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generally believed that the business of the line will justify such an augmen. tation of boats as to allow of semi-monthly trips before the end of the present year; for it is presumed that an active emigration will take place from the eastern and middle states via Panama.
THE ENGLISH NAVIGATION LAWS. A BILL " ENTITLED AN ACT TO AMEND THE LAWS IN FORCE FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT
OF BRITISH SHIPPING AND NAVIGATION," PASSED IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS AND NOW PENDING IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS.
Sec. 1 enumerates certain acts and parts of acts which from and after the 1st day of January, 1850, shall be repealed. This enumeration is of great length and embraces a great number of sections of eleven distinct acts, seven of which were passed since the commencement of the present reign, three in that of George 4, and one in the 37th of that of George 3.
Sec. 2 provides “That no goods or passengers shall be carried coastwise from one part of the United Kingdom to another' (including the Isle of Man] “except in British ships."
Sec. 3 extends the same provision to the communication between all parts of the United Kingdom, including the Isle of Man, and the islands of Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney and Sark, and each of them with one another.
Sec. 4. And be it enacted, That no goods or passengers shall be carried from one part of any British possession in Asia, Africa, or America, to another part of the same possession, except in British ships.
Sec. 5. Provided always, and be it enacted, That if the legislature or proper legislative authority of any such British possession shall present an address to her majesty, praying her majesty to authorize or permit the conveyance of goods or passengers from one part of such possession to another part thereof in other than British ships, or if the legislatures of any two or more possessions, which for the purposes of this act her majesty in council shall declare to be neighbouring possessions, shall present addresses or a joint address to her majesty, praying her majesty to place the trade between them on the footing of a coasting trade, or of otherwise regulating the same, so far as relates to the vessels in which it is to be carried on, it shall thereupon be lawful for her majesty, by order in council, so to authorize the conveyance of such goods or passengers, or so to regulate the trade between such neighbouring possessions, as the case may be, in such terms and under such conditions, in either case, as to her majesty may seem good.
Sec. 6. And with regard to the coasting trade of India, he it enacted, That it shall be lawful for the governor general of India in council to make any regulations authorizing or permitting the conveyance of goods or passengers from one part of the possessions of the East India Company to another part thereof in other ihan British ships, subject to such restrictions or regulations as he may think necessary; and such regulations shall be of equal force and effect with any laws and regulations which the said governor general in council is now or may hereafter be authorized to make, and shall be subject to disallowance and repeal in like manner as any other laws or regulations made by the said governor general in council under the laws from time to time in force for the government of the British territories in India, and shall be transmitted to England, and be laid before both houses of parliament, in the same manner as any other laws or regu. lations which the governor general in council is now or may hereafter be empow. ered to make.
Sec. 7. And be it enacted, That no ship shall be admitted to be a British ship unless duly registered and navigated as such; and that every British-registered ship (so long as the registry of such ship shall be in force, or the certificate of such registry retained for the use of such ship:) shall be navigated during the
whole of every voyage (whether with a cargo or in ballast) in every part of the world by a master who is a British subject, and by a crew whereof ihree-fourths at least are British seamen; and if such ship be employed in a coasting voyage from one part of the United Kingdom to another, or in a voyage between the United Kingdom and the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man, or from one of the said islands to another of them, or from one part of either of them to another of the same, or be employed in fishing on the coasts of the United Kingdom or of any of the said islands, then the whole of the crew shall be British seamen: Provided always, that if a due proportion of British seamen cannot be procured in any foreign port, or in any place within the limits of the East India Company's charter, for the navigation of any British ship, or if such proportion be destroyed during the voyage by any unavoidable circumstance, and the master of such ship make proof of the truth of such facts to the satisfaction of the col. lector and controller of the customs at any British port, or of any person authorized in any other part of the world to inquire into the navigation of such ship, the same shall be deemed to be duly navigated.
Sec. 8. And be it enacted, That no person shall be deemed to be a British seaman, or to be duly qualified to be master of a British vessel, except persons of one of the following classes ; (that is to say,) natural-born subjects of her majesty; persons naturalized by or under any act of parliament, or by or under any act or ordinance of the legislature or proper legislative authority of one of the British possessions, or made denizens by letters of denization; persons who have become British subjects by virtue of the conquest or cession of some newly acquired country, and who have taken the oath of allegiance to her majesty, or the oath of fidelity required by the treaty or capitulation by which such newly acquired country came into her majesty's possession; Asiatic sailors or Lascars, being natives of any of the territories, countries, islands, or places within the limits of the charter of the East India Company, and under the government of her majesty or of the said company; and persons who have served on board any of her majesty's ships of war, in time of war, for the space
of three years. Sec. 9. And be it enacted, That if her majesty shall at any time by her royal proclamation declare that the proportion of British seamen necessary to the due navigation of British ships shall be less than the proportion required by this act, every British ship navigated with the proportion of British seamen required by such proclamation shall be deemed to be duly navigated, so long as such proclamation shall remain in force.
Sec. 10. And be it enacted, That in case it shall be made to appear to her majesty that British vessels are subject in any foreign country to any prohibitions or restrictions as to the voyages in which they may engage, or as to the articles which they may import into or export from such country, it shall be lawful for her majesty (if she think fit,) by order in council, to impose such prohibitions or restrictions upon the ships of such foreign country, either as to the voyages in which they may engage, or as to the articles which they may import into or export from any part of the United Kingdom or of any British possession in any part of the world, as her majesty may think fit, so as to place ihe ships of such country on as nearly as possible the same footing in British ports as that on which British ships are placed in the ports of such country.
