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we have seen, is the love of God and It may be observed, further, that of mankind; than which nothing the doctrines relative to the kingdom can be conceived to be more com- of God on earth coincide with, and prehensive, embracing, as it does, confirm the dictates of sound, unthe whole circle of Christian duties; biassed reason as to the present state and thus bringing all the powers and of man, and his future destiny; and faculties of the soul, and all the af- that had they not been announced fections of the heart, into obedience to us on the authority of revelation ; to the law of Christ. Hitherto the they are in themselves such as the ignorance, bigotry, and superstition wisest and best of men must approve which are so predominant in the and wish to be universally known and world, have prevented the light of practised : but they want no other the truth from shining, with such testimony than their own to convince power and efficacy, in the minds of every one, that they are both the men, as to enable them to discern wisdom of God, and the power of the salutary effects which Chris- God. And as they are agreeable to tianity might be made to produce the reason of man in its highest state on human affairs. We are told, that of cultivation ; so are they also adthe fruits of it are for the healing mirably adapted to his nature, conof the nations. Not only was the dition, and circumstances, and to the Gospel promulged for our individual furtherance of his well-being in his
and comfort, and growth in individual, social, and political relagrace, and to secure our salvation ; tions. Besides, what can be more which ought to be the first and chief cheering to the spirits, or more beneobject of our concern : not only is it ficial to health, than to have our a dispensation, which regards our minds entertained with pleasing ideas own personal and private welfare; of the goodness of God, and to know but it was intended, moreover, to that our thoughts and desires are promote the temporal good of man- conformable to his most holy will ? kind at large, and to make a world What is there so animating and rehappy. And although, as yet, with freshing to the soul, as to have a respect to this important purpose, conscience not only void of offence a very partial and imperfect success towards God and man; but which has attended the dissemination of also bears witness, in the fullest Gospel-truths in comparison of what manner, to our dutiful love and affecmight have been expected; yet there tion to them? This, it may be said, is no reason to infer, that they may is to walk with God, and to have not be ultimately accompanied by our conversation in heaven : inconceivably superior blessings and
• He that hath this light in his own clear breast, advantages to mankind than have
May sit in the centre and enjoy bright day.' been hitherto experienced. Indeed
Milton no limits can be affixed to that amelioration in the state of society, to He can rejoice in his existence, which they may yet give birth. The because it is his felicity; and he is opposition they have met with from at less expence in making others selfish and worldly men has nearly happy, because he is so in himself. had its day; and the eyes of the That frame of mind so desirable on people are opening to the mighty all occasions in our intercourse with benefits which revelation both pro- the world, and for the right permises, and points out; and to the formance of those duties which we attainment of which, no exertions owe to each other, in order to be shouľd be wanting on the part of uniform and permanent, must be those, who are the real friends of the principled in good-will to men ; which best interests of mankind.
is a law from heaven far superior to
what the world calls polished man- well to place it before them in vàners and good breeding; though rious aspects and in different lights ; these are, by no means, to be con- and if there be some who are weary temned. We know, for instance, of repeated quotations from the perthat a cup of cold water given in petual Bible, turn them to a passage the spirit of Christian kindness, will of Virgil, upon whose lofty head not lose its reward : and that the some gleams of inspiration broke poor widow's mite was of more value once and again through the Pagani in the sight of God than all that the cloud in which he was enveloped. rich gave out of their abundance. In the eighth book of the Æneid, There are some works which cannot we find Evander, a Grecian prince, proceed from any other than a good who had planted a colony on the motive, and which all can practise : Tyber, entertaining Æneas, newly and these, like congregated streams, arrived to him, with the early hisforming themselves into rivers and tory of the scenes among which seas, shall, under the spiritual king. they then were walking; the spot dom, refresh continually the city where afterwards arose the capital of our God ;'-such as works of love, of the world : he describes the first ! mercy, meekness, charity, forgive- institution there of government by ness. Happy tempers and benevolent Saturn. minds will not then be wanting. Men will have learned to controul
“ Is genus indocile ac dispersum montibus altis
Composuit, legesque dedit : their headstrong and turbulent pas
Aurea, quæ perhibent, illo sub rege fuerunt sions; they will have subdued anger Sæcula; sic placida populos in pace regebat and wrath, and evil-speaking; and
Deterior donec paulatim ac decolor ætas, banished from them malice, hatred,
Et belli rabies, et amor successit habendi." and revenge, as vices
the most He (Saturn) organised the undisgraceful and abominable: they tractable society, dispersed upon the will have learned the great lesson, lofty mountains, and gave them laws. 'not to be overcome of evil, but to Under this king were those golden overcome evil with good.''
times which poets celebrate.So he governed his people in tranquil peace,
until, by degrees, succeeded å tarThe Rage for War.
nished and degenerate age, and the To the Editor.
