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Not content with these insignia, our pompous officer had a pan of coals, prunacque batillum, carried before him, on which perhaps to burn incense, as if the presence of Maecenas in the town should be attended with sacrifices to the gods.. 37. Mamurrarum-urbe. Formiae (see n. O. iii., 17, 6), which the poet here calls the city of the Mamurrae, as if that were an old noble family, in satirical allusion to a man of that name, who had, by the favor of Julius Cæsar, amassed great wealth, but was of low origin, and of vulgar character, and universally despised. -38. Murena-Capitone. Probably they each had a house and establishment at Formiae, and in their emulation to accommodate the poets, one furnished the lodgings, and the other the table. Murena has been mentioned in Introd. to O. ii., 10. - 40. Plotius. M. Plotius Tucca, mentioned also Sat. i., 10, 81. See n. O. i., 6, 1.- -41. Animae quales; for animae tales, qualibus. -44. Jucundo—amico. Comp. Cic. de Amic. c. 5: Quid dulcius, quam habere, quicum omnia audeas sic loqui, ut tecum?· -45. Campano ponti, now called Ponte Ceppani, over the Savone, the ancient Savo. Perhaps the villula belonged to the state, and was designed for the accommodation of magistrates, &c., when on a journey.. 46. Parochi, purveyors; public officers, who provided for those who were travelling in the service of the state. 49. Crudis, referring to Virgil, who seems to have suffered all his life from a feeble stomach. -51. Nunc mihi-Musa, etc. In imitation of the gravity of epic poetry, as the poet is about to describe an encounter of wits between two jesters or clowns of the party. Sarmentus, as appears from what follows, was originally a slave. The other is unknown. Cichirrus, kikippos, was probably a nickname. -55. Domina, the widow of M. Favonius, whose slave Sarmentus had been. Caput et movet, in imitation of a horse. Tua cornu, etc. In prose it would be: nisi tuae fronti cornu exsectum foret. - 60. Miniteris. Better than minitaris. The sense is: since your aspect, as you are, is so threatening, what would it be, &c. 62. Campanum in morbum. The scholiast says that the Campanians were subject to warts, which grew on the forehead, often to a great size. 63. Cyclopa. Polyphemus. 64. Larva, etc.; i. e. his own face would be mask enough, and his great size would supersede the need of buskins. - 65. Catenam. The joke is upon the former servile condition of Sarmentus. Orelli explains thus: whether he had consecrated his chains, as the Roman boys did their bullae, or golden bosses, when they put on the toga virilis. 66. Scriba. Since the death of Favonius, Sarmentus probably had this place in the service of Maecenas. 71. Sedulus, etc. The grammatical order is thus: sedulus hospes paene arsit, dum versat, etc. 78. Atabulus, a wind blowing from the east,— -now called Altino. -79. Erepsemus, for erepsissemus. · Trivici. This station, given above in the table, is not put down in the Itineraries. It is sup



posed to have been a public villa, near the modern Trivico. Oppidulo, etc. What town is here referred to is a point that has never been made out. Walckenaer (from whom Dillenb. quotes) has shown that it could not have been Equus Tuticus, as that was quite out of the road; but he fails to make it certain that it was Asculum.· - 84. Venit, from veneo. 86. Ut, so that.- 87. Ditior, agrees with locus, which refers to Canusium. The air of negligence in the construction agrees with the easy style of the whole satire. The poet means to say, that Canusium is as ill supplied with water as the last stopping place.

93. Lymphis; here put for Nymphis. The poet seems to mean, that the badness of the water is owing to the anger of the Nymphs of the springs. 95. Liquescere. "To this piece of heathen jugglery we have a counterpart in the false miracle, which, even up to the present time, is annually exhibited not far from the same place, namely, the melting of the blood of St. Januarius at Naples."-Osborne. Flamma sine. See n. O. iii., 19, 15.- -96. Judaeus Apella. Apella was a common name among the Jews, and is here used for any Jew. The Jews at Rome were numerous at this time; they belonged mostly to the class of libertine. They lived in a particular quarter, the regio Transtiberina, now called the Trastevere; just as the Jews at Rome now do in the quarter called Ghetto. With a faith so different from the Roman, they were a proverb at Rome for credulity and superstition. Hence is apparent the meaning of Horace in this expression. - 97. Securum; i. e. take no active interest in human affairs. The Epicurcan doctrine of Lucretius de Rer. Nat., 5, 82; and 6, 56; Nam bene, qui didicere, deos securum agere aevum.


