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Exports of foreign goods, under drawback,
$41,843 62 Domestic exports,
454,255 61 The gross amounts by sale at auction during the year, was $228,882. Whole number of licenses granted, 263, of which 19 are for sale of liquor, and 24 for billiard rooms and ball alleys. The report says considerable has been done in internal improvements: and a new powder magazine has been erected-a new prison on an extensive plan-a new custom-house and a bonded ware-house, three stories high. 1135 marriages have been solemnized, which is a decrease of 300 from the number the year previous. The number of constables employed is 991. The oath of naturalization has been administered to 501. - A great proportion of them have married natives. The amount of shipping increased last year 2537 tons; 74 vessels are now registered-an increase of 60 per cent. in one year.
G. P. Judd* is minister of finance. He reports the receipts into the treasury of the year, $ 155, 158; disbursements, $143,549.
A loan is recommended to be made in England, at four or five per cent., to build bridges, roads, wharves, and for the establishment of a National Bank, to assist farmers by loans to clear more land, &c.
The number of Protestant schools on the island is 395; scholars 16,520. Catholic schools 129; scholars 3,116. Amount of all the teacher's salaries, as paid by government, $10,168. Number of readers, 9,642; writers, 5,599, number in arithmetic, 8052; geography, 8520; philosophy, 1,008; vocal music, 810.
The number of clergymen in the different islands is as follows:
Protestant.-Missionaries twenty-six; assistant male do. twelve; assistant female do. thirty-nine.—Total, seventy-seven.
Roman Catholic.—Priests fifteen; missionaries, ten:-twenty-five.
Mr. Judd recommends that the lands held by missionaries should be secured to them by fixed tenures, and held perpetually. The number of children belonging to missionaries is 129.
Robert C. Wylie is minister of foreign relations. The report says the negotiations with Mr. Ten Eyck, the commissioner of the United States, were suspended in May, 1847–ihe commissioner contending for a principle in regard to juries, which they could not admit. The proposed treaty and objections, correspondence, &c., have been sent to this country. The imports for three years are thus given:1846
822,729 Labourers' wages at Hawaii are from six to twelve and a half cents per day; at Waiheka, labourers' wages are fror two to three cents a day. Several of the islanders' wages range from four to twelve cents a day.
At Hawaii, Joseph Gardner, an American, has erected a woollen factory, in company with the Governor of Kania. Mr. G. has charge of the government sheep, and has the wool and some other perquisites for his trouble. He also makes cotton fabrics, blankets and girting. Cotton can be grown in the district.
The plantation of Rhodes & Co., on the same island, raised 20,000 lbs. of coffee last year.
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONERS OF EMIGRATION. The following is an abstract of the Report of the Commissioners of Emigration, which was presented to the Legislature of New York.-(Courier and Eng.)
Charges have recently been preferred against this gentleman for an abuse of the public funds.
The number of passengers arrived at the port of New York during the year 1848, for whom commutation and hospital money was paid, was 189,176, of whom were: Natives of Ireland, :
98,061 Natives of Germany,
51,973 Natives of other countries,
39,142–189,176 Statement of vessels with emigrants that have arrived at the port of New York in the year 1848, together with the number of sick, deaths, and births, &c.: Nation of vessel.
531 116,009 1,094 477 179 British,
341 60,022 1,830 414 120 German, 125 14,873 127
1 Sweden, Norway, and Denm. 20 1,626
1,041 195,509 3,079 1,002 346 The following table shows the number of passengers which have arrived here from different ports in Europe: From Ireland, 98,961 From Germany,
51,973 6 England, 23,061 Scotland, :
1,622 " Holland,
28 6 Mexico, 12 China,
189,176 Place of birth unknown. The place of nativity of many of the persons admit. ted at the Marine Hospital from ship-board, and of those who have become chargeable in other counties than New York, cannot be ascertained. Of those applying and relieved at the office of the commissioners, being, in all, 16,820; 12,261 were Irish, 4,157 Germans, and 399 others.
The temporary relief granted to 6,640 persons, consisted principally of a supper and night's lodging, and in some instances it was allowed to parties in their dwellings, when they were too sick to be removed to the Hospital.
