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members to be eligible or ineligible, as the rules of the constitution of government, and the laws shall direct.

VI. That elections of representatives in the legislature ought to be free and frequent, and all men having sufficient evidence of permanent common interest with, and attachment to the community, ought to have the right of suffrage ; and no aid, charge, tax or fee, can be set, rated or levied upon the people without their own consent, or that of their representatives, so elected, nor can they be bound by any law, to which they have not in like manner assented for the publick good.

,,VII. That all power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by any authority without the consent of the representatives of the people in the legislature, is injurious to their rights, and ought not to be exer. sised.

ylli. That in all capital and criminal prosecutions, a. man bath a right to demand the cause and nature of his accusation, to be confronted with the accusers and witnesses, to call for evidence, and be allowed counsel in his favour, and to a fair and speedy trial by an impartial jury of his vicinage, without whose unani. mous consent he cannot be found guilly, (except in the government of the land and naval forces) nor can he be compelled to give evidence against himself.

IX. That no freeman ought to be taken, imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, privileges or franchises, or outlawed or exiled, or in any manner destroyed or deprived of his life, liberty or property, but by the law of the land.

X. That every freeman restrained of his liberty, is entitled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness

thereof, and to remove the same, if unlawful, and that such remedy ought vot to be denied nor delayed..

31. That in controversies respecting property, and in suits between man and man, the ancient trial by jury is one of the greatest securities to the rights of the people, and ought to remain sacred and inviolable.

Xu. That every freeman ought to find a certain remedy by recourse to the laws for all injuries and wrongs he may receive in person, property or characler. He ought to obtain right and justice freely and without sale, completely and without denial, promptly and without delay, and that all establishments, or regulations contravening these rights, are oppressive and unjust.

Xlll. That excessive bail ought not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

xiv. That every freeman has a right to be secure from all unreasonable searches and seizures of his perśon, his papers, and property ; all warrants therefore to search suspected places, or seize any freeman, his papers or property, without information upon oath (or affirmation of a person religiously scrupulous of taking an oath) of legal and sufficient cause, are grievous and oppressive, and all general warrants to search suspected places, or to apprehend any suspected person without specially naming or describing the place or person, are dangerous, and ought not to be granted. . xv. That the people have a right peaceably to assemble together to consult for the common good, or to instruct their representatives ; and that every freeman has a right to petition or apply to the legislature for redress of grievances.


XV1. That the people have a right to freedom of speech, and of writing and publishing their sentiments; that the freedom of the press is one of the greatest bulwarks of liberty, and ought not to be violated. *{XVII. That the people have a right to keep and bear arms; that a well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defence of a free state. That stand. ing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, and therefore ought to be avoided, as far as the circumstances and protection of the community will admit; and that in all cases the military should be under strict subordination to, and governed by the civil power.

XVIII. That no soldier in time of peace ought to be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, and in time of war in such manner as the law directs.

XIX. That any person religiously scrupulous of bearing arms ought to be exempted upon payment of an equivalent to employ another to bear arms in his stead.

XX. That religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator, and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence, and therefore all men have an equal, natural and unalienable right, to the free exercise of religion, according to the dictates of conscience, aud that no particular religious sect or society ought to be favoured or established by law in preference to others.

10 others. ..



1. That each state in the union shall, respectively, retain every power, jurisdiction and right, wbich is not ✓ by this constitution delegated to the Congress of the

United States, or to the departments of the federal government.

11. That there shall be one representative for every thirty thousand, according to the enumeration or census mentioned in the constitution, until the whole number of representatives amounts to two hundred, after which, that number shall be continued or increased, as Congress shall direct, upon the principles fixed in the constitution, by apportioning the representatives of each state to some greater number of people, from time to time, as population increases. It

III. When Congress shall lay direct tases or excises, they shall immediately inform the executive power of each state, of the quota of such state, according to the census herein directed, which is proposed to be thereby raised : and if the legislature of any state shall pass a law, which shall be effectual for raising such quota at the time required by Congress, the taxes and excises laid by Congress shall not be collected in such state.

IV. That the members of the senate and house of representatives shall be ineligible to, and incapable of holding any civil office under the authority of the United States, during the time for which they shall respectively be elected.

v. That the journals of the proceedings of the senate and house of representatives shall be published at least once in every year, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances, or military operations, as in their judgment require secrecy.


vi. That a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of the publick money shall be published at least once in every year.

VII. That no commercial treaty shall be ratified without the concurrence of two-thirds of the whole number of the members of the senate : and no treaty, ceding, contracting, or restraining or suspending the territorial rights or claims of the United States, or any of them, or their, or any of their rights or claims to fishing in the American seas, or navigating the American rivers, shall be made, but in cases of the most urgent and extreme necessity ; nor shall any such treaty be ratified without the concurrence of three-fourths of the whole number of the members of both houses respectively. * vill. That no navigation law, or law regulating commerce, shall be passed without the consent of twothirds of the members present in both houses.

IX. That no standing army or regular troops shall be raised or kept up in time of peace, without the consent of two-thirds of the members present in both houses.

X. That no soldier shall be enlisted for any longer term than four years, except in time of war, and then for no longer term than the continuance of the war. · XI. That each state, respectively, shall have the power to provide for organizing, arming and disciplining its own militia, whensoever Congress shall omit or neglect to provide for the same. That the militia shall not be subject to martial law, except when in actual service in time of war, invasion or rebellion : and when not in the actual service of the United States,

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