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small table, made of a slab of white marble. 11%. Cyatho; the cyathus has been explained in n. 0. iii., 8, 13. Duo pocula ; perhaps one for wine, and the other for water.—Echinus ; this word, literally a seno urchin, is here used for some vessel made in the shape of a sea-urchin, perhaps, as most suppose, a salt-cellar. 118. Patera guttas. Both of these were employed in making libations. The guttus was a sort of
cruet, having a narrow neck, so that the wine should only trickle out into the patera.”—Keightley. On the patera, see n. 0. i., 31, 2.- - 120. Obeundus Marsya ; i. e. that he will have no business to attend to early in the forum; as there was a statue of the Satyr Marsyas in the forum. The younger Novius, according to the scholiast, was a notorious usurer, who had his stand near the statue, which, with its uplifted hand, seemed to be ordering him out of its sight. - 122. Jaceo; sc. in lec
not to sleep, but to read or write, or study; see n. Sat. i., 4, 134 The immediate mention of lecto aut scripto shows that this is the meaning. In Sat. i., 9, 35, we find the poet out at an earlier hour. - 123. Scripto, as well as lecto, is in abl. absolute with the antecedent of quod ;
which is readily supplied. 123. Ungor Olivo, in preparation for the athletic exercises of the Campus Martius, as is manifest from 1. 126. “The daily bath, and previous to it, strong exercise, were inseparable, in the minds of the Romans, from the idea of a regular and healthy mode of life."- Becker's Gallus, Exc. 1 to Sc. 5.- –.128. Campam. See preceding note. The lusus trigon, or trigonalis, was a game at ball, pila, in which three persons stood in the form of a triangle, and tossed the ball from one to the other. - - 127. Pransus. The meal called prandium was what we call lunch, or luncheon, and was taken at abort noon.
A pleasant report of a trial, perhaps attended by the poet himself, before the Court of Brutus, at the time praetorian governor of Asia Minor. The parties were Persius, an Ionian merchant, and P. Rupilius Rex, on whose cognomen (Rex) the principal jest in the Satire turns. The trial was probably held at Clazomene, in the year B. C. 42, the year of the battle of Philippi; and Horace already had attached himself to the party and the army of Brutus.
This Satire was doubtless written soon after the battle of Philippi; and it is generally believed to be the earliest of the poet's compositions.
1. Proscripti. Rupilius, a native of Praeneste, and a Roman knight, bad been proscribed by Octavianus, and therefore had fled to Brutus, to whose party he was now attached ; see line 25. - - 2. Hybrida. His father was an Asiatic Greek, and his mother a Roman woman. - 3. Lippis-tonsoribus. The medicinae and the tonstrinae, the apothecaries' and the barbers' shops were the places of resort for Roman loungers and idlers, where they talked over the city gossip. Horace means to say, that this affair had already become the town talk, -5. Clazomenis. A town in Ionia, on the gulf of Smyrna, now called Vourla. 6. Qui posset ; i. e. of such a character that he could. For the subjunctive, see Hark. Lat. Gram. 500, 501, I. 8. Sisennas, Barros. Per. sons well known for the abusive language they were wont to use. Equis albis. White horses seem to have been in repute for swiftness ; or perhaps we may explain the metaphor by the fact, that white horses were preferred in triumphal processions. 10. Hoc-jure-Quo, etc. Jus, literally, right, here means the rightful grounds on which one proceeds; and hoc eodem. Proceed upon the same grounds as. What the molesti, contentious people, have in common with the brave, the poet humorously says is this,—that they will never give up. 18. Muneribus. The poet pushes, for his purpose, the Homeric illustration rather too far, representing the amicable exchange of arms, as first proposed by the inferior party. - 18. Bruto-Asiam. We have nowhere any historical account of a regular appointment of Brutus to the province of Asia Minor. At the time of Julius Caesar's assassination, Brutus was praetor. Subsequently he received, as propraetor, the province of Crete. Still later, when he had made himself master of Macedonia and Achaia, he was confirmed in the government of those provinces by a vote of the Senate. Meantime Cassius had by force gained the province of Asia Minor; and here in the year 42 B. c. the two met together, once at Smyrna, and afterwards at Sardis, to concert their measures, and unite their forces against the triumvirs. It was probably in this way that Brutus, by virtue of his associate authority with Cassius in these eastern provinces, was holding a praetor's court in Ionia. See Arnold's Later Rom. Com., ch. x., pages 369, 390, 388, and 422. 20. Compositum; sc. par sit. Bithus and Bacchius were two gladiators, equally celebrated, and an even match for each other. -20. In jus procurrant. In jus, quasi in campum. Legal and military expressions are purposely united. So below cohorten refers to those who sat as judices with Brutus. 22. Ridetur; the verb is here impersonal. 25. Excepto Rege. See above, n. on l. 1. -25. Canem-sidus; i. e. Canicula, the dog-star.