Of the passengers having paid commutation and hospital money, there were admitted
AT THE MARINE HOSPITAL, STATEN ISLAND:
4,617-8,561 AT THE EMIGRANTS' REFUGE, WARD'S ISLAND. Sent from the city,
3,491 Children born in the institution,
19743,688 There were received at the office of the fund: At private hospitals,
282 At city hospital, lunatic asylum, &c.,
144 At Bedlow's island,
46 And there were temporarily relieved: At the office of the commissioners,
6,640 Sent to various sections of the country,
RELIGIOUS ITEMS. The French national assembly have decreed, unanimously, that "no employer shall be allowed to compel his men to work on Sunday.”
The sultan of Turkey has taken a great stride in religious toleration, having issued a decree according to Christians the privilege of attaining the highest dignities, even that of pacha and vizier.
The London Christian Times, in contrasting the quiet of Great Britain with the agitated state of the continent says:
Our people are largely under the influence of the Bible, millions reverence the Sabbath and assemble for worship. Forty thousand protestant pastors are engaged every Sabbath. Hundreds of thousands of Sabbath.school teachers go forth to their work; Scripture readers and benevolent visiters in endless variety of ways, are pressing on the religious movements. The religious aspect of the country is such, the religious elements at work are so effective, acceptable, and growing in the midst of us, that we do not look forward to the future with alarm.
Missions in OREGON.- Rev. Wm. Roberts, formerly of Newark, N. J., is the superintendent of the Methodist missions, which embrace six missionaries, and twelve or fifteen local preachers. There are two Presbyterian churches and one Congregational, with seven clergymen: the Baptists have two ministers and churches, the Cumberland Presbyterians three, the Seceders two, the Campbellites one, and the Catholic priests are numerous.
Rev. G. H. Atkinson and lady, sent out to Oregon in 1848, by the A. H. M. S., arrived out in June last. He was received with great kindness at Fort Vancouver, by the British agent and officers, and was most cordially welcomed by we people in the Wahlah-math Valley. Rev. Mr. Clark, who went out several years since, had formed small churches in different neighbourhoods, but they had never enjoyed presbyterian or congregational preaching, The church at Oregon city, or falls of the Wahlah-maih and some adjacent settlements, immediately demarded Mr. A.'s stated labours.
The American Tract Society, during the month of January, issued upwards of two millions, six hundred thousand pages of books and tracts, for gratuitous distribution. The committee have granied upwards of a million of pages to vessels bound for California.
EPISCOPAL CHURCH IN U. S.-Clergy in 1835, 763; 1838, 951; 1841, 1,052; 1844, 1,216; 1847, 1,438; 1850, perhaps 1,700.
Communicants: 1835, 36,416; 1838, 49,930; 1841, 55,477; 1844, 72,099; 1847, 84,208; 1850, near 100,000.
During the last twelve years, the number of communicants has increased one hundred and thirty per cent., and doubled in nine years. The number of the clergy doubled in liitle more than twelve years.
The LUTHERAN CHURCH.—There are now in the United States thirty synods of the Lutheran church, five of which are in Pennsylvania. The first synod -the synod of Pennsylvania, was established in 1647; the next-the synod of New York, in 1785; and the third—the synod of North Carolina, in 1802. Of the thirty synods, fifteen only are connected with the general synod. The whole embraces six hundred and sixty-three ministers, sixteen hundred and four churches, two hundred thousand communicants, and a population of one million.
AMERICAN COLLEGES.—Mr. Riddel, as secretary of the American Education society, stated that the present number of colleges in the United States was one hundred and eighteen; the number of their students, under-graduates, in
regular classes, about ten thousand; but including those in preparatory and professional studies, from twelve thousand to fifteen thousand.
The number of graduates from New England colleges, the last year, was four hundred and twelve; which, added to those graduated from sorty leading colleges beyond New England, whose numbers had been ascertained, would make one thousand one hundred and eighty-nine.
There had been religious revivals in ten of these colleges, the past year; all of which, it was stated, seemed to have their beginning in near connexion with the day set apart for special devotional services in their behalf. In Madison college, (Ind.) the number of conversions had been upwards of seventy.
There had entered ihe ministry but one hundred and eighty-six, the past year, from eleven of the principal theological schools.
The City of Churches.—This cognomen has often been applied to Brooklyn. With a population of sixty thousand in 1846, there were of churches, Protestant Episcopal, twelve; Methodist Episcopal, twelve; Presbyterian, eight; Roman Catholic, four; Baptist, four; Dutch Reformed, four; Congregational, four; Unitarian, one; Universalist, one; Friends, one; German Evangelical, two; Sailor's Bethel, one. Total fifty.three, nearly two to one to New York in point of population.
