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the primus heres, heir in reversion.· 50. Vacuum; sc. locum.. Prima-cera; cera tabula or tabula cerea, waxen tablet. Such a tablet was a thin piece of wood, covered over with wax. Two such tablets, fastened together, each having a raised margin around it, looked very much like one of our double slates. Secundo-versu; the first line would contain the name of the testator, and the second the names of the heirs or legatees. See Dict. Antiqq. under Tabula. - 55. Plerumque, etc. He goes on to give a reason for the preceding advice. The reason is, in substance, this: that people often get egregiously deceived, as e. g. Nasica by the rich old miser Coranus.-Recoctus, literally boiled again or made anew, i. e. changed into; one who, out of a quinquevir or commissioner has been made a scribe. The quinqueviri wcre municipal officers, "who were responsible for the safety of the city, after sun-set."-Dict. Antiqq. -62. Tempore, etc. Tiresias proceeds to give in full the story of Nasica and Coranus, and gives it in set, solemn phrase, after the manner of a prophetic utterance.-—Juvenis ; Octavianus, as in O. i., 2, 41.- 65. Metuentis; literally, who feared, but means here, who would not. Comp. n. O. ii., 2, 7. Reddere soldum, to restore the whole sum, i. e. the sum that he owed; to pay his debt. Nasica, deeply involved in debt, probably to Coranus, hopes to retrieve his affairs by inheriting the wealth of Coranus, and therefore gives him his daughter in marriage; but, in the event, as the story shows, finds himself sadly disappointed. 73. Vincit longe; = longe



praestat (Orellius), it is far better; prius qualifies expugnare. Ex testamento, in accordance (with a provision in) the will. Scilicet; doubtless (to see) if &c.· 90. Ultro; of your own accord; i. e. without some good cause, e. g. if you knew he wished you to be silent.





91. Comicus; in comedy; "in the play," Keightley. In the plays of Terence, Davus is a common character. - 101. Audieris; when the will is opened and read. 103. Sparge subinde. Drop now and then. The object of sparge is found in the two preceding questions. Est; EσTI, it is allowed, one may. -10%. Male tussiet. badly; i. e. is manifestly in the last stages of a decline. Gaudentem nummo te addicere. Nummo = sestertio ; it means here a mere trifle, e. g. a farthing, a cent. Such a sale would be a merely nominal one. That you will gladly make it over to him for a nominal consideration.-The point of the advice is to secure thus the sick man's good-will, and eventually his share of the estate. -Sed me, etc. This happy conclusion Osborne compares with the vanishing of the Ghost in Hamlet, Act i. Sc. 5:

"But soft! methinks I smell the morning air."


I quote from Keightley's Edition of the Satires and Epistles, the following remarks on his Satire.

"In this, perhaps the most pleasing of all Horace's Satires, we have more clearly han elsewhere a picture of the poet's heart and mind. We see his grateful and contented spirit, his genuine love of Nature and rural life, in which no ancient poet seems to nave equalled him, his aversion to the noise and bustle of a town life, and to the excitement of the luxurious dinner-parties of the capital. His object seems to have been to let the world and Maecenas himself see his gratitude to that friend, who had gratified the first and chief of his wishes. By way of contrast, he enumerates some of his annoyances when in town, and he concludes with an Aesopic fable, illustrative of the advantages of the still quiet country life, over the fears and anxieties of one spent in cities. It was evident. ły written at his Sabinum, of which he appears to have been now some time in possession, and probably in the year (of Rome) 723 724, when Maecenas, during the absence of Caesar, after the battle of Actium, had the charge of the city." This Satire has been imitated by Dean Swift.

