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pressed themselves, it is evident they plus grand, que la guerre aurait peut did not suffer for a private opinion, être prévenu. which was held indifferently by the That man has a property in his Heathens and the Christians. This goods, his labour, and his existence, meets with further confirmation from

and that he may defend them from the works of the early fathers, Justin, attempts to deprive him of them, is Irenæus, Tertullian, and Origen, as admitted ; but then a Christian ought quoted by Mr. Clarkson.

to restrict his defence of his temporal Adverting to the prophecy of rights within the bounds set by the Isaiah, ii. 4, Justin says, that the

that the Gospel, which prohibits such a proprophecy is fulfilled, you have good perty in any thing teniporal, as would reason to believe, for we, who in times be inconsistent with his duty to his passed killed one another, do not now Maker and Redeemer: neither does it fight with our enemies.' You quote the allow of such a defence as would dislatter part of this passage only, and turb his inward peace of mind, arouse then, upon the mutilated citation, put the angry passions, or endanger the a construction inconsistent with the life of man, a fellow heir to immorpart omitted by you, which refers to

tality. the prophecy of Isaiah, where, pre- No nation or kingdom could desire dicting the reign of the Messiah, he

a greater licence for war than is grantsays, he shall judge among the na- ed them in this paragraph, where you tions, and shall rebuke many people: allow an appeal to the sword in de and they shall beat their swords into fence of their honour. What is honour, ploughshares, and their spears into to which idol so many millions of lives pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift have been sacrificed?' A phantom, up sword against nation, neither shall

a shadow, the offspring of pride, that they learn war any inore. This pro- is in direct contrariety to the humility phecy Justin, Irenæus, and Tertullian, upon which Christianity is built. say was fulfilled among the Christians

Upon the last sentence it may be of their time. The words of Irenæus observed, that nothing is easier than deserve your attention, for the Chris. to paint in vivid colours an imaginary tians have changed their swords and evil as the consequence of a rigid their lances into instruments of peace, adherence to right principles; but'no and they know not how to fight.' With such colouring can induce the Christhis evidence before us, it would be tian, who faithfully treads in the foot: only wasting your time and my own steps of his Lord and Saviour, to to descend into a formal refutation of deviate from the principles of conduct your fanciful construction of the word enforced by the Gospel; he knows enemies, as used by Justin. You have who has said, ' Fear not them that can here fallen into the very error with kill the body';' and he can confide in which you charge Mr. Clarkson.

the Divine protection, being assured 10. L'homme à la propriété de ses that all things work for good to them biens, de son industrie, de son exist that fear God. Such have the proence: Il doit les détendre contre les at mise of the life that now is, and of taques de son semblable. Ensuite en that which is to come.' And no case généralisant; Une réunion d'hommes,

can be in point where neither of the une pation, à la propriété de son sol, de ses lois, de son honneur, etc. etc. elle parties act upon the Christian prin doit les défendre ete. etc. La guerre ciple held by the Peace, Society: dans ce cas est juste: il ne faut donc pas Wm. Penn's settlement in America is condamner la guerre en général. Un therefore the only case applicable, Roi puissant occupe sans résistance un and that is in our favour. pays qui ne lui appartient pas et le şoumet à son despotisme. Il n'y a pas 11. Pour faire cesser ce fleau terrible de guerre, mais il y a un mal encore je crois que ce n'est pas contre la guerre

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VOL. III.

qu'il faut ecrire. Mais contre l'ambi- peal to arms, in which each party tion. Faites circuler dans le monde endeavours to affix the stigma of agcntier les pages terribles qui retracent gression on his opponent. les ravages causés par la folie de conquérir. Montrez aux regarde de

