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he was said deserere vadimonium, not to appear, and lost the case, of forfeited the sum named in the bail. 38. Me. The long vowel before amas is not elided, but shortened. See Z. § 9. Ades. Adesse, and, in next line, stare, or adstare, are legal expressions, equivalent to esse advocatus. An advocatus was an assistant in the conduct of a cause; not to be confounded with our word advocate, which, in Latin, is patronus. See Dict. Antiqq., under Advocatus.· -43. Maecenas, etc. These words, as far as omnes in 1. 48, as Dillenburger explains, must be ascribed to the troublesome companion of the poet, and the whole is in admirable keeping with the vanity of the man's character.

44. Paucorum hominum; sc. est, belongs to few persons; i. e. keeps company with few persons; is very select in his company. - 45. Dexterius; i. e. of course than Maecenas, of whom he is talking. If the comparison applied to Horace, as some think, the pronoun would certainly be expressed. · -46. Secundas; sc. partes. The expression is borrowed from the stage. -48. Summosses. On the meaning of the word, see n. O. ii., 16, 10. The pluperfect expresses the certainty of the act, as if already done. His potent aid once secured, the fancied rivals are all cleared out of the way. -54. Quae taa virtus; = ea virtute, qua, etc.; such is your merit. See Harkness, Lat. Gram., 453, 4. The irony is very caustic, but quite too fine for the man's coarse spirit. He takes the poet at just his words, both here, and in the pleasant description that follows, of Maecenas, as a man who can be won over.— -55. Possit. For the subjunctive, see Hark. Lat. Gram. 500, 501, I. The same rule applies to nosset below, 1. 62. 64. Lentissima. Here means insensible; they hung down quiet and straight, as if they had no feeling. Disposed to have a little sport, Aristius does not take these hints, and affects not to understand.-The adjective has a similar meaning in Ovid, Her. 15, 169, lentissima pectora; Tac. Ann. 1, 65, lentae aures; and Tibull. 4, 11, 6, lento-pectore. In Epod. 15, 6, the meaning is different. 65. Male salsus. With a mischievous humor. 69. Tricesima sabbata. As no Jewish festival was ever distinguished by the name of the thirtieth sabbath, we may well believe, with Bretschneider, after all the ingenious explanations of commentators, that Horace did not have any particular feast in mind, but only made his friend use, in sport, an expression pointing indefinitely to some Jewish holiday; as if, of course, on such a solemn day, a right-minded man would not stop in the street to talk over a matter of business! The expression has been thonght to refer to the passover, which took place about the thirtieth week after the beginning of the civil year; to the feast of tabernacles, which was in the thirtieth week of the Jewish ecclesiastical year; and also to a supposed festival on the thirtieth day of the lunar month. But probably neither Horace nor his friend was so familiar with Jewish ceremonies as to use an expression for a feast, which can be understood

only after much reflection and nice calculation. The Jews, and their rites, as is manifest from this whole passage, and from others in Horace, were objects of derision with the Romans. Comp. n. Sat. i., 5, 100. 73. Surrexe, cont. for surrexisse; for the construction, see n. Sat. ii., 8, 67. -75. Adversarius, the same as the vadatus above, 1. 36. In case the defendant did not appear, see above, n. 1. 37, and, when found, still persisted in not keeping to his obligation, the plaintiff was allowed the same right as at the commencement of an action, namely, the right to carry him to court by force. In such case, "the plaintiff called on any by-stander to witness (antestari) that he (the defendant) had been duly summoned, touched the car of the witness, and dragged the defendant into court." See Dict. Antiqq., under Actio. 76. Et; sc. mihi. Will you be a witness? See preceding note. -77. Auriculam. Pliny says, 11, 103, Est in aurė ima memoriae locus, quem tangentes antestamur. 78. Servavit Apollo. Apollo, as the guardian deity of poets. A very happy turn, with which to conclude the satire.


In this Satire IIorace defends and establishes the criticism passed by him upon Lu cilius in the Fourth of this Book; a criticism which appears to have given offence to the admirers of that poet.

He renews against Lucilius the charge of clumsy versification; and, while he concedes again his wit, proceeds to show that not wit alone, but wit in unison with other qualities, forms the merit of true satire (1-19). He then censures another fault of Lucilius, the large introduction of Greek words, the allusion to which leads to a mention of his own earlier efforts at writing Greek verse, and his subsequent resolution to write only in Latin, and to write satire (20-49). He removes the objection, that he had disparaged Lucilius and exalted himself, by declaring that even Homer may be criticised, and that Lucilius criticised other poets; and, after declaring that Lucilius would have written with more care, if he had lived at a later age, he goes on to insist that nothing but fre quent correcting and the utmost pains in composing can entitle one's poetry to a second reading, or to the favorable judgment of the "fit audience, though few," of true critics (50-74). Finally, he deprecates for himself the applause of the vulgar, and expresses the hope that his poetry may win favor with his brother poets and with literary men (74-end).

