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his abilities, before he write ; if he ever write, to submit his writings to farthful critics, and to beware of hasty publication (to 390); then, to awaken in him a just sense of the sacred dignity of poetry (see lines 406, 407), he passes to an enumeration of the ancient and noble offices of the art (to 407). - 385. Invita—Minerva. Cicero, in de Off. i., 31, explains this expression; invita ut aiunt, Minerva, id est, adversante et repugnante natura. 386. Est. The true reading. Esto is a mere conjecture. - 387. Meti. See n. Sat. i., 10, 38.- 388. Nonum-in annum; indefinite;= “in aliquod tempus,” which is the expression of Quinctilian in a parallel passage, 10, 4, 2: "Nec iubium est, optimum esse emendandi genus, si scripta in aliquod tempus reponuntur, ut ad ea, post intervallum, velut nova atque aliena redeamus.". 389. Intas; i. e. in the scrinium. On membranis, see n. Sat. ii., 3, 2. - 390. Neseft, etc. See Epist. i., 18, 71. - - 391. Horace draws his firsu illustrations from the bards of the mythic period, Orpheus, Amphion, whose poetry he describes (to l. 401) as the parent of civilization, the source of religion, laws, and the useful arts. - Silvestres homines ; i. e. living in the woods; "the barbarous natives of the wood.” Colman. Comp. n. 0. i., 10, 2. Sacer. Virg. Aen. vi., 615, uses of Orpheus the expression Threicius Sacerdos. Deorum ; i. e. of their will. 394, Dietas ob hoc. Comp. 0. i., 12, 9–12. Thus Horace beautifully explains the stories of the magical sway of Orpheus over nature and the beasts of the field; it is the wondrous influence of music and poetry in promoting human civilization. 394. Amphion. See n. O. iii., 11, 1.
396. Sapientia quondam ; i. e. the office of the ancient sages or poets. Haec points to what follows, publica, etc. 401. Post hos; etc. He now mentions briefly the different kinds of poetry, and the ends they aimed at. - 402. Tyrtaeus. The poet-warrior, who inspired, by his songs, the courage of the Lacedemonians in the 2d Messenian war. The commentators quote the words of Justin, 3, 5, concerning him: Carmina exercitui pro concione recitavit; in quibus hortamenta virtutis, damnorum solatia, belli consilia conscripserat. - 403. Sortes. The lots or responses of oracles, which were in verse. See Dict. Antiqq. under the word. 404. Vitae—via; in allusion to instructive or didactic poetry, e.g. the writings of Hesiod, Theognis, and others, see Manual Class. Lit., p. 168. Gratia regam. This expression is illustrated by the lyric songs of Pindar, in praise of the exploits and victories of kings. - 405. Ludusque repertus ; dramatic poetry, which originated in the festivals (Dionysia) of the people, held at the time of vintage. See n. above on 193–201; and Dict. Antiqq. Dionysia.
408—415. The poet must unite with genius the laborious culture oj urt. 409. Nee stadiam. On this question Cicero expresses the same opinion, pro Archia, 7: Atque idem ego contendo, cum ad naturam eximiam atque illustrem accesserit ralio quaedam conformatioque doct. inae,
tum illud nescio quid pracclarum ac singulare solere existere. 412. Qui studet. The necessity of art is illustrated in the case of the competitor in the foot-race (at the Olympian Games), and of the fluteplayer at the Pythian Games. - Metam. See n. 0. i., 1, 4; and the illustration on p. 309. 414. Pythia; acc., sc. certamina. Comp. n. Epist. i., 1, 50. The Pythian Games were celebrated at Delphi; see Dict. Antiqq. The poet refers to the musical contests at the Games. 416—452He who would be a true poet, must not be self-complacent (to 1. 418); nor give need to selfish flatterers, to whom he will be especially e.c. posed, if he happen to be rich (to 1. 437); but submit to the guidance of the nonest and faithful critic (to l. 452). 417. Occnpet-scabies; plague take the hindmost ; an expression, borrowed (according to the Scholiast) from the sports of boys, as it was the usual cry of the boy who outstripped his fellows in running. -421. Dives agris, etc. Tnis line is repeated from Sat. i., 2, 13.- - 422. Unctum; sc. cibum or convivium ;
savory," (Osborne) sumptuous banquet. 423. Levi; light, who has no credit. 430. Saliet; i. e. for joy. Tandet pede ; = saltabit; comp. O. iii., 18, 15. So Orelli, who thus explains the connection of saliet with tundet: “exsiliet, quin etiam saltabit.”. 431. Condacti ; used for all who were hired to mourn at a funeral; more general than pracficae, on which see n. 0. ii., 20, 21. - 433. Derisor; as the opposite of vero laudatore, = falsus, laudator, flatterer. · 435. Torquere mero; to put to the wine-torture ; i. e. to make wine (as a quasi tormentum), a test, or means of extorting, character. See n. 0. iii., 21, 13.435. Perspexisse. See n. 0. i., 1, 4. : 43%. Vulpe; i. e. pelle vulpina.