Having noticed your several obl'univers les cendres, le sang et les larmes où s'embourbe le char de la jections to Mr. Clarkson's Tract, I victoire. Effacez par l'expression de shall now state the principles upon l'execration générale, les pages adula- which The Society for the promotion trices ou le conquérant est divinisé : of permanent and universal Peace, que ses lauriers soient souillés d'in- act, and upon which they build their famie ; mais ne refuser pas un juste hopes of ultimate success. I give the tribut de regrets au peuple qui a suc- exact title by which the Society is combé dans une juste résistance, ou un hommage de reconnaissance à celui designated, as conveying a correct dont la fortune à couronne les efforts, idea of the extent of their object. The pour la défense de ses droits violés. object you say you approve; but you

evidently differ from them as to the You say that war is a great evil, means calculated to attain it. I have that as such it has been condemned pointed out the insufficiency of the from the most remote period. You means suggested by you; and I hope further

say, that the opinions advanced to prove that the Society have not by the early Christian fathers against blindly adopted means inadequate to war, were no other than had been the end they have in view. entertained by philosophers of every They believe, 1st, That the Bible, age, of every country, and of every including the Scriptures of the Old religion. If this were true, little hope and New Testament, is a volume of indeed could be cherished that so in- Divine Revelation, declaratory of the veterate an evil would ever be eradi- will of God to man. cated. We could not, certainly,expect 2d, That in the Old Testament are so desirable a consummation from a prophecies pointing to the coming of repetition of the moral lessons of the Christ, and describing the nature of ancient

your description the new Covenant of God with man, of the character of the page of the under the reign of the Messiah. That ancient heathen authors is not correct; among the characteristic traits of his it will mostly, if not always, prove to government, is the extermination of be of that character which you justly the malignant passions that produce assign to general execration, as deify- discord and strife among men. They ing the conqueror, instead of staining consider that the triumph of the Prince his laurels with the infamy they justly of Peace over that baneful spirit in deserve.

man, which excites to war, and sacriThe declamation against ambition, fices the weak, harmless, and unresistwhich

you recommend, will, you may ing, to the lawless domination of the be assured, produce no effect. The powerful and strong, armed for the principle of aggrandizement, and of destruction of the human species, is extension of territory, has been, thanks emphatically delineated in the page to the influence of Christian prin- of Prophecy under the most approciples, long exploded, as untenable priate emblems: thus, speaking of ground for drawing the sword. Your the Messiah, Isaiah says, He shall own good sense, upon reflection, must smite the earth with the rod of his convince you that the reprobation of mouth, and with the breath of his lips conduct in which the most determined shall he slay the wicked. And rightadvocate for war will profess to unite, eousness shall be the girdle of his loins, cannot be effective towards abolishing and faithfulness the girdle of his reins. the present practice of settling the The wolf also shall dwell with the differences between nations by an ap- lamb, and the leopard shall lie down

sages. But

It is only as,

men.

with the kid ; and the calf and the the Great Supreme effects his puryoung lion and the fatling together; poses of good to man. and a little child shall lead them. by these means, the heart of man is And the cow and the bear shall feed; changed, the world evangelized, and their young ones shall lie down to- the grand moral principles of the Gosgether: and the lion shall eat straw pel substituted for the cold-hearted, like the ox. And the suckling child selfish policy of the world, that the shall play on the hole of the asp, and Peace Society look for the consumthe weaned child shall put his hand mation of their hopes. on the cockatrice' den. They shall To expect the present system of not hurt nor destroy in all my holy national policy to be overthrown by mountain : for the earth shall be fuil means short of these, is, they consider, of the knowledge of the Lord, as the to calculate

upon

an effect being prowaters cover the sea.' xi. 49. duced without an adequate cause, to

3d, They consider that, consistently substitute what is wild and visionary, with the above prophetic declaration for sober and rational exertions to of the nature of Christ's kingdom, produce peace and concord among the prosecution of war of any kind is

CHRISTIANUS. incompatible with the spirit of the Gospel, which inculcates meekness, forbearance, forgiveness of injuries,

Peace Society, Gloucester. loving our enemies, and returning good No real and extensive benefit can for evil. Whatever objections may arise from the knowledge of moral be urged to these injunctions, from and religious truths, unless their tendthe present state of the world, some ency and value be actively exhibited, of which I have noticed, the harmony and recommended by the language between them and the page of pro- and conduct of those to whom they phecy must be acknowledged. have been mercifully revealed. The