The eight line preceding the Satire are generally considered spurious. They are therefore printed in italics, and numbered apart from the Satire.

1. Incomposito dixi. It was said in Sat. 1, 4, 8. 3. Saledefricnit. The metaphor is taken from the smart occasioned by rubbing a wound with salt. -4. Charta-cadem. See n. above on 1. 1.6. D. Laberius, a Roman knight, who wrote Mimes, a species of farce

and acted in them himself at the games of Julius Cæsar. Tristi-jocoso :

"From grave to gay, from lively to severe."

12, 13. Rhetoris atque poetae-urbani.


The first two illustrate the sermone tristi, the third sermone jocoso. The satirist must combine the dignity of the rhetorician and poet with the gayety of the man of polished wit. to illi viri, quibus, etc. 17. Hoc ; i. e. the use of ridicule. Stare is a common expression for the success of a play, opposed to cadere, failure. - 18. Hermogenes. See n. Sat.

16. Illi-viris;


1, 3, 129. The person referred to in simius iste is thought to be the same as Demetrius, mentioned 1. 90.- 19. Calvus was an orator, but also wrote sportive verse. Catullus, the celebrated lyric poet; his poems have much the same place in Roman, as Thomas Moore's, in English, Literature. 20. See Introd. for the course of thought.21. Seri studiorum. Literally, late in your studies, ye who study too late in life. Such persons are wont to be superficial in their tastes and knowledge; pedantic ignoramuses.-The Greeks called such quadĉis.

21. Quine putatis. Two constructions united, putatisne, and qui putetis; that you can think!· See Z. 352, at the end. - 22. Pitholeonti. Probably Pitholaus, an indifferent poet, who wrote some satirical verses about Julius Cæsar. -23. At, etc. So some one says, in defence of the introduction of Greek words. 24. Nota. See n. O. ii., 3, 8. The Chian was the best of the Greek wines. 25. Cam versum, etc. The sentence is manifestly elliptical. Supply e. g. ut hoc concedam. Granting you this when you make verses, I ask you yourself whether it is also to be conceded when, &c. He allows, for argument's sake, the practice of introducing Greek words in poetry, but asks if it can ever be tolerated in arguing a case in court. - 26. Petilli. See n. Sat. i., 4, 94. 29. M. Valerius Poplicola Messala Corvinus ; -see Introd. O. iii., 21. Messala and his brother Pedius, the adopted son of Q. Pedius, nephew of Julius Cæsar, were good speakers, and distinguished for the purity of their diction. 30. Foris; qualifies petita.

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spoke a Latin that was silvam feras; proverbial; 36. Alpinus. M. Furius

- 30. Canusini. The people of Canusium largely intermixed with Greek. 34. In like the English, carry coals to Newcastle. Bibaculus, of Cremona, who wrote a work on the legends of Ethiopia, descriptive, among other things, of the death of Memnon; also a poem on the exploits of Julius Cæsar, the first line of which Horace parodies in Sat. ii., 5, 41: the line was-Jupiter hibernas cana nive conspuit Alpes; whence the nick-name of Alpinus.. 37. Defingit, etc. Literally, forms the muddy source of the Rhine; i. e. manufactures (in bad verse) a muddy source of the Rhine. 38. Aede; i. e. Musarum. See Epist. ii. 2, 94 -Tarpa. Spurius Maccius Tarpa, a celebrated critic