Missions TO CALIFORNIA.—A missionary has been despatched to California, by the domestic committee of Church missions. He takes with him his wife and four children. Several missionaries have gone to California, sent by other missionary boards, and Rev. F. S. Mines, of the Episcopal Church, has recently embarked.
Two missionaries and seventy emigrants, have lately sailed from Baltimore for Liberia.
The London Church Missionary Society has several prosperous missions in Western Africa. The station of Regent is one of much promise; the village contains about one thousand five hundred inhabitants, who have been almost wholly redeemed from paganism. The church numbers four hundred and eight communicants, besides a large number of candidates.
Donation TO THE CAUSE OF Peace, FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.--The native church at Hilo,' Sandwich Islands, has just transmitted through their pastor, a donation of one hundred dollars to the American Peace society, accompanied with a letter expressive of their deep interest in the object to which the society is devoted.
PETER-PENCE.—A movement is making amongst Roman Catholics to renew this offering to the pope. The Tablet thus urges it:
“No partial subscription amongst the affluent will effectively re-organize this ancient practice of the faithful; the people, poor, as well as rich, all must contribute the 'penny;' not in England, only, but in Scotland; and, where practicable, even in poor Ireland. This universality of the Peter-pence will alone give it permanence, and afford a glorious example to the Catholic world.?
CLIMATE OF EUROPE IN OLDEN TIMES, AND THE COLD WINTERS
OF THE LAST CENTURY. Those who have read the ancient accounts with attention, conclude that the degrees of cold are at this time much less severe than they were formerly. The rivers in Gaul, namely, the Loire and the Rhone, were regularly frozen over every year, so that frequently whole armies, with their carriages and baggage, could march over them. Even the Tiber froze at Rome; and Juvenal says positively that it was requisite to break the ice in winter, in order to come at The water of the river. Many passages in Horace suppose the streets at Rome to be full of ice and snow. Ovid assures us that the Black Sea was frozen annually, and appeals for the truth of this to the governor of the province, whose name he mentions. He also relates several circumstances concerning that climate, which at present agree only with Norway and Sweden. The forests of Thrace and Pannonia were full of bears and wild boars, in like manner as now the forests of the north. The northern part of Spain was little inhabited, from the same cause. In short, all the ancients who mention the climate of Gaul, Germany, Pannonia, and Thrace, speak of it as insupportable, and agree that the ground was covered with snow the greatest part of the year, being incapable of producing olives, grapes, and most other fruits. In 1664 the cold was so intense that the Thames was covered with ice sixty-one inches thick. Almost all the birds perished.
In 1691 the cold was so excessive that the famished wolves entered Vienna and attacked beasts, and even men. Many people in Germany were frozen 10 death in 1695, and the winters of 1697 and 1699 were nearly as bad.
In 1709 occurred that famous winter called, by distinction, the cold winter. All the rivers and lakes were frozen, and even the sea for several miles from the shore. The ground was frozen nine feet deep. Birds and beasts were struck dead in the fields, and men perished by thousands in their houses. In the south of France the wine plantations were almost all destroyed; nor have they yet recovered that fatal disaster. The Adriatic sea was frozen, and even the Mediterranean about Genoa, and the citron and orange groves suffered extremely in the finest parts of Italy.
In 1716 the winter was so intense that people travelled across the straits from Copenhagen to the opposite coast, in Sweden.
ln 1729, in Scotland, multitudes of cattle and sheep were buried in the snow,
In 1740 the winter was scarcely inferior 10 that of 1709. The snow lay ten feet deep in Spain and Portugal. The Zuyder Zee was frozen over, and ihou. sands of people went over it. The lakes in England froze.
In 1744 the winter was very cold. Snow fell in Portugal to the depth of 23 feet on a lev
In 1754 and 1755 the winters were very severe and cold. In England the strongest ale, exposed to the air in a glass, was covered in 15 minutes with ice one-eighth of an inch thick.
In 1771 the Elbe was frozen to the bottom. In 1776 the Danube bore ice five feet deep below Vienna. Vast numbers of the feather and finny tribes perished.
The winters of 1784 and 5 were uncommonly severe. The Little Belt was frozen over.
The winter of 1780 was intensely severe in America. New York Bay was frozen over so that people passed on the ice from the city to Staten Island.