Such are the principles and hopes most successful reformers, the sincere of the Peace Society. The foundation benefactors and philanthropists of of the former, is Divine revelation- every age, have been diligent in the of the latter, the veracity of the Divine study, and laborious in the propagation, promises. Consequently, to an unbe- of the subjects which have imperiously liever they have little to say, and even pressed upon their minds." Happy that little cannot be of much avail, would it have been for the world, if whilst governments, calling themselves all, upon whom the light of religion Christian, openly contradict, by their and science has shone, had devoted conduct, the moral precepts of the their time and their labours to the meGospel. Such governments, what- lioration and happiness of their fellow ever may

be their professions, have creatures. Every one, indeed, is not yet to be brought under subjection to gifted with equal strength of nerve, the Prince of Peace.

and energy of action, but all may do far This fact, melancholy as it is, only more than has yet been accomplished proves that much remains to be done; in the blessed work of doing good. it does not discourage, but stimulates These considerations we wish parthe friends of Peace to unremitting ticularly to urge upon the Friends of exertions in the attempt to diffuse the Peace. Let them view the frightful genuine spirit of the Gospel among glare of the torch of War again remankind; for though they have full kindled on the Continent-Let them confidence in the accomplishment of anticipate all the direful effects which the Divine predictions, they do not will result from the progress of the look for their accomplishment but devouring sword, and then acknowthrough the gradual process of human ledge the vast importance, the indisagency, the usual means by which putable duty, of diligently propagatiog

the principles of Universal and Chris- best friend and ally of virtue ; it gives tian Peace.

time and opportunity for instilling, and We have been led to these remarks bringing to maturity, the elements from the perusal of the following Cir- of all that is honourable, excellent, cular, which has been addressed to the amiable, and good; it affords the inhabitants of the city of Gloucester. greatest facilities for checking the And we earnestly recommend the growth of vice and folly, and for fosadoption of some such plan, in every tering, promoting, and encouraging town where there is a single Friend those feelings and actions which are of Peace to whom reference can be most consonant to the true dignity of made.

man, and most perfective of his nature.

On these accounts, and for these Inhabitants of the City of Gloucester,

reasons, you are most respectfully and You are now enjoying Peace, one earnestly solicited to direct your atof the greatest earthly blessings; such tention to the subject of Peace. Think you cannot but acknowledge it to be, of the means by which it may

be

posif

you will contrast it with the evilssible to preserve it unimpaired. Think and calamities of an opposite state. how you can lay a foundation on The object of War is to destroy life, which may be erected the grand and that of Peace to save it. War wastes admirable superstructure of permaand consumes the bounties of a kind

nent and universal Peace. Should Providence, whilst Peace enables you you not succeed, or but imperfectly, to taste them with the highest relish, in your object, yet you will be blessed and to turn them to the best advantage in the deed. You will be approved War creates confusion, and spreads and accepted at the last, according desolation wherever it comes; but to what you have sincerely wished Peace allows the affairs of life to pro- and honestly attempted, though your ceed in a safe, calm, and harmonious wishes may fail of their effect, and

War fills the minds of mil- your attempts may be unavailing. lions with alarm, dismay, and horror; Object not, that a spirit of peace injures the health and mutilates the thwarts the aims of princes, and crippersons of numbers, disables them ples the energies of government; its from attending to the most necessary native tendency is to cause princes to duties of their occupations and pro- have no aims that need to be thwarted, fessions, and prevents the worthy and and to make governments see that well-disposed from doing the good their honour and prosperity are idenwhich they would be most happy to tified with those of their people. War do in society. Peace, on the other puts to hazard the thrones of soveside, stills every feeling of appre- reigns, and has many times subverted hension in the minds of the most states, kingdoms, and governments ; delicate and tender, contributes to on the contrary, Peace tends to conhealth, allows ample scope for the solidate and confirm both thrones and proper discharge of the duties of every governments, and to give them a stastation, and permits the benevolent to bility the most durable. carry on their labours of humanity The friends of Peace are, in truth, and love without danger or interrup- the real friends of kings and governtion. War is the fruitful source of ments; and are most solicitous to procrimes and offences of every descrip- mote their welfare, in union with the tion. Nothing relaxes the moral prin- best interests of mankind at large. ciple so dreadfully, nothing tends so Their views harmonize with those powerfully to harden the conscience, of that Being, whom the sacred reand to undermine the virtues of phi- cords repeatedly designate as the lanthropy, kindness, compassion, and God of Peace; they coincide exactgoodwill ; whereas Peace is the very ly, too, with those of the Anointed One