lust of possession prevailed, and the SIR, -I am much pleased to ob- rabies of War. serve that your Correspondent“ N I pray you to mark the force of has rested the weight of a very able the word rabies, to which we have argument in favour of Peace, upon nothing equivalent; canine madness, the correct decision laid down in the no common rage, but a total perform of a query by the apostle James, version of all the powers, bodily and who has touched the matter with a mental;
and this belli rabies, the needle ; for doubtless the whole sys- token of a degenerate age, came in tem of War (that offence which must with the amor habendi, the lust of needs be') has fixed its cancerous possession. roots, and finds all its strength and The closing life of the poet might nourishment in the self-will and cor- have been, I think, contemporary rupt desires, comprised under the with the early years of the apostle term ' lusts,' of fallen human nature. James ; but it is not very likely that
This truth presents itself to my they conferred together on this submind with conviction no less than ject, which one might incline to demonstrative ; but since there are believe, by their exact agreement many whose view of this subject is as to the origin of War. not yet clear and defined, you do I should rejoice to see the learned
leisure of some able scholar em- sense of justice, which resides in the ployed in collating passages like breasts of the people. The force of these; being persuaded, that by the a republican government, the only beneficent providence of God, those one compatible with freedom, is truths which are most important to therefore a mental force. And as the mankind have not been left without laws have their origin in the will of a witness in any age.
the people, so they are carried into With cordial wishes for in
execution principally by the senticreasing strength, I am, Sir,
ment known to prevail in favour of
virtue, order, and good government. Very respectfully, A constitution which requires the
MODERATOR. support of an armed force, is either Oct. 4, 1821..
defective itself, or supposes debase
met in a considerable part of those FROM THE FRIEND OF PEACE, subjected to it. It either does not Vol. II, No. 5.
possess the confidence and attach
ment of the people, as the security A Senatorial Answer to the grand of their rights, or the people do not Objection.
justly appreciate those rights. It
therefore becomes a Commonwealth It is generally admitted, that War to recollect, that, as they value their is a great evil, that its abolition is a
liberties and immunities, public opidesirable object, and that the con- nion, the source and guide of politroversies of rulers should, were it tical power, should be founded on possible, be settled on the principles public virtue and intelligence." of civilization, by referring them to
But how does this passage apply a Tribunal constituted for that end. But when this plan is urged, the ob
to the formidable objection ? It apjector triumphantly exclaims, -What plies by shewing that there is such power can such a Tribunal possess, to
mental force,” to give
a thing as enforce its decisions ! This objection effect
to the decisions of well organ
ized Tribunals. Our government is seems to be regarded by many as sufficient to silence all the intelli- indeed republican; but this affords gent advocates for peace. If, there. the better opportunity to see what fore, a satisfactory answer can be may be done by the force of public given, an important point will be opinion, when enlightened by the gained, and the friends of peace may correct principles.” If in the present
“ diffusion of useful knowledge and hold on their way rejoicing.
We are happy in finding materials state of knowledge and virtue in our for obviating the objection, in the country, "the judiciary commands late Answer of the Senate of Massa- universal submission to its decisions,” chusetts to the Governor's speech. without the force of arms, may we Having mentioned“ intelligence and not safely infer, that the force of virtue' the ornament and de- public sentiment may be extended fence of republican institutions," the to the decisions of a Tribunal of Senate proceeds tosay :
Honour and Equity for the adjust“ The laws derive their force, not ment of national controversies? from the impulse of any physical power. The legislature of a republic * This sentiment might perhaps be fairly is not surrounded by arms. The ju- disputed; but the general principle, that diciary, which commands universal the laws and government of a country
have their most solid foundation in the submission to its decisions, from the approbation and enlightened morality of powerful as well as the weak, has no
the people, is true in all cases.-Ed. of the energy but what is derived from the Herald of Peace.