Sec. 11. And be it enacted, That in case it shall be made to appear to her majesty that British ships are either directly or indirectly subject in any foreign country to any duties or charges of any sort or kind whatsoever from which the national vessels of such country are exempt, or that any duties are imposed upon articles imported or exported in British ships which are not equally imposed upon the like articles imported or exported in national vessels, or that any preference whatsoever is shown either directly or indirectly to national vessels over British vessels, or to articles imported or exported in national vessels over the like articles imported or exported in British vessels, or that British trade and navigation
is not placed by such country upon as advantageous a footing as the trade and navigation of the most favoured nation, then and in any such case it shall be lawful for her majesty (if she think fit,) by order in council, to impose such doty or duties of tonnage upon the ships of such nation entering into or departing from the ports of the United Kingdom, or of any British possession in any part of the world, or such duty or duties on all goods, or on any specified classes of goods, imported or exported in the ships of such nation, as may appear to her majesty justly to countervail the disadvantages to which British trade or navigation is so subjected as aforesaid.
Sec. 12. And be it enacted, That in every such order her majesty may, if she so think fit, specify what ships are to be considered as ships of the country or countries to which such order applies, and all ships answering the description contained in such order shall be considered to be ships of such country or countries for the purposes of such order.
Sec. 13. And be it enacted, That it shall be lawful for her majesty from time to time to revoke any order or orders in council made under the authority of this act.
Sec. 14. And be it enacted, That every such order in council as aforesaid shall, within fourteen days after the issuing thereof, be twice published in the London Gazette, and that a copy thereof shall be laid before both houses of parliament, within six weeks after the issuing the same, if parliament be then sitting, and if not then within six weeks after the commencement of the then next session of parliament.
Sec. 15. And be it enacted, That if any goods be imported, exported or carried coastwise contrary to this act, all such goods shall be forfeited, and the master of the ship in which the same are so inported, exported, or carried coastwise shall forfeit the sum of one hundred pounds, except where any other penalty is hereby specially imposed.
Sec. 16. And be it enacted, That all penalties and forfeitures incurred under this act shall be sued for, prosecuted, recovered, and disposed of, or shall be mitigated or restored, in like manner and by the same authority as any penalty or forfeiture can be sued for, prosecuted, recovered, and disposed of, or may be mitigated or restored, under an act passed in the said session of parliament holden in the eighth and ninth years of her present majesty, entitled An act for the prerention of smuggling, and that the cost of all proceedings under this act shall be defrayed out of the consolidated duties of customs.
Sec. 17. And be it enacted, That all natural-born subjects of her majesty, and all persons made denizens by letters of denization, and all persons naturalized by or under any act of parliament, or by or under any act or ordinance of the legislature or proper legislative authority of any of the British possessions in Asia, Africa, or America, and all persons authorized by or under any such act or ordi. nance to hold shares in British shipping, shall, on taking the oath of allegiance to her majesty, her heirs and successors, be deemed to be duly qualified to be owners or part owners of British registered vessels, any thing in the said recited act for the registering of British shipping to the contrary in anywise notwithstanding.
Sec. 18 (prescribes the form of certificate of registry, and Sec. 19 the form of declaration to be made by the owner or owners of any vessel previously to the registry thereof.]
Sect. 20 (declares every ship or vessel not duly registered, to be forfeited, except boais under fifteen tons, navigated by British subjects, in the rivers and on the coasts, and boats of thirty tons fishing on the banks of Newfoundland or parts adjacent.]
Sec. 21. And be it enacted, That this act shall come into operation on the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and fifty.
INDEX TO VOL. II.
Africa and Asia, history of, 54.
Death, phenomena of, 196.
Debts of European Nations, 105.
Distance from United States to England,
Documents, 256, 529.
Education of Orphans, 180.
in Virginia, 417.
Elections, presidential, 125.
Emigration, Commissioners of, (report,)
England and Scotland, religious denomi-
Europe, armies of, 419.
Executive Governments and Cabinets of
United States, 120.
Factory Statistics, 388.
Folsom, Capt.- letter to Gen. Jessup, 599.
Forks, introduction of, 204.
France, history of, 23, 350.
National Assembly of, 28.
Constitution of, 29.
Presidency of candidates, 31.
Frankfort, central power, 45, 355.
Franklin, Lady,- letter to President, 589.
Fremont, Col., disasters of, 5:23.
French Republic, constitution of, 593.
German Empire, 355.
Germany, history of, 39, 355.
agitation in, 524.
Great Britain, history of, 37, 346.
produce and manufactures of, 103.
Queen of, her speech, 275.
Guatemala, history of, 22, 345.
Hayti, account of, 345.
Pacific ocean, routes to, 159.
Panama route, 160.
Parties in the United States, 7.
Penitentiaries of the U. S., 402.
Plank roads, 386.
protest of, 279.
Pope-agitation at Rome, 53.
escape and flight of, 51.
deposition of, 361.
Population of the U. S., 89.
Postmaster general, his report, 272.
Post office, 96, 373.
Presidential candidates, 6.
President's annual message, Dec. 1:45.
17, 529, 256.
message in relation to Mexican pro-
message on veto of river and harbor
Press of the United States, 139.
Progress, law of, 460.
king of, 360.
Punjaub war, 39, 366.
Quarterly chronicle, 221, 514.
Radetsky, battle with Charles Albert,
discussion of in Congress, 338. Rome, French expedition to, 352,
attack on, 524, 528.
fortifications of, 521.
Routes to Pacific, 160.
Russia, history of, 49, 363.
emperor of, his policy, 363.
Sandwich islands, 108.
New York, 03.
New Jersey, 69.
Schools of France, 71.
School system of Virginia, 417.
Sikhs, battle with, 241.
Slavery in the Dist. of Columbia, 20.
historical sketch of, 169.