but seldom in prose.Jugis is an adjective, 3. Super his; super

1. Votis; here = optatis; as often in poetry; ita; see n. Sat. ii., 2, 46. - 2. Jugis Aquae. agreeing with aquae; so also in Epist. i., 15, 16.= praeter, besides. The prose construction would be super hacc. See H. 435, 2.- -5. Maia nate. Mercury is here addressed as the god of gain. See n. Sat. ii., 3, 25. 12. Illum ipsum; i. e. quem mercenarius arare solitus erat.-Amico Hercule. "Ut Mercurius apertis lucris et negotiationi praerat, sic Hercules opertis lucris sive thesauris." Schol. -15. Custos. Sec n. O. ii., 7, 13. 16. Arcem. Metaphorically used of his Sabine villa. Comp. O. i. 17, and notes there on 1 and 11. -17. Prius; rather; i. e. than the happiness he enjoys in the country. Satiris Masaque; abl. of instr.; pedestri, on account of the easy, familiar style of his satires, humble; Comp. notes, O. ii., 12, 9; Sat. i., 4, 38. -19. Gravis; sce n. O. iii., 23, 8.-Libitinae; see n. O. iii., 30, 7. 20. Jane. The vocative, forms, as it were, the object of audis. So also in the next Satire 1. 101; and Epist. i., 7, 37. The Greek aкova is used in the same way. See Arn. Pr. Intr. 278.-The god Janus was associated with the beginning of any thing, e. g. one's life, a day, year, &c.-21. Unde. See n. O. ii., 12, 7.—The poet goes on to enumerate the business engagements which occupy the day in a city life. 30. Palses. The subj. has a potential force. You would strike. compares the Gr. optative with ar -32. Atras. Comp. n. Epod. v., 100.- -35. Puteal. This word (fr. puteus), means 1, an inclosure, built in the form of a well; 2, an inclosure, in the shape of a well, built around a sacred place. The Puteal here referred to was the Puteal Libonis, or Scribonianum, built by Scribonius Libo in a place in the Forum, where a chapel had been struck by lightning. It is referred


to here, because the place had come to be an exchange, where business men gathered together.-See. Dict. Antiqq. 36. Scribae. Horace himself had at one period held the office of a scriba. Hence he naturally cites this illustration of the annoyances of a city life. 38. Imprimat, etc. See last sentence of the Introd. 40. Septimus, etc. This must of course mean nearly seven years; literally, the seventh, nearer the eighth; i. e. towards the end of the seventh, and the beginning of the eighth, year. It is difficult to see, how Orelli and others can make the words mean—“nearly eight years.”—The subj. fugerit gives the assertion an easy, familiar air: may have passed away. · 44. Threx-par. Gallina, the name of a gladiator; called Threx, because he used the Thracian weapons, viz. a small round buckler, and a short dagger, sica. With a Threx was usually matched a mirmillo—such was probably Syrus,—so called from the image of a fish, μopμúpos, worn on the helmet. The mirmillo had Gallic weapons. -47. Subjectior; sc.





But Cicero (de Div.

Uneta satis. These

Noctes because the

48. Spectaverat; sc. si; so with luserat in next line. -52. "Used facetiously of the great men of the state." Dillenb.55. Triquetra, i. e. Sicily.— 63. Pythagorae cognata. Perhaps, as the Scholiast suggests, a playful allusion to the fact, that Pythagoras prohibited his followers from the use of beans, on the ground of his doctrine of the transmigration of souls; that the soul of one of the philosopher's own relatives might pass into a bean! I. 30) explains the prohibition differently. two words belong together. – 65. O noctes, coenae were protracted till deep in the night. The poet has in mind the happy and ordinary gatherings of himself and his neighbors; such as Cato describes in Cicero's De Senectute, c. 14.- 67. Libatis; temperanter degustatis, of which we had moderately tasted. In this explanation I follow Orelli, who, in rejecting the idea of libation, attached by some to the expression, says that libare in that sense is used only of wine. The words in Liv. xxxix., 43, libare diis dapes, are not conclusive, as both pocula and epulae are mentioned in the sentence. 69. Legibus insanis; i. e. those imposed by the magister convivii at a banquet in the city. - 79. Olim. "Once upon a time. Cervius begins in true storytelling fashion." Osborne. 83. Hospitiis. Dativus Commodi. See Z. § 405. For acts of hospitality. So Orelli and Dillenburger, and I think, correctly. Other Editors make hospitiis the abl. Orelli compares Juvenal iv. 67, propera stomachum laxare saginis. 84. Invidit avenae. Avenae, genitive. Usually it is invidere alicui aliquam rem, as Sat. i., 6, 50; but sometimes, as here, in imitation of the Greck, alicujus rei. See Krüger ◊ 358, A. 1; Z. § 413.- 87. Male. Scarcely. Comp. n. O. i., 9, 24. The fastidious cit disdains the plain country fare. - 93. Mihi crede. The pronoun is emphatic; trust me. See Z. § 801, at the end. -Terrestria, etc. The poet makes the mouse talk epicurea


105. Procul.

103. Vestis; here means the coverings of the couches. At some distance. Of this meaning of procul, sce several examples in Freund's Dict. 107. Succinctus. Comp. Sat. i., 5, 6; and ib. 71.- - 109. Praelambens. He acted the part of a praegustator, who first tasted the dishes to see whether they were rightly dressed


The last Satire was a description by the poet himself of his daily life, his cherished tastes and habits; the present one is such a view of the same subject as the poet's enemies and detractors were fond of giving. The charges of his enemies he playfully puts into the mouth of one of his slaves, who, availing himself of the liberty of the Saturnalia, reads his master a lecture on his faults. The slave is a shrewd fellow, who has picked up some scraps of wisdom by his intercourse with the porter of the philosopher Crispinus; he accordingly takes for his text the Stoic paradox sapientem solum esse liberum, which he argues and illustrates very adroitly, convicting his master of inconsistency and folly, and making him out as much a slave as himself.



