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It will be seen by this table that out of fifty-eight millions of exports from the United Kingdom last year, twenty-three millions were to the new world.
THE HONDURAS MAHOGANY TRADE. The New York Express has taken the trouble to condense the following summary of the long account in the Honduras Observer, of the mahogany trade of that country. It will be found interesting.
This staple is so closely connected with the prosperity of the colony, * that the Observer says any reverse in prices is felt at once, at the place of production-causing severe losses to all, from the woodman in the forest, to ihe merchant who makes the export. The mahogany shipped from Honduras, may be classed under three heads. The first in value is that from the northern district. The texture of the wood is harder, and more durable as well as better adapted to cabinet work. The middle district extends as far south as “Stan creek,” producing wood nearly as good as the northern, and nearly equalling it in price. The extreme southern district produces a coarsegrained wood, of little value for any work exposed to the action of the elements. The mahogany cutters have extended their labours into the Musquito territory, but the character of the wood is the same as that in the colonial boundary.
The cost of cutting mahogany in the southern district is $40 to $15 per thousand feet. In the middle district mahogany averaging 12 to 16 inches is cut at an expense of $40, 17 to 20 inches at an expense of $50 to $55, and 21 inches to 24 inches, of which there is but little, and that very distant, cannot be produced at a less cost than $70 to $75.
In the northern district the mahogany is generally of easier access, but as the ships to embark cannot load at the mouths of the respective rivers as they do in the middle and southern districts, because of the insufficiency of water for their draft and burden, the mahogany is brought in large and expeusive coasters to Balize, or its close vicinity, paying a freight of $10 to $12 per thousand feet.
Among the establishments out of the colony are those on the banks of the rivers Montague, Chimlicon, Ulloa, Ajuan or Reman, Limas, Saccaliah and Black river. All these rivers emply themselves into the bay of Honduras at the distance of 120 to 200 miles from Balize, from whence they draw all their supplies. The large size of the wood cut in these rivers, and ihe easy access to them, gives to the cutters of it the advantage of a nearer approach between cost and proceeds, than they obtain for the wood cut within the English limits. The cost of production may be estimated at $50 per thousand feet, and the nett proceeds of its sale in the home markets, excepting where the wood has been particularly faulty, have been about $10 per thousand feel, during the last three years.
Besides the rivers in the states of Guatemala and Honduras, and the king. dom of Musquito already adverted to, a large field of enterprise in mahogany lies yet unoccupied in ihe state of Tobasco, within the republic of Mexico. Three attempts have been made unsuccessfully, to enter upon this field, and a fourth attempt is now being made, which, if successful, will suill require large outlay, vast care and a lengthened period of time, to bring the enterprise to completion. It must, too, be conducted in direct connexion with London and without contingent dependence upon Balize.
The mahogany trade as suffered at Honduras for some years, in consequence of over production, which, however, will be soon removed. Shipments
* The British colony on Honduras bay extends about 150 miles. The town of Ba. lize, the capital, is situated on the river of the same name.
of mahogany are made from Honduras to the United States and England alone; Continental purchasers obtaining their supplies in England.
The Observer staies the consumption of Great Britain to be, on an average, inclusive of supplies to the continent, ahout 9,000,000 ft. annually; that of the United States, something under 1,000,000. The shipping employed in the carrying trade of this mahogany is not less than 30,000 tons.
The following is a comparative statement of the shipments made from Balize in
1848. In the limits, 7,945,210 - 9,567,570 6,502,717 7,351,777 Out of do.
1,974,297 3,186,878 2,250,000 2,191,840
9,919,507 12,754,448 8,752,717 9,543,617 The statement for 1848 is made up for the first of November only, and of the shipments of this year 3,805,600 feet were of last year's cuttings. There are remaining in hands, in course of shipment, or ready for shipment, of the present year's cuttings :Within the settlement
3,130,204 feet. Without the limits
1,495,000 4,625, 204 feet Forming a total for shipment for 1848
14,168,151" On the 31st Aug., 1847, the stock in the docks in London was reported to be
12,833 logs. 4,488,050 feet On 31st August, 1848
9,008 2,647,000“ This shows a very essential decrease, but it may be accounted for by the reason, that the shipments of this year have been unusually late, and but little of last year's wood was shipped this year, and no wood of the present year's cutting had reached England on the 1st of September, to be included in the statement of 31st August.
