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denial, promptly and without delay; and that all estab_ lishments or regulations contravening these rights are oppressive and unjust. · Xhi. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. · xiv. That every person has a right to be secure from all unreasonable searches and seizures of his person, his papers or his property; and therefore, that all warrants to search suspected places, or seize any person, his papers or his property, without information upon oath or affirmation of sufficient cause, are grievous and oppressive; and that all general warrants (or such in which the place or person suspected are not particularly designated) are dangerous, and ought not to be granted.
XV. That the people have a right peaceably to assemble together to consult for their common good, or to instruct their representatives ; and that every person has a right to petition or apply to the legislature for redress of grievances.
xvi. That the people have a right to freedom of speech, and of writing and publishing their sentiments. That freedom of the press is one of the greatest bulwarks of liberty, and ought not to be violated.
xvii. That the people have a right to keep and bear arms; that a well regulated militia, including the body of the people capable of bearing arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defence of a free state ; that the militia shall not be subject to martial law, except in time of war, rebellion or insurrection ; that standing armies in time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be kept up, except in cases of nécessity; and that at all times the military should be under strict subordination to the civil power; that in time of peace no soldier ought to be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, and in time of war only by the civil magistrate in such manner as the law directs." 3 xvii. That any person religiously scrupulous of bearing arms, ought to be exempted upon payment of an equivalent to employ another to bear arms in his stead. 1. Under these impressions, and declaring that the rights aforesaid cannot be abridged or violated, and that the explanations aforesaid are consistent with the said constitution, and in confidence that the amendments hereafter mentioned will receive an early and mature consideration, and conformably to the fifth article of said constitution, speedily become a part there0f-We the said delegates, in the naine and in the behalf of the people of the state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, do by these presents assent to and ratify the said constitution.-In full confidence, nevertheless, that until the amendments hereafter proposed and undermentioned, shall be agreed to and ratified, pursuant to the aforesaid fifth article, the militia of this state will not be continued in service out of this state for a longer term than six weeks, without the consent of the legislature thereof; that the Congress will not make or aller any regulation in this state respecting the times, places, and manner of holding elections for senators or representatives, unless the legislature of this state shall neglect or refuse to make laws or regulations for the purpose, or from any circum
not lay an in the
stance be incapable of making the same, and that in those cases such power will only be exercised uotil the legislature of this state shall make provision in the premises; that the Congress will not lay direct taxes within this state, but when the moneys arising from the impost, tonnage and excise, shall be insufficient for the publick exigencies, nor until the Congress sball have first made a requisition upon this state to assess, levy, and pay the amount of such requisition made agreeable to the census fixed in the said constitution, in such way and manner as the legislature of this state shall judge best, and that the Congress will not lay any capitation or poll tax.
Done in convention at Newport, in the county of
Newport, in the state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, the twenty-ninth day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety, and in the fourteenth year of the independence of the United States of America.
By order of the convention.
(Signed) DANIEL OWEN, President. Attest. DANIEL Updike, Sec'ry.
And the convention do, in the name and behalf of the people of the state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, enjoin it upon their senators and representative or representatives which may be elected to represent this state in Congress, to exert all their influence and use all reasonable means to obtain a ratification of the following amendments to the said constitu
tion, in the manner prescribed therein, and in all laws to be passed by the Congress in the mean time, to conform to the spirit of the said amendments, as far as the constitution will admit.
* 1. The United States shall guarantee to each state its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction and right, which is not by this con- H stitution expressly delegated to the United States. ? 11. That Congress shall not alter, modify, or interfere in the times, places or manner of holding elections for senators and representatives, or either of them, except when the legislature of any state shall neglect, refuse, or be disabled by invasion or rebellion, to prescribe the same, or in case when the provision made by the state is so imperfect as that no consequent election is had, and then only until the legislature of such state shall make provision in the premises.
111. It is declared by the convention, that the judi. cial power of the United States, in cases in which a state may be a party, does not extend to criminal prosecutions, or to authorize any suit by any person against a state : but to remove all doubts or controversies respecting the same, that it be especially expressed as a part of the constitution of the United States, that Congress shall not directly or indirectly, either by themselves, or through the judiciary, interfere with any one of the states, in the redemption of paper money already emitted, and now in circulation, or in liquidating or discharging the publick securities of any one state ; that each and every state shall have the exclu
sive right of making such laws and regulations for the before mentioned purpose, as they shall think proper,
iv. That no amendments to the constitution of the United States, hereafter to be made pursuant to the fifth article, shall take effect, or become a part of the constitution of the United States, after the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety-three, without the consent of eleven of the states heretofore united under the confederation.
v. That the judicial powers of the United States shall extend to no possible case where the cause of action shall have originated before the ratification of this constitution ; except in disputes between states about their territory, disputes between persons claiming lands under grants of different states, and debts due to the United States...
vi. That no person shall be compelled to do military duty otherwise than by voluntary enlistment, except in cases of general invasion; any thing in the second paragraph of the sixth article of the constitution, or any law made under the constitution, to the contrary, notwithstanding.
vn. That no capitation or poll tax shall ever be laid by Congress.
vui. In cases of direct taxes, Congress shall first make requisitions on the several states to assess, levy te and pay their respective proportions of such requisi
tions, in such way and manner as the legislatures of the several states shall judge best : and in case any stale shall neglect or refuse to pay its proportion pursuant to sucb requisition, then Congress may assess and levy such state's proportion, together with interest