438. Quinctilio. He now draws, in contrast to the flatterer, a picture of an honest and faithful critic, selecting for the purpose the example of Quinctilius Varus (the literary and personal friend, whose death he had mourned in 0. i.; 24). 439. Aiebat; the indic. although si-recitarcs precedes; instead of si-recitabas,-aiebat (or dicebat) or sirecitares, diceret. See Z. 5 519, b. Negares; sc. si. 441. Tornatos incudi. An instance of a mixed metaphor; drawn from the turner's lathe, and the smith's anvil. The text-books of rhetoric furnish similar instances from the poets, ancient and modern. - 444. Quin amares ; subjunctive, because it is oratio obliqua ; Quinctilius would have said, in oratio recta, quin amas. - So Orelli; and the explanation is better than that which makes the subj. dependent upon the idea of hindering supposed to be involved in nullum ---insumebat. 447. Signum; the obelus (+), or the Greek Theta, put to a line by the ancient critice, t show that it was bad or spurious. Comp. Pers. iv., 13; “Et potis. es nigrum vitio praefigere theta.". 450. Aristarchus; an Aristarchus ; in allusion to the famous Alexandrian critic of that name. So Cic. ad Att. i., 11: “mearum orationem tu Aristarchus es.” 453–476. In conclusion, to illustrate the last point he had proposed to himself as a
critic, viz., quo ferat error (1. 308), Horace draws the picture of a bad poet; who, despising all study and counsel, and infatuated by self-love, is an object of universul contempt and aversion. Dillenburger well says:
Respondet exitus initio, imago insani poetoe imagini monstruosae figurae.” - 453. Morbus regius, also called arquatus, means the jaundice; so called, according to Pliny and Celsus, from its requiring costly remedies and constant amusement. Yet our expression, king's. evil, is used of scrofula. - 455. Tetigisse ; see n. O. i., 1, 4.- - 457. Sublimis; “with head erect." Colman. 460. Non sit; non is here used for ne; and the subj. has an imperative force. - 465. Empedocles; the philosopher of Agrigentum (see n. Epist. i., 12, 18), who flourished about 450 B. C. Horace humorously quotes one of the fables, told about his death; the time and manner of which were unknown.
-46%. Occidenti ; dat. depending upon idem ; see Hark. Lat. Gram.,
3.- -470. Nec satis apparet, etc. Horace adds a satirical ground for not trying to save such a poet: perhaps this madness of versemaking is a visitation from heaven for some act of impiety. - - Factitet; keeps making -471. Bidental; a name given to a place which had been struck by lightning, and on which, therefore, a two-year-old sheep (bidens) was offered up as an expiatory sacrifice. It was customary to build an altar on the spot, and surround it with a fence, and to venture into it was deemed sacrilege. - 472. Certe; in connection with utrum-an, etc., but certainly (at any rate) he is raging mad; whatever the cause, the fact is certain.
[C. stands for Odes, Sat. for Satires, Ep. for Epodes, and E. for Eristles.]