We are aware that a more general muititude of savage laws and cusdiffusion of knowledge, relating to toms have been abolished. In many the causes and evils of war, is neces- instances a change in public sentisary to the accomplishment of the ment has paralyzed an absurd or object. But considering the various inhuman law, years before it was and accumulating means which are repealed by legislators. When public in operation to illuminate the world, opinion changes in regard to the we may presume that many years necessity of a sanguinary law, it will not be requisite to convince the first becomes difficult, and afterwards intelligent of different countries, that impossible to carry the law into exethe principles of Christianity and ci- cution. Many such laws are still vilization are preferable to the bar- retained in statute books, unrebarous principles of war for the pealed, as monuments or memorials adjustment of differences, and that of the barbarity of earlier times. As the former are applicable to nations a change in public sentiment can and rulers, as well as to smaller thus enervate an absurd or cruel societies and private individuals. law, so it can enforce one which is When public sentiment shall have humane and wise; been enlightened on this subject, enforce humane laws, so it can give armies will be no more necessary to effect to humane compacts and deenforce a decree of the proposed cisions. Therefore, should such a Tribunal of nations, than they now Tribunal as has been often proposed, are to give effect to a decision of the be organized by a compact between Supreme Court of the United States. the rulers of different nations, it will
If it be a truth, that “ public opi- stand in no need of armies to enforce nion is the source and guide of poli- its decrees. An enlightened public tical power,” then as soon as public sentiment in its favour, will be inopinion shall be in favour of the finitely preferable to all the military principles of civilization, in pre- and naval establishments in the uniference to the principles of war, “ political power" must take that Rulers as well as subjects lieve to be true, that the expense of
We may add, what we verily bemust submit. They are mutually the military and naval establishments dependent on each other ; and rulers of Christendom for a single year,
if cannot support war, if the general judiciously employed, would be suffiopinion of their subjects should be cient to illuminate the world so far against the horrible appeal to arms. When public opinion shall have been nations to the abolition of war, and
as to obtain a general consent of duly enlightened, that ruler who will to insure their acquiescence in the not submit a controverted question decisions of Pacific Tribunals. to a Tribunal or Umpire, rather than to expose his subjects to the crimes and desolations of war, will be re
The War of Mason and M‘Carty. garded with horror, as a merciless [The following frightful anecdote relative barbarian. Like the duellist, he will to Duels, with the intelligent and pointed be left to fight his own battles, and remarks upon it, we transcribe from the to suffer the odium due to his folly.
Friend of Peace; and would earnestly reWhile public opinion has been in
commend them to the serious consideration favour of war, as lawful and neces
of every one who feels the slightest emotion sary, it has done great things and of approbation towards the barbarous cusfilled the world with mischief. But tom.] public opinion is liable to be changed. " This dispute between Mason and It has been changed in thousands of M'Carty was of more than two years' instances ; and by these changes a standing, and originated at the elec
tion poll in London county, Virginia. reception of this letter, and almost M-Carty, who for the most part simultaneously with the arrival of made his home at Alexandria, offered Gen. Mason's remains, no pen can to vote. Mason observed, that he describe, nor pencil depict. The did not consider him entitled to a agonized cries of a bereaved and vote. M-Carty asserted his right, loving wife, the mournful and weepand said that he would take the ne. ing countenances of Gen. Mason's cessary oath to entitle him to the servants, to whom he had been kind, exercise of it. Mason then said, If and the regret of his admiring neighyou swear, you will perjure yourself. bours, were enough to melt a heart This was the spark, blown to a
of adamant. flame.-A newspaper war then en- “ And now let me glance at Mr. sued; and after abusing each other' M'Carty. He with his Second-I will in the most uncourteous manner, the not say friend-repaired to Alexan, contest was given over. - But the dria. Secluded from the society in tortured feelings of Mason would not which he was wont to mingle, with let him rest. On the arrival of Gen. feelings amounting almost to hopeJackson at the seat of government, less and black despair, he remained Gen. Mason repaired thither to con
in Alexandria until Thursday night, sult with his relation, Dr. Bronaugh, the 11th instant, when an opporone of Gen. Jackson's Aids, as to the tunity offering, he took shipping for course proper for him to pursue. Liverpool, in consequence, it is said,
After this interview, M'Carty was of an intimation that the Governor sent for to the seat of government of Maryland, in which state the duel He was challenged, and it was finally was fought, intended to demand him agreed that the battle should be for trial and punishment.”—Extracts fought“with muskets at the distance of a Letter from Alexandria, published of ten feet.”
in the newspapers. “ Arrayed against each other with In the National Intelligencer, an arall the ferocity of savages, their guns ticle appeared relative to this battle, were brought to an order.Bronaugh containing a statement of facts to then asked, Are you ready? The word exculpate the seconds of Gen. Mason was given, fire !—The guns were from the reproach of having been brought to the hip and fired.-Gen. “ instrumental in urging the affair Mason was precipitated into an awful to its unfortunate issue." This areternity with all his imperfections, ticle was probably written by one and this last black transgression upon of the seconds, or as they call themhis head! while M'Carty escaped with selves, “ friends of Gen. Mason," in a slight scratch upon his arm. which they have the following re
“During all the preparation for markable paragraphs :this bloody scene, it was notorious "It now only remains to state, that what was going on, and yet no steps all reports respecting the indecorous were taken to prevent it. Numerous deportment of either party on the spectators lined the hills around, and ground are entirely false; that the beheld with stupid inactivity the hor- unfortunate meeting took place at rid contest.
the appointed time, and that the “ The first intimation that Gen. affair, although fatally was honourMason's wife had of his intention to ably terminated. No man ever exfight, was about two hours previous hibited more perfect coolness and to the arrival of his remains at home. self-possession than did Gen. Mason He had left a letter for her with a on this melancholy occasion. "friend, who, from the hope that all It is due to the friends of Mr. would be well, had delayed to deliver M‘Carty, who are not aware of this it. The scene which ensued at the publication, to state, that their de