The cutting of 1849, is proposed to be limited to 4,470,000 feet. This dininution of the cutting, says the Observer, must materially aid the market to enhance prices. DEBTS OF EUROPEAN NATIONS-INCOME AND EXPEN.
Expenditures. Great Britain
$4,000,000,000 $293,801,700 $276,363,850 France
1,200,000,000 271,469,265 291,744,651 Holland
800,000,000 Frankfort on Maine
467,000,000 144,908,185 124,923,137 Austria
120,000,000 22,602,814 22,548,443 Papal states
126,000,000 Prussia. 150,000,000 78,984,231
79,319,475 Russia and Poland 545,000,000 41,366,948 41,366,948 Bavaria
A spirited and successful effort is now in progress in Washington to awaken interest and raise funds in behalf of this great enterprise. It has been mer by the President and his cabinet, the judges of the supreme court, the senate, house of representatives, and the citizens generally, with a liberality worthy of the cause, and honourable to its benefactors. Rev. Mr. Riitgely of the Epis copal church, general agent of the American Tract Society, addressed the Episcopal church; and Rev. Mr. Vail, general agent for the southern Atlantic states, presented the cause in other churches, and also had the privilege of preaching in the hall of the house of representatives to a large audience: "On the influence of the Christian press in perpetuating our republican institutions.” It was seen from these public presentations, that this benevolent institution has for one of its objects the supply of our whole nation with a Christian literature free from sectarian and denominational peculiaritiesembracing the great principles of civil and religious liberty, and of our common Christianity. In the prosecution of its work, it has already issued more than one hundred millions of publications in different languages; is now printing by eight or ten steam presses (at the rate of 1500 pages for one dollar,) about 25,000 publications a day; the issues of the last eight months being equal to about seven hundred and fifty thousand volumes! Millions of these works-many of them standard volumes, such as Baxter, Bunyan, Edwards, and Bishop Hall, have been circulated amongst the destitute population of thirty different states and territories, by the agency of several hundred colporteurs. These are intelligent and self-denying men—who at a salary of $150 a year, have visited from house to house, and supplied about a million of our native and foreign population during the past year, promoting education, elevating the standard of morals, and disseminating a scriptural Christianity; thus contributing to qualify the people for self-government, and laying deeper and broader the foundations of our republican institutions.
All must see the peculiar adaptation of this great scheme to reach speedily and bless the increasing millions of our new states and territo who are soon to hold the reins of government-make the laws-mould the character, and decide the destiny of our nation.
By an effort of our public men and the citizens of the District of Columbia, a subscription for this object has been raised, amounting already to near S2000. It cannot but be regarded as a matter of congratulation that so many of our representatives from all parts of this land are disposed to contribute their personal influence and means to an institution belonging alike to our whole nation-cementing the bonds of our glorious Union-and intimately connected with the best interests of our country; and the progress of the cause of God upon the earth.—Recorder.
DENOMINATIONS IN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. An English correspondent of the Christian Reflector and Watchman, communicates the following religious statistics:
In a former letter I gave you an account of the religious denominations in Wales, and am now about to present you with a statement of the number of churches and chapels in England and Scotland, derived from the best authorities that can be obtained. Of the Dissenters it appears that, in England, the number of Independent chapels is 1,920 Presbyterian church, England, 77 Baptist,
1,450 United Presbyterian synod, . 30 Wesleyan connexion about 3,000 Unitarian,
227 New connexion, 273 Roman Catholic, .
534 Primitive Methodist, 1,421 Friends,
360 Wesleyan association,
320 United Brethren, (Moravian,) 22 Bible Christians,
390 Various sects; Plymouth Brethren, Independent Methodis,
24 Swedenborgians, &c., about 500 Lady Huntingdon's,
30 Old English Presbyterian, 150 Total, ·
10,729 In Scotland, the number of chapels in the Free church is 847 | Evangelical Union,
18 Presbyterian, various, 579 Roman Catholic
80 Congregationalists, 141 | Various smaller sects, about
50 Scottish Episcopal,
1,989 Wesleyan Methodist,
26 From the above account, it appears that 12,718 places of worship are built and supported by voluntary efforts in England and Scotland.