course.

1

men.'

manner.

of the eternal Father, who is styled, dispensable duty incumbent upon

all by prophetic wisdom, The Prince men, upon Christians more especially, of Peace.” At his birth an host of to promote and secure, as far as they angels is said to have chanted the are able, the blessings of Peace. In heavenly anthem, Glory be to God becoming members of Peace Socieon high, on earth peace, good will to ties, the only qualification is a love

He enjoined his disciples to of Peace, and a desire to witness its be at peace one with another ;' and universal prevalence. These Societies in the view of his departure out of this propose to diffuse the Spirit of Peace world, My peace (he said) 1 leave in the most inoffensive and honourable with you; my peace I give unto you.'

Their weapons are purely In imitation of him, and in exact con- and exclusively spiritual. They reformity with his will, his Apostles re- commend the perusal of short tracts quire Christians to live as much as that expațiate upon the good effects lieth in them peaceably with all men, of Peace, and paint, in strong and to follow after things that make for lively colours, but not more strong and peace, and to follow peace with all lively than true, the horrors of War, men ;' and it is solemnly affirmed that in all their terrific and appalling de** the fruit of righteousness is sown in formity. They circulate a monthly peace by them that make peace.' publication, which admits of comYou may rest fully satisfied, then, that munications from all quarters, on the in contributing your strenuous support subjects of Peace and War. They to the promotion of peace, you will be advise frequent, but always candid acting in perfect agreement with the and temperate, conversations upon spirit

and temper of the Gospel of your these points ; and are desirous to inLord and Saviour Jesus Christ. You duce all men to shew, in their lives will shew that you are the friends of and actions, the happy consequences your great Master, by your alacrity of their own peaceable dispositions, to do what he has commanded you.' and to let them appear in all the reThe peacemakers you know he pro- lations of domestic, social, and civil nounced blessed, and declared them life. The expense attending the estabto be the children of God. The prin- lishment and support of Peace Sociple of Peace, therefore, being a cieties is trifling. That of this City genuine principle of the Gospel, expects no more from its members sanctioned by the approbation of your than five shillings annually; and if Saviour, and enforced by his com- there is an incompetence of ability to mands, can any thing more convincing contribute so much, they refuse not or persuasive be used to prevail upon any sum that does not descend below Christians to come forward and fear- a moiety of it. Rouse then, fellowlessly avow themselves the sincere citizens, the best and noblest feelings and practical promoters of peace! you possess ; exert yourselves like To those who are averse to this, it is men and Christians in this most inearnestly recommended to call to mind teresting and valuable cause. Leave the declaration of the Apostle, “They no expedients untried that you can who have not the spirit of Christ are lawfully have recourse to; and may none of his.'

the Lord of Peace himself give you Peace Societies are rising up in Peace by all means. various quarters. They are numerous N. B. Application may be made for in America; and twenty, or more,

admission into the Society to any of the have been instituted in Great Britain.

Members of the Committee :-Mr. Isaac One has recently been formed in your

Cooke, Mr. James Gittens, Mr. Francis

Jackson, Mr. Richard Portlock, Mr. C. own City. Its members are of different

Parker, jun. Mr. Herbert Williams, or the religious and political opinions, but Rev. Theophilus Browne. they agree in believing it to be an in

Gloucester, Feb. 14, 1821.

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