The intimacy of Horace with Maecenas, and other distinguished men, drew upon hira the envy of many, who taunted him with his humble origin, and charged him with a vain love of social distinction. To the malicious insinuation of such persons we are indebted for the present Satire. Opening with a compliment to Maecenas for his freedom from prejudices of birth, he descants upon the folly of pride of ancestry and of vain ambition (1-44). He then passes to a particular though familiar defence of himself against the envious charges of his enemies. He adverts to the origin and the basis of his intimacy with Maecenas (49-64); to his education and moral training, for which he was indebted to his excellent father, whose virtues made his son prouder of his parentage than if he had been the son of a noble (65-99); and lastly to his own simple and unamtitious manner of life, in which he was far from all burdensome ambition, and was hap pier than if he could boast of a long line of distinguished ancestors (100-end).

The Satire was probably written at about the same time as the Fifth of this Bock. 1. Non, etc. Join non with suspendis, and quia with nemo—est. Quidquid; join with nemo;=eorum quidquid, etc.; and see n. Epod

5, 1.


-9. Tulli.

4. Legionibus, means here armies, as often in prose. Naso, etc.; quite the same as our vulgarism turn up your nose at; but observe the different construction in the Latin and the English expression. 7. Cam, does not mean since, else the verb would be neges; cum-negas must be closely connected with persuades, etc.· 8. Ingenuus. Free-born. This is always the meaning of the word, when applied to persons; and though we might prefer the sentiment which we should have by translating, a man of worth, or of liberal character, etc., we must adhere to the uniform usage of Latin writers. Servius Tullius. See Livy, 1, 40. -10. Nullis, has here the same force as when we say, a man of no family.". -12. Valeri. P. Valerius Publicola. Sce Livy, 1, 2, and 8. 12. Unde, a quo. See n. O. i. 12, 17.- -13. Fugit, historic present, which (as Madvig has shown) is not confined to regular and continued narration. Dillenburger gives the following passages, cited by Madvig: Sat. i., 2, 56; ii., 3, 61; and adds Tibull., 2, 4, 55; Ovid, Met. vii., 290. - 14. Licuisse. Lacere means to be valued; pluris, at more.-15. Quo. In abl. by attraction.-17. Titulis. Sce n. O. iv., 8, 13. The imagines were waxen images of one's ancestors, kept, like family portraits of busts with us, in the atrium of a Roman house. They were carried in processions at funerals. -20. Novo; i. e. a novus homo. Decio, Appius, translate a Decius, an Appius; i. e. men like Decius and Appius.

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Censor. The censor had the control of the lists of citizens, and had the power to decide every man's civil position. For good cause, he could strike off a senator from the list, or otherwise degrade any citizen. Appius Claudius Pulcher, censor, B. c. 50, was very strict in the exercise of his functions. - 22. Vel merito; i. e. vel merito me moveret censor. Propria, etc., is a proverbial expression, probably drawn from Aesop's fable of the ass in a lion's skin.. 23. Sed, etc.; i. e. true as that is, yet all are carried away with a love of glory.. 24. Tilli. A person who, as the scholiast tells us, had been removed from the senate, but afterwards restored, and also made Tribunus militum. The tribunes of the first four legions wore the laticlavia, on which badge see n. Sat. i., 5, 36. 28. Nigris pellibus, four black thongs, or ties, which fastened in front the shoe worn by senators, which was higher than the ordinary shoe, and more like our boot. See Dict. Antiqq., p. 190. 34. Promittit; i. e. on becoming a senator, virtually assumes such obligations. 38. Tune, etc. A question from one of the people to one so suddenly raised to high office.-The names in the line are those of slaves. 39. Saxo; sc. Tarpeio; the southern summit of the Capitoline hill, from which citizens were sometimes thrown down, who had been condemned for capital offences. Though the rock was formerly higher than now, and its side steeper, yet, at the present day, at one place on the Monte Caprino (the modern name of