The national church of Scotland comprehends 1152 congregations, including parliamentary churches.
The Diocesan returns, printed by order of parliament, report the total number of resident clergy in England and Wales to be 7445; non-resident and exempt, 1635; total number of benefices, 11,386. It appears, also, that the number of Episcopal churches and chapels in England is 11,825; but more than one-half of the congregations in the parish churches are small, not being equal to the number who attend the preaching of the dissenters.
ORGANIC LAW OF THE FRENCH CHURCH. The constitution or organic law, adopted by the late general synod of the French protestant church, after being approved by the minister of public instruction and worship,” becomes the constitution of the reformed church.
The reformed church of France embraces pastors, particular consistories, general consistories, particular synods, theological faculties, and a general synod.
A pastor must be a Frenchman, or of French origin, and twenty-five years old. "He must be provided with a diploma of bachelor in divinity from a
French theological seminary, legally established, and be ordained by seven actual pastors of the reformed church. An elder must be thirty years old, the head of a family, and educate his children in the protestant church. Half of the elders must be dropped every three years, and others chosen. Each particular consistory or church session has the power of electing the pastors of the church, subject to the approval of the general synod, or assembly, and the national government. The general synod is to hold its sessions once in three years, but may be convened upon extraordinary occasions.
The whole territory of France, including ‘Algeria, is divided into districts for the convenient formation of presbyteries and synods, the number of synods being nineteen, and of presbyteries ninety-three. One synod is located in Algeria, a circumstance indicating the large emigration from France to Northern Africa, as well as the more important fact that the fires of Christianity have been kindled up anew on these savage coasts, once the abode of the highest civilization and intelligence, and where the most fervid strains of Christian eloquence were heard in the early ages of the church, but where for centuries the mosque has supplanted the temple, and barbarism the most brutal, succeeded the refinement of taste and the light of knowledge.
Cong. Journal. ROMAN CATHOLIC STATISTICS. The Catholic Almanac, published in Baltimore, generally recognised as safe authority in the statistics of its church, representa no increase in the Roman Catholic diocesses of Baltimore, New Orleans, Louisville, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, Charleston, Mobile, Detroit, Vincennes, Natchez, Pittsburgh, Little Rock, Milwaukie, Albany, Galveston and Buffalo, while in the diocess of Cleveland there has been an actual loss of five thousand souls from the last year's computation of thirty thousand. The only green spots in this widespread desert, says the Freeman's Journal, are the diocess of Cincinnati, where there has been an addition of fifteen thousand to the fifty thousand of last year; Dubuque, where there is a gain of five hundred on the former sum of six thousand five hundred; Nashville, where the last year's number of Catholics has doubled, being now three thousand, while it was only fifteen hundred a year ago: Chicago, where thirty thousand have been added to the fifty thcusand of last year, and Oregon, with the parts adjacent, where seventy: five hundred had grown up to eighty-one hundred, being a gain of six hundred -Indians and others. The Almanac represents the total decrease of Roman catholics in the United States during the year, as being one hundred and nine thousand, four hundred; and the present number of that denomination in this country as one million, iwo hundred and seventy-six thousand three hundred.
From the Detroit Daily Advertiser. We have been favoured with the annual reports read before the King, to the Hawaiian legislature, in April last. We are indebted to Asher A. Bates, Esq., our former townsman, for them.
The minister of the interior, Keoui Ana, reports that the government press is under the direction of Charles E. Hitchcock, Esq. [We believe Mr. H. was formerly of Connecticut.). The receipts of the press have been $27,554, not including government printing; the gross disbursements $32,230, A new press has just been received from Boston. The imports for the year ending April 1st, 1848,
$822,729 02 Duty free-Whalers' goods,
9,558 91 Missionaries' do
43,120 66 Total free