1. Ausculto, etc. The poet is busy, and not aware of the presence of Davus; Davus, on the other hand, not venturing to make use of the liberty of the Saturnalia, waits a while, but at last breaks in upon his master with these words. · -2. Ita. In conversation, ita is a reply, yes; the whole expression being ita est, it is so.-Hand, Turs. iii., p. 493. 3. Frugi, quod-satis. Quod is here restrictive (see A. 83, § 264, 3; Z. 559); literally, good, so far as is enough, i. e. good enough. Ut vitale pates. These words still further explain frugi. (So good) that you may think, &c. The slave makes no pretence to such rare excellence that his master need apprehend that he will die prematurely. The idea here involved is the same as we so often hear in the saying, he is too good to live long. Ovid expresses it in Am. ii., 6, 39: Optima prima fere manibus rapiuntur avaris. 4. Decembri. The month in which occured the festival of Saturnalia, on which see n. Sat. ii., 3, 5.

10. Clavum, etc. Sometimes wearing the clavus augustus, the equestrian badge, and sometimes the clavus latus. See n. Sat. i., 5, 36.

- 14. Vertumnis--iniquis. Vertumnus (from vertere) was an Etruscan deity, who was associated with the changing seasons, and thence with all changes whatsoever. This man is said to be born under his unpropitious influence, as he is so inconstant. 15. Volanerins. Some


- 34.

person, who, in contrast with the preceding character, is described as constant in his vices. 23. Idem. See n. O. ii., 10, 16. Lumina prima; i. e. prima fax, or, as we say, early candle-light. Oleum; i. e. for his lamp, which is to light him on his way to Maecenas' house. 36. Mulvius et, ctc.; i. e. parasites, who come to the house

after the poet has gone, and are disappointed because he dines out. 37. Ille; refers to Mulvius. 38. Nasum. See n. O. i., 1, 21. 43. Quingentis--drachmis. The drachma was a little more than 9d. sterling; and this whole sum would be, in our currency, something less than $100, and was the price of a common slave. -45. Crispini. See n. Sat. i., 1, 120. 53. Anulo. The privilege of wearing a ring belonged to senators and equites. -54. Dama; in nom. case, a Dama, i. e. a slave. Ex judice; the judices were chosen from the equestrian order. - - 55. Lacerna. A mantle, which was worn usually over the toga, and had a hood for the head, called culullus. See Dict. Antiqq. -76. Vindicta. A metaphorical use of the method of liberating Roman slaves, which was called manumissio per vindictam. A rod was laid upon the slave's head, certain forms were gone through with, and the slave then sent forth free. See Dict. Antiqq. under Manumissio. · 79. Vicarius. A slave might have another slave under him; the latter was called vicarius. See Dict. Antiqq. under Servus. atque rotundus. Smooth and round; as e. g. a globe, esteemed by the ancients the most perfect of all forms.


86. Teres which was

-87. Morari;


haerere. Cling to him on account of the smoothness of the surface. 94. Subjectat. The metaphor from a rider plying, with his spurs, his jaded horse. -95. Pansiaca. Pausias was a painter of Sicyon, who flourished about 370 B. C. 96. Fulvi, etc. The names of three gladiators of the day. 96. Contento poplite. Join these words with proelia; the contests in which they engage with strained knee; in allusion to the muscular effort, and the attitude, of the gladiator. Audis. See n. preceding Satire, 1. 20.- -110. Strigili. On the construction, see n. O. i., 17, 2. -113. Erro. Here a noun; a vagrant; Fugitivus is a runaway. 115. Comes, etc. Comp. O. ii., 16, 22: iii., 1, 37. — 116. Unde, etc. The words of Horace, who pleasantly represents himself as acknowledging, by his anger, the justness of the slave's charges.


This Satire opens to us a glimpse of social life in Rome in the poet's time, and brings to view a class of men that figured in it. We are introduced to the dining-room of a rich parvenu; a man who, by wealth alone, had risen from low life to some social im. portance, and had brought to his new position his vulgar character and manners. This person, by name Nasidienus, entertains at his table Maecenas with some of his friends; and Horace gives us, in the form of a conversation with one who was present, an ac count of the occasion. The feast is sumptuous and sufficiently well served; but is marred throughout by the bad taste and manners of the host; who bears himself with an ill grace among his courtly guests, amusing them with his credulity and his inexpe

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