27. Fertur quo. Where the axe is rarely carried, because the force of the stream is great, and the place too perilous for the woodman. 28. Salso—fluenti ; sc. ei, referring to Persius. 29. Expressa arbasto. Arbustum, a place planted with trees to train vines upon, hence a vineyard. Drawn from the vineyard. Regerit, throws back, retorts.
30. Vindemiator. Must be pronounced, in reading the line, as a word of four syllables. 31. Cessisset-cuculum. The dilatory vine dresser, who was surprised in pruning his vines by the voice of the
.uckoo, was saluted by the passer-by with the significant cry, “ Cuckoo! Cuckoo!” The reproach was a signal for a wordy, abusive contest, in which the vine-dresser, it seems, generally came off victor. - 34. Reges-tollere. In allusion to Marcus Brutus as one of the conspirators against Julius Caesar; and also probably to his ancestor, Junius Brutus, one of the most active in expelling the Tarquins.
Priapus, with the Greeks the god of fruitfulness, was regarded by the Romans as the god of gardens. Hence it was customary to set up in every garden a statue of the god. In this Satire, Horace, designing to ridicule the magic arts of the day, makes the Priapus of Maecenas' Esquiline gardens relate the incantations and rites practised there by Ca. nidia and her companion Sogana.
Compare Epode V. and XVII. with the Introductions.
1. Formido. The Priapus in a Roman garden seems to have answered the same purpose as the scare-crows, hung up in corn-fields with ns.—Dextra. The image had in its hand a club, or a scythe. So Virgil, Georg. iv., 110:
“ Et custos surum atque avium cum falce saligna
6. Arundo. “The reeds on the head of the image, which terrified the birds by their fluttering.”-Osborne. 7. Novis. The gardens then just laid out by Maecenas on the Esquiline, and adjoini
his lofty mansion, referred to 0. iii., 29, 9; where see note. 8. Hac priuscellis. “At no time (at Rome) were there universal burial-places for all classes. Whoever could afford it, acquired a place, outside the city, in the most frequented places, as on highways, and here erected a family sepulchre. The very lowest classes only, slaves and condemned criminals, had a common burial-place on the Esquiline, till the time of Augustus.”—Becker's Gallus, Exc. to Sc. 12. See n. Epod. 5, 100. 11. Pantolabo. The nickname of a spendthrift, because he was always borrowing. Nomentanus has been mentioned in Sat. i., 1, 102. Their wasteful habits, Horace means, will bring them to the grave of paupery and slaves. 12. Cippus. When land was given for a burial-place, # stone pillar was set up, on which were marked the dimensions of the lot thus appropriated, how many feet in width fronting the road (in fronte), and how much in depth, running back (in agrum); e. g. thus: In Agr. P., X.; In Fr. P., xx. That the ground might always be kept for the purpose, those letters also were inscribed, H.-M. H. N. S. ; i. 6.
hoc monumenium heredes non sequitur. In accordance with this custoni, the poet here mentions the cippus, and what was inscribed on it. 15. Aggere. The agger, or rampart of Tarquinius Superbus, between the Esquiline gate and the Colline. It was fifty feet broad, and therefore well adapted to promenading; and sixty feet high, whence the epithet aprico. Juvenal, Sat. viii., 43, describes it by the epithet ventosus. - 17. Tantam-quantam ;=tam-quam. 23. Nigra palla. The palla had the same place in the dress of Roman women, as the toga in the dress of the men. It was always worn out of doors. It was very full like the toga, and had many folds (sinus) in it, which here Canidia would use to put the herbs in.See Becker's Gallus,, Exc. to Sc. 6.- - 25. Utrasque. We might expect utramque, as the plural strictly is used of two parties, consisting each of several individuals; but even in prose, some instances occur, like the present, where the plural is used in speaking of only two per
See Z. V 141. 30. Lanea. Two images; the one, and the larger, made of wool, represented Canidia; the other, and smaller, made of wax, represented the victim of the sorceries. 36. Magna sepulchra, the mounds that covered the dead : some of these probably still remained, as the gardens were not yet finished.-Dillenburger. 39. The persons here named were notoriously immoral. To the second Horace gives a woman's name on account of his effeminacy. - 42. Lapi barbam. “As a counter-charm against other witches."- Osborne,
-50. Vincula. These were threads of different colors, love-knots ; Virgil's Veneris vincula, see Ecl. 8, 74, seq.