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mentioned also Ars. P. 387. 40. Davoque Chremeta. Characters in the Andria of Terence; Davus, a cunning slave, and Chremes an old man, whom he deceives.. -42. Pollio. Sce Introd. to O. ii., 1-43. Pedester; tragedy was written in iambic trimeters. 44. Varius. See n. O. i., 6, 1.. 44. Facetum; means here the elegant, elegance.· 43. Hoc erat; it was this (style); i. e. satire. - 46. Ataeino. P. Terentius Varro, called Atacinus, from the river Atax, Aude, in Gallia Narbonensis, in which part of Gaul he was born. 48. Inventore ; i. e. Lucilius. 50. See Introd. Ut dixi; in Sat. i., 4, 11. - 53. Atti. L. Attius, born B. C 170, a writer of tragedies. 54. Enni. See n. O. iv., 8, 23. – 55. Non-reprensis. Not as of one who is superior to those who are censured by him; or whom he censures. 57. Illius; (i. e. Lucilii) sc. natura. The inquiry is, whether the harshness of the versification be owing to the character of Lucilius himself, or the difficult nature of the subjects of his satire. 59. Ac; = quam; see n. Epod. xv., 5. To understand what follows, it is only needful to remark that the poet, instead of simply saying mollius quam suos or quam Lucilianos (sc. versus) goes on to describe what kind of verses they were that he wrote. -Pedibus-senis; explanatory of hoc tantum; content only with this, to inclose any thing in six feet; i. e. to make out the six feet of a hexameter verse. As we might say, in describing an inferior poet, that he cared only to make out his rhymes. 62. Cassi. Some obscure poet; a different one from the Cassius mentioned Epist. i., 4, 3.- -63. Fama est, etc. Probably some wag's remark, elicited by Cassius' having been such a voluminous poet, that his writings made his funeral pile, there were such piles of them. 64. Fuerit; here the subjunctive has a concessive force. See n. Sat. i., 1, 45; he may have been, i. e. grant that he was.— -66. Intacti ; tentati; unattempted. 67. Poetarum seniorum; e. g. Ennius, Livius Andronicus, and others. 69. Deteret — recideret, etc. Comp. with this whole passage, Ars P. 291–294; and 445 seqq. -71. Vivos; i. e. usque ad carnem; to the quick. 72. Stilum vertas. The stilus was used in writing on waxen tablets. One end was sharpened to write with, and the other was made flat, to smooth again by it the waxen surface, by obliterating what had been written. The rule, then, often turn the stilus is metaphorical for often correct. 75. Dietari. The master dictated the passages, and the boys learned them by heart. As all books were copied by hand, and therefore dear, they were of course Bcarce. 77. Arbuscula; an actress. 78. Pantilius. Some obscure poet, who got the name cimex from his slanderous character. 79. Demetrius. A writer and actor of farces.· 80. Tigelli. See n. Sat. i., 3, 129:-On Fannius, see n. Sat. i., 4, 22. 81. Plotius, etc. All these are thus mentioned in Sat. i., 5, 40, where see note. To Valgius


Horace addressed Ode 9th of B. II. -83. Fascus. The same friend t whom Horace addressed the 22d Ode of B. I. On Viscorum see n. Sat i., 9, 22. - 85. Pollio-Messala. See Introd. to O. ii., 1; above 1. 29. 86. Bibuli. The two sons of M. Calpurnius Bibalus, one of whom studied with Horace at Athens. Servius was the son of Serv. Sulpicius Rufus, and was tribune in в. c. 48. Furnius, according to an old commentator, was a writer of history. was an easy chair, used by women. read or recite. He will bid them whine their love-songs to women.

-91. Cathedras. The cathedra Plorare is used in contempt, for



in publishing this Second Book, Horace bestows a prefatory satire upor. àis critics and detractors, who, it appears, had not been silenced by the earlier satires directed against them.

The poet pretends to come for advice to C. Trebatius Testa, an eminent counsellor at law. Bent as he is upon writing satires, and yet pressed hard by these detractors, what is to be done in the premises (1-5)? Trebatius first advises him to keep quiet, which the poet declares to be quite impossible; then, if he must write, to praise Caesar; here the poet pleads, first, that he lacks the ability, and second, that he waits for that task, a fitting occasion (5-20). Warned by Trebatius, that satire will get him enemies, the poet stil persists that he must follow in the track of Lucilius, and, though a lover of peace, tha he will employ against all such enemies the weapons nature has given him, and for the uses intended by nature (21-60). Still warned by his counsel, that he may incur the illwill of the great, the poet cites the example of Lucilius, who did not lose by his satire the favor of Laelius and Scipio (60-79). At last Trebatius is content to advise that his poet-clien' write nothing that is libellous; this advice Horace accepts with a pleasant jest, and with a confident mention of his favor with Augustus, which shows how little he cared for the whole tribe of his detractors (79-end).

With this ingenious defence, Horace gives this Second Book of Satires to the Roman public. The whole tone of the Satire is that of one who is conscious of merit and of success, of one who has already gained an established reputation as a poet. Supported by the advice of a Trebatius, confident of the courtly favor of Caesar, he is only entertained and amused by the charges of envious poets and malicious critics.

This Satire has been imitated by Pope, in his Satire addressed to Mr. Fortescue.

comp. Ars. or from a

2. Legem; i. e. the law that regulates satire; operis lex, P. 135. -Tendere; the image borrowed from a bow stringed instrument, as in O. i., 1, 34, tendere barbiton. 4. Deduci. Exactly as we say of bad poetry, spun out. ii., 1, 225, and Juvenal, Sat. vii., 54. ·

Comp. Sat. i., 19, 44; Epist. -Trebati. C. Trebatius Testa

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