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the Tarpeian Rock) you look down a precipice sixty or seventy feet in height.-Cadmo, the name of an executioner. -40. Gradu-uno; an expression borrowed from the theatre, where the citizens sat according to rank. See n. Epod. 4, 16. -41. Pater quod erat; i. e. a libertinus. Paulus-Messala, etc. The rejoinder of the poet; as if because you have never been yourself a slave, like your colleague, you are therefore equal to a Paulus or a Messala; men who belong to the most ancient noble families. -43. Foro-funera. Funeral processions went through the forum, where the eulogy was generally delivered. Musicians always formed a part of these processions, flute-players, trumpeters, hornists, etc.-Magna, used adverbially, belongs to sonabit. Tenet -nos. Takes; i. e. greatly pleases us. The poet means to hit the empty judgment of the crowd, who think well of the man, because he has stout lungs, and a stentorian voice. 48. Tribuno. Horace had been a tribune in the army of Brutus and Cassius. See Life of Horace; also Introd. to O. ii., 7. · 49. Ut forsit, though perhaps. Forsit is found only in this passage. So Hand, Turs. ii., p. 713.-Honorem refers to the office of tribune. 51. Prava-procul. Join these words with dignos, being far from, etc. They form, as Dillenburger well says, a kind of accusative; in Greek the participle ovтas would be expressed. 55. Varius. See n. O. i., 6, 1. -59. Satureiano. Satureium or Saturium was near Tarentum. 61. Nono-mense. The length of time seems to illustrate what is said of Maecenas in line 51, cautum, etc. 63. Turpi; sc. homine. The prep. ab is generally expressed with abl. after secernere. See H. 425, 3. 64. Vita et pectore puro, must be referred to Horace himself, not to patre. 71. Qui pauper, etc. though a poor man, etc. See a correct view of the whole passage in Arn. Pr. Intr., p. 124, note r. 72. Flavi. Flavius was probably the master of the common school at Venusium, which would of course afford inferior advantages for education, compared with the schools of the metropolis.—72, 73. Magni-magnis. Used ironically to express the airs of importance, which the centurions assumed; very much as we say familiarly, big. 74. Suspensi; = qui suspendebant.Loculi is here put for capsa, or scrinium (on which see notes, Sat. i., 4, 21; and the cut, p. 204), which the boys used, like our satchel, to carry their books in. The tabula was a tablet, or table, which they perhaps used to write upon, or for arithmetical calculations, just as with us a boy would use a slate. Horace here means to say that the country school-boys carried these themselves; in the city they were carried by the custos (see note below, 1. 81), as we learn directly from Juvenal, Sat. z., 117; Quem sequitur custos angustae vernula capsae. 75. Aera, means here the money paid for instruction; tuition. Juvenal has the same word in Sat. vii., 217, rhetoris aera. This, it seems, was paid on the Ides of the month. The meaning of the distributive octɔnis is, that


there were eight school months in the years, and that on the Ides of each of these eight months the tuition was carried. This is the explanation given by C. F. Herrmann, to whose interpretation of this passage I have elsewhere referred, viz. in Bibl. Sacra, vol. iii., p. 228.- 79. In magno ut populo. The ut is elliptical, and, referring to vestem servosque sequentes, is equal to ut fieri solet, or ut expectare potest.—Ut has sometimes in similar constructions a limiting force (which I have illustrated in note on Livy i., 57), but, I think, not here. A very full view of this use of ut, Kühner has given in his edit. of Tusc. Quaestt., 1, 8, 15. 81. Custos. The Roman boy, as well as the Greek, was sent to school under the care of a slave, who also carried his books, etc. The regular name of this slave was paedagogus, naidaywyds. St. Paul makes a fine metaphorical use of this custom in Galatians iii. 24: The law was our schoolmaster (ñaidaywyds) to bring us to Christ.-Horace here says, in grateful praise of his worthy father, that he was himself his son's paedagogus. 86. Coactor. Collector. See Life of Horace. · 87. Hoc; abl. case; = propterea.· 90. Dolo, used for culpa, fault, which is the legal sense of the word. ·95. Ad;= secundum, according to. -101. Salutandi, alluding to the Roman morning calls, whether made or received. The word need not be limited to the visits of clients upon the rich. -104. Petorrita The petorritum was a four-wheeled carriage, adopted by the Romans, in imitation of the Gauls. It is compounded of two Celtic words,-petor, four; and rit, wheel.-See Dict. Antiqq. Curto, probably the same as our docked. Orelli uses it in the sense of vilis, exigui pretii. 109. Lasanum, means a vessel for cooking; a kind of portable kitchen. The poet satirizes the praetor for travelling in so little state, and for carrying his provisions and cooking utensils, in order to save expense. 111. Millibus atque aliis; neuter abl. like hoc, and to be joined to that by atque; and in a thousand other things, which he then proceeds to mention. This is Orelli's explanation, and seems better than that which makes millibus-aliis masculine, and connects them with tu. This latter view requires a double construction with the comparative; a great objection. With either explanation millibus aliis is unusual for mille aliis. 113. Fallacem Circum.

The Circus Maximus, between the Palatine and the Aventine, in which were exhibited the great Roman Games, and capable of accommodating, at the lowest estimate, 150,000 persons. As it was a place of great extent, close by the Forum, in the heart of the city, about it would naturally gather, even when no games were going on, fortune-tellers, pickpockets, and all the classes of rogues that infest a great city. Hence the epithet Fallacem, cheating. Vespertinum; the Forum, being the great public place, was towards evening filled with groups of citizens, who met there, when business was over, to talk over the news, and the affairs of the day. -114. Divinis, fortune-tellers. -116. Lapis albus; i. e, a

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