Acheron. Perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor, C. 1, 3, 36. Quirinus Martis equis Acheronta fugit, C. 3, 3, 16.
Acherontia. C. 3, 4, 14.
Achivi; pugnaces Achivi, C. 3, 3, 27; Achivis flaminís, C. 4, 6. 18; toties servatis clarus Achivis, Sat. 2, 3, 194; quidquid delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi, E. 1, 2, 14. Achivis unctis, E. 2, 1, 33.
Acrisius. Acrisium Danaae custodem pavidum, C. 3, 16, 5.
Acroceraunia. C. 1, 3, 20.
Aeacus; judicantem Aeacum, C. 2, 13, 22; genus Aeaci, C. 3, 19, 3; ereptum Stygiis fluctibus Aeacum, C. 4, 8, 25.
Aegaeum in patenti Aegaeo, C. 2, 16, 2. Aegaeos tumultus, C. 3, 29, 63. Aegaeum mare, E. 1, 11, 16.
Aelius (L.) Lamia. Vide Lamia. C. 1, 2C, 8. Aeli vetuste nobilis ab Lamo, C. 3, 17, 1.
Aeschylus. Sophocles et Thespis et Aeschylus E. 2, 1. 163; personae pallaeque repertor honestae Aeschylus, Art. poet. 279.
Aesopus tragicarum fabularum actor; gra vis Aesopus, E. 2, 1, 82. Filius Aesopi, homo prodigus, Sat. 2, 3, 239. Aesula. C. 3, 29, 6. Aethiops. C. 3, 6, 14.
Achilles. Pelidae stomachum, C. 1, 6, 6;| marinae filium Thetidis, C. 1, 8, 14; insolen- Aetna; impositam Aetnam, C. 3, 4, 76; tem Achillem, C. 2, 4, 4. Abstulit clarum fervida in Aetna, Ep. 17, 33; ardentem fricita mors Achillem, C. 2, 16, 29. Phthius gidus Aetnam insiluit Empedocles, Art. poet. Achilles, C. 4, 6, 4. Filius Thetidis marinae, 465. ib. v. 6. Invicte, mortalis dea nate Thetide, Aetolus. E. 1, 18, 46.
Ep. 13, 12; nepotem Nereium, Ep. 17, 8; Afer, Afri; deorum quisquis amicior Afris, pervicacis ad pedes Achillei, ib. v. 14; ani- C. 2, 1, 26. Afro murice, C. 2, 16, 33; qua mosum Achillem, Sat. 1, 7, 12; Aiax, heros medius liquor secernit Europen ab Afro, C. ab Achille secundus, Sat. 2, 3, 193. Peliden, 3, 3, 47; dirus Afer. C. 4, 4, 42. Afra avis, E. 1, 2, 12.; iratus Graiis quantum nocuisset Ep. 2, 53. Afra cochlea, Sat. 2, 4, 58. CaAchilles, E. 2, 2, 42; honoratum si forte re- nidia peior serpentibus Afris, Sat. 2, 8, 92. ponis Achillem cet, Ae. 120. Afranius. Dicitur Afrani toga convenisse Menandro, E. 2, 1, 57.
Africa; ultima Africa, C. 2, 18, 5; fertilis Africae, C. 3, 16, 31; domita Africa, C. 4, 8, 18. Frumenti quantum metit Africa, Sat 2, 3, 87.
Africanus (Scipio minor.) Ep. 9, 25. Africus; luctantem Icariis fluctibus Africum, Carm. 1, 1, 15; praecipitem Africum decertantem Aquilonibus, C. 1, 3, 12; celeri Africo, C. 1, 14,5; pestilentem Africum, C. 3, 23, 5; Africis procellis, C. 3, 29, 57; protervus Africus. Ep. 16, 22.
Agamemnon. C. 4, 9, 25.
Agave; caput abscissum manibus cum portat Agave gnati infelicis, sibi tum furiosa videtur? Sat. 2, 3, 303.
Agrippa. C. 1, 6, totum; plausus, quos fert Agrippa, Sat. 2, 3, 185; porticis Agrip