This Satire is directed against a class of persons, who were doubtless extremely annoying to Horace and his literary friends. These were empty pretenders to the name and honors of a literary man; persons who, without any real merit, fancied themselves men of taste and wit, poats and scholars; and who, bent upon getting into notice, fastened themselves upon all who cad any influence, and, with the importunity of vulgar natures, besought an introduction to the society of the great. Puffed up with a sense of their own importance, and inflamed with the success of a Virgil and a Horace, whoin they regarded only as favorites of fortune, they imagined that they themselves needed only a little friendly aid, a mere lucky start, to secure them for ever an established place in the circle of Maecenas and his friends.
In writing this fine piece of satire, which professes to be a description of a casual adventure with one of these importunate pretenders, it was doubtless the aim and hope of Ilora.cc to rid himself once for all of the whole odious tribe.
1. Ibam forte. I happened to be going.- Via Sacra. This street has been described in note on Epod 4, 7. It is ordinarily written Sacra
Via.—Sicut-mos. Join these words with the clause Nescio--nugarum. 3. Accurrit. Runs up; much better than occurrit, as it expresses the rade eagerness of the fellow; as does, in like manner, in next line, the word arrepta.
-4. Dulcissime rerum. A familiar expression; my Dearest fellow. Quid agis is our How do you do, like the Greek ri mpátteis; and the German Was machst du? -6. Num quid vis ? A polite form of expression, in taking leave of a person; any thing you wish? Observe here the force of the verb occupare, which means to get the start of one, to do a thing before some one else; I anticipate him with the question. -7. Noris, depends upon the preceding vis; velim (ut) noris nos. — 8. Misere. Colloquial for vehementer ; as we cometimes say wretchedly. 10. Ad imos talos. To my very heels. - 11. Cerebri Felicem. Happy in your angry temper. Bolanus was probably some hot-headed fellow, cerebrosus, who would, by some very summary method, have rid himself of the intruder. 14. Misere capis. In this, and the next line, Horace makes the man affect the facetiousness of a familiar friend, and, like all vulgar people, carry the thing too far. '
18. Cubat. Lies ill.— Caesaris hortos. Bequeathed by Julius Caesar to the Roman people. They were on the Janiculum; at least an hour's walk from the Sacra Via. - 20. Iniquae-asellus. A stubborn little ass. 21. Dorso, dative, depending upon gravius; onus, acc.
22. Viscum. In Sat. i., 10, 33, Horace speaks of two persons of this name. Nothing is known of them ; but from the connection, it may be inferred that they were poets. On Varium, see n. 0. i., 6, 1. - 25. Hermogenes. See n. Sat. i., 3, 129. – 2%. Quis te salvo est opus. A satirically formal expression, implying that of course in the welfare of a person of so much merit many must cherish an. anxious interest.Quis in the dat. and te in the abl., depend upon opus. - 28. Composui, Literally, have laid by ; i. e. buried. Whai is included in the following lines as far as the 35th, we must imagine the poet uttering to himself; humorously inferring from the word composui, that, as this fellow had been the death of all his kindred, so too he would now be the death of him. 30. Divina mota. Both in avl., and agreeing with urna. The a in mota is elided, although long in quantity. Diller b. gives other instances, as follows: Sat. i., 1, 101 ; ii., 3, 16; Epist. i., 2, 29; i., 7, 24; i., 14, 37; Virg. Aen. 2, 182. 35. Ad Vestae; sc. aedem. On its situation, see n. 0. i., 2, 15. 35. Quarta parte diei; i. e. one-fourth of the day, or three hours, or 9 o'clock. The court probably opened at nine, and it was now past nine.
- 36. Vadato; i. e. ei, qui eum vadatus erat. - Dillenb. As dare tades was used of the defendant in a suit (see n. Sat. i., 1, 11), so vadari, to require one to give bail, was used of the plaintiff. - 37. Perdere litem. If the defendant came to court at the appointed time, he was said to respondere, to answer,-i. e. to appear ; if he failed to come