastisement of 6 woes unnumbered," the expenditure, large as it is or may be, will not have been in vain.
Art. II. — 1. Remarks on the Nature and Probable Effects
of Introducing the Voluntary System in the Studies of Latin and Greek, proposed in certain Resolutions of the President and Fellows of Harvard University, now under the Consideration of its Board of Overseers. By JoSIAH Quincy, President of the University. Cambridge:
John Owen. 1841. 8vo. pp. 29. 2. Report and Resolutions of the President and Fellows of
Harvard University respecting the Introduction of the Voluntary System in the Studies of the Mathematics, Latin, and Greek ; and also the Report of the Visiting Committee of the Board of Overseers of Harvard University on the State of the Seminary, January, 1841. Printed by order of the Board of Overseers. Cambridge : Folsom, Wells, & Thurston. 1841. 8vo.
pp. 16. 3. The Report of the Committee (of the Board of Over
seers) to whom was referred the Report and Resolutions of the President and Fellows of Harvard University respecting the Introduction of the Voluntary System in the Studies of the Mathematics, Latin, and Greek. Cambridge : Folsom, Wells, & Thurston. 1841. 8vo. pp. 8.
In the course of the past winter, an important and radical change in the system of studies pursued in Harvard College, which had been proposed by the President and Fellows, received the final sanction of the Board of Overseers. We have understood that the alteration was also approved, though informally, by the Professors and Tutors, who compose what is called the Faculty of the institution. The pamphlets before us relate to the action of the Corporation and the Board of Overseers. Two of them were printed for the use of the Board, and the third, the “ Remarks” by the President, was published a few days before the final decision by the Overseers, and was addressed to them with a view of facilitating and influencing that decision, and not to the community at large with the intention of informing or guiding public opinion upon the subject.
We cannot disguise our regret, that a greater publicity was not given to the proceeding. It is true, that the subject was incidentally brought before the Overseers at their meeting in the Senate Chamber the year before, and at this last session it was publicly discussed for two days in the same place. But the affair was hardly mentioned in the public journals ; and the President's pamphlet, the only one that has been published having any relation to the subject, though it appeared for a few days on the counters of the booksellers, was seen by very few except those to whom it was particularly addressed. Many of the alumni and other friends to the College heard of the new system of studies for the first time, several months after it had been in operation. Yet the new plan is not merely a change in the details of instruction, but a virtual abandonment of that whole scheme of a liberal education, upon which the College has acted ever since its establishment. As such, we conceive that it ought not to pass without being fully brought to the notice, not merely of the friends of this particular institution, but of all who watch with interest over the cause of science and sound learning in this country.
The leading principles of the new system appear in the following resolutions, which were submitted by the Corporation to the Board of Overseers.
“ Resolved, 1. That every Student who has completed, during the Freshman year, the studies required by the laws of the University, in the Greek and Latin Departments for that year, and shall have passed a satisfactory examination in them, and shall be recommended by the Examining Committee and his Instructors for the privilege of election in such branch, respectively may discontinue the study of either or both branches, at the end of the Freshman year, at the written request of his parent, or guardian (if under age), made with a full knowledge of his standing as a scholar, in each branch respectively, of the future studies in each department, and of those to be substituted for them.
“Resolved, 2. That those Students, who continue in the study of either or both branches after the commencement of the Sophomore year, may choose either of the following courses; - the first course to continue through the Sophomore and Junior years; — the second course to extend through the Senior year, and particularly designed for those who wish to become accomplished scholars, or to qualify themselves thoroughly to instruct in classical schools and colleges.
“ Resolved, 3. That those who pursue the first or second course, in either department, shall receive in addition to the
usual diploma, a special certificate expressing the studies each has respectively pursued.
" Resolved, 4. That those Students who discontinue the study of Greek or Latin, shall choose as a substitute one or more of the following branches ; - Natural History ; Civil History ; Chemistry ; Geology; Geography and the Use of Globes ; Popular Astronomy ; Modern Languages; Modern Oriental Literature ; or studies in either Greek or Latin, which may not have been discontinued, in addition to the prescribed course in such branch. The times and order of these studies will depend on the convenience of the Instructors, and the decision of the Faculty, and each Student will be required to engage in such a number of studies as shall, in the judgment of the Faculty, be sufficient reasonably to occupy his whole time.
“ Resolved, 5. That those Students who have not at the commencement of the Sophomore year, completed the Greek or Latin studies required in the Freshman year, will be allowed the same choice with the others as to their regular studies. But in addition to these regular studies, and in place of a voluntary study, which in this case will not be allowed, they shall, unless excused by a special vote of the Faculty, continue the Greek or Latin in which they are deficient, until they have completed those required in the Freshman year.” — Report, &c. pp. 5, 6.
From the following report, made by the President to the Corporation, it appears that the study of Latin and Greek has only shared the fate which that of pure mathematics underwent a year before.
" At a meeting of the President and Fellows of Harvard College, held August 19th, 1839 ;
" The President, on the subject of changes made in the Mathematical Department, by virtue of the vote assed on the 26th of May, 1838, — respectfully reports ;
"That the liberty to discontinue the subject of the Mathematics at the end of the Freshman year has been found highly acceptable to both the Students and their parents, and been attended thus far with none of the ill consequences anticipated ; few or none qualified to make any important proficiency in the Mathematics, having, it is believed, discontinued altogether ; and, from the numbers who chose the second and the highest course, there is reason to conclude, that the election which has been given, has had a direct tendency to encourage those capable of profiting by